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emergencies disasters

Mayris P Webber, Yang Liu, Hillel W Cohen, Theresa Schwartz, Michael D Weiden, Kerry Kelly, Viola Ortiz, Rachel Zeig-Owens, Nadia Jaber, Hilary L Colbeth, David J Prezant
BACKGROUND: The goals of this study were to assess the impact of work at the World Trade Center (WTC) site in relation to new, post-9/11/2001 (9/11) antibody to hepatitis C Virus (anti-HCV); and, evaluate secular trends in WTC-exposed male Fire Department of New York City (FDNY) Firefighters and Emergency Medical Services (EMS) responders. METHODS: FDNY monitors responder health through physical exams and routine blood work. We used descriptive statistics to compare trans-9/11 and post-9/11 incidence and to assess trends in prevalence from 2000 to 2012...
June 20, 2018: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
Kenneth E Christopher, Panagiota Kitsantas, Kiara K Spooner, Joseph F Robare, Dan Hanfling
OBJECTIVE: Despite emerging evidence of the detrimental effects of natural disasters on maternal and child health, little is known about exposure to tornadoes during the prenatal period and its impact on birth outcomes. We examined the relationship between prenatal exposure to the spring 2011 tornado outbreak in Alabama and Joplin (Missouri) and adverse birth outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, cross-sectional cohort study using the 2010-2012 linked infant births and deaths data set from the National Center for Health Statistics for tornado-affected counties in Alabama (n=126,453) and Missouri (Joplin, n=6,897)...
June 20, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Lucie Chauvelin, Morgane Gindt, Bertrand Olliac, Philippe Robert, Susanne Thümmler, Florence Askenazy
In the actual context of terrorism targeting children and families, it seems essential to describe different experiences of pediatric psychological emergency devices after such unexpected mass trauma. Here we testify our experience of the psychological emergency care setup dedicated to children and families during the first 48 hours after the terrorist attack of Nice, France, on July 14, 2016. Activated within the hour following the attack, the device included two child psychiatry teams turning over each day, receiving at least 163 individuals (99 children and 64 adults) within the first 2 days...
June 19, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Charleen C McNeill, Tim S Killian, Zola Moon, Kelly A Way, M E Betsy Garrison
Objective The purpose of this study was to assess the self-reported level of individual emergency preparedness, the dependent variable, of people who attended a community health-related fair. The study's independent variables included demographic characteristics, perceptions of preparedness, previous disaster experience, and the presence of a medical condition and were used to examine the variability in self-reported emergency preparedness levels. Methods Data came from attendees at two community health-related fairs...
July 2018: International Quarterly of Community Health Education
Minsoo Khang, Dong Hun Lee, Yewon Kim
The aim of this study was to provide empirical descriptions of responses to the death of a sibling to the sinking of the Sewol ferry in South Korea. 16 bereaved parents are interviewed regarding their surviving children's grief responses at approximately 2 years after the death. The surviving siblings described by the bereaved parents are 14 in total, including 8 teens in their 10s and 4 young adults in their 20s. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using a qualitative content analysis method...
January 1, 2018: Omega
Gianluca Pescaroli, David Alexander
In recent years, there has been a gradual increase in research literature on the challenges of interconnected, compound, interacting, and cascading risks. These concepts are becoming ever more central to the resilience debate. They aggregate elements of climate change adaptation, critical infrastructure protection, and societal resilience in the face of complex, high-impact events. However, despite the potential of these concepts to link together diverse disciplines, scholars and practitioners need to avoid treating them in a superficial or ambiguous manner...
June 15, 2018: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
Wei Chen, Guofang Zhai, Chongqiang Ren, Yijun Shi, Jianxin Zhang
This study explores how emergency shelters can adapt to a multi-hazard environment by geographic information system (GIS) and takes Guangzhou as a case for analysis. The physical suitability of the overall urban resources was first assessed by aiming to select the suitable resources and safe locations for emergency shelters in the context of multiple disasters. Afterward, by analyzing the scale and spatial distribution of affected areas and populations under different types of disaster scenarios, the demand for different kinds of shelters were predicted...
June 14, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Xianfeng Yang, Wei Hao, Yang Lu
Various natural and manmade disasters during last decades have highlighted the need of further improving on governmental preparedness to emergency events, and a relief supplies distribution problem named Inventory Slack Routing Problem (ISRP) has received increasing attentions. In an ISRP, inventory slack is defined as the duration between reliefs arriving time and estimated inventory stock-out time. Hence, a larger inventory slack could grant more responsive time in facing of various factors (e.g., traffic congestion) that may lead to delivery lateness...
2018: PloS One
Khadija T Toor, Rita V Burke, Natalie E Demeter, Jeffrey S Upperman, Russell J Merritt, Catherine J Goodhue, Choo Phei Wee
OBJECTIVES: Disruption in the care of special healthcare needs children may lead to life-threatening situations or preventable secondary conditions. California averages more than one hundred earthquakes per week. Subsequent power outages, damage to utility systems, and road damage after an earthquake can have grave consequences for families with parenteral nutrition (PN)-dependent children. The purpose of the study was to demonstrate that we could improve disaster preparedness of families with PN-dependent children utilizing individualized family education and distribution of personalized disaster survival toolkits...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Kris Wernstedt, Patrick S Roberts, Joseph Arvai, Kelly Redmond
Emergency managers who work on floods and other weather-related hazards constitute critical frontline responders to disasters. Yet, while these professionals operate in a realm rife with uncertainty related to forecasts and other unknowns, the influence of uncertainty on their decision-making is poorly understood. Consequently, a national-level survey of county emergency managers in the United States was administered to examine how they interpret forecast information, using hypothetical climate, flood, and weather scenarios to simulate their responses to uncertain information...
June 12, 2018: Disasters
Kimberly K Repp, Eva Hawes, Kathleen J Rees, Beth Vorderstrasse, Sue Mohnkern
CONTEXT: Conducting a large-scale Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER) in a geographically and linguistically diverse county presents significant methodological challenges that require advance planning. PROGRAM: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has adapted methodology and provided a toolkit for a rapid needs assessment after a disaster. The assessment provides representative data of the sampling frame to help guide effective distribution of resources...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
Miguel Trelles Centurion, Rosa Crestani, Lynette Dominguez, An Caluwaerts, Guido Benedetti
Purpose of Review: In a challenging scenario, such as in the aftermath of a natural disaster, minimum standards of care must be in place from the moment surgical care activities are launched. Recent Findings: Natural disasters cause destruction and human suffering, especially in low- and middle-income countries, which suffer the most when exposed to their consequences. Health systems can quickly get overwhelmed and can collapse under the burden of injured patients during this event, while qualified surgical care remains crucial...
2018: Current Trauma Reports
Thomas J Hipper, Renee Davis, Philip M Massey, Renee M Turchi, Keri M Lubell, Laura E Pechta, Dale A Rose, Amy Wolkin, Lisa Briseño, Jessica L Franks, Esther Chernak
Families with children who have access and mobility challenges, chronic illness, or intellectual or developmental disabilities require targeted messages before, during, and after disasters to ensure that they understand risks to their children's health and can take measures to avoid harm and build resilience. A scoping review was conducted to assess current evidence for optimal ways to address the disaster information needs and communication preferences of families with children and youth with special healthcare needs...
June 8, 2018: Health Security
Mark L Maiello, Jessica Cole, Elaine Vernetti
From the Field is a semi-regular column that explores what it means to be a local health professional on the front lines of an emergency. Typically, National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO) members share their stories of preparing for and responding to disasters, epidemics, and other major health issues. This month's column features a submission from the New York City health department that describes their experience in setting up a radiological advisory committee. Through exploring the analysis of the challenges faced and the solutions developed, readers can learn how these public health champions keep their communities safe even in extreme situations...
June 8, 2018: Health Security
Eli Yafe, Blake Byron Walker, Ofer Amram, Nadine Schuurman, Ellen Randall, Michael Friger, Bruria Adini
OBJECTIVE: Rapid response to a trauma incident is vital for saving lives. However, in a mass casualty incident (MCI), there may not be enough resources (first responders and equipment) to adequately triage, prepare, and evacuate every injured person. To address this deficit, a Volunteer First Responder (VFR) program was established. METHODS: This paper describes the organizational structure and roles of the VFR program, outlines the geographical distribution of volunteers, and evaluates response times to 3 MCIs for both ambulance services and VFRs in 2000 and 2016...
June 4, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Taryn M Graham, Melanie J Rock
When disasters strike, companion animals (pets) matter. Emergency planning for them is a key aspect of disaster preparedness, especially considering that people may delay evacuation out of concern for their pets. Temporary boarding options for pets are important; however, caregivers (owners) must ultimately return to permanent housing. Surprisingly little attention has been paid to housing recovery in the disaster literature on pet ownership, and no studies have examined the potential for increased vulnerability among tenants with pets...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Guillaume Mortamet, Noella Lode, Nadia Roumeliotis, Florent Baudin, Etienne Javouhey, François Dubos, Julien Naud
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine paediatric hospital preparedness for a mass casualty disaster involving children in both prehospital and hospital settings. The study findings will serve to generate recommendations, guidelines and training objectives. DESIGN AND SETTING: The AMAVI-PED study is a cross-sectional survey. An electronic questionnaire was sent to French physicians with key roles in specialised paediatric acute care. RESULTS: In total, 81% (26 of 32) of French University Hospitals were represented in the study...
June 2, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Maria Filippini, Ivonne Nijenhuis, Steffen Kümmel, Veronica Chiarini, Giovanni Crosta, Hans H Richnow, Alessandro Gargini
Tetrachloroethene and trichloroethene are typical by-products of the industrial production of chloromethanes. These by-products are known as "chlorinated pitches" and were often dumped in un-contained waste disposal sites causing groundwater contaminations. Previous research showed that a strongly depleted stable carbon isotope signature characterizes chlorinated compounds associated with chlorinated pitches whereas manufactured commercial compounds have more enriched carbon isotope ratios. The findings were restricted to a single case study and one element (i...
May 30, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Jian Zhao, Fan Ding, Zhe Wang, Jinghuan Ren, Jing Zhao, Yeping Wang, Xuefeng Tang, Yong Wang, Jianyi Yao, Qun Li
Background : Earthquakes causing significant damage have occurred frequently in China, producing enormous health losses, damage to the environment and public health issues. Timely public health response is crucial to reduce mortality and morbidity and promote overall effectiveness of rescue efforts after a major earthquake. Methods : A rapid assessment framework was established based on GIS technology and high-resolution remote sensing images. A two-step casualties and injures estimation method was developed to evaluate health loss with great rapidity...
May 30, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Melinda J Morton Hamer, Paul L Reed, Jane D Greulich, Charles W Beadling
OBJECTIVE: The West African Disaster Preparedness Initiative held a disaster preparedness tabletop exercise with representatives from the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) in November 2015. The tabletop exercise was hosted by the Republic of Ghana's National Disaster Management Organization and partners in Accra, Ghana. METHODS: ECOWAS Commission delegates and representatives from 10 member states were confronted with a series of simulated crises...
May 30, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
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