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Side effect of progesterone

Gustavo Dos Santos Fernandes, Luiza D Batista Bugiato Faria, Isadora de Assis Pereira, Natália C Moreira Neves, Yasmine Oliveira Vieira, Alessandro I Cavalcanti Leal
Gastric metastasis is rare but it can be the initial symptom of cancer. The second leading cause of this type of metastasis is breast cancer. A lack of clinical signs and nonspecific side effects of the treatment of primary tumors can lead to the misdiagnosis of metastatic gastric cancer. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with biopsy and immunohistochemistry should be used for diagnosis. Treatment is palliative; it includes chemo, endocrine, and radiation therapies. Four patients with breast cancer and gastric metastasis were identified...
September 5, 2016: Rare Tumors
Rene Seiger, Andreas Hahn, Allan Hummer, Georg S Kranz, Sebastian Ganger, Michael Woletz, Christoph Kraus, Ronald Sladky, Alexander Kautzky, Siegfried Kasper, Christian Windischberger, Rupert Lanzenberger
Sex-steroid hormones are primarily involved in sexual differentiation and development and are thought to underlie processes related to cognition and emotion. However, divergent results have been reported concerning the effects of hormone administration on brain structure including side effects like brain atrophy and dementia. Cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender subjects offers a unique model for studying the effects of sex hormones on the living human brain. In this study, 25 Female-to-Male (FtM) and 14 Male-to-Female (MtF) subjects underwent MRI examinations at baseline and after a period of at least 4-months of continuous cross-sex hormone administration...
October 5, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Joana Feiteiro, Melissa Mariana, Ignacio Verde, Elisa Cairrão
Mifepristone (RU 486) is a compound that is structurally related to steroid hormones, which is derived from the estrane progestins. This compound strongly binds the progesterone and glucocorticoid receptor and, to a lesser extent, the androgen receptor. This compound has its effects through different signaling pathways, related to genomic and nongenomic effects. The genomic effect involves the activation or blockage of nuclear or intracellular receptor, that in this case the progesterone, glucocorticoid, and androgen receptors...
September 27, 2016: Reproductive Sciences
R G Özalp, A Yavuz, A Orman, I Seker, D Udum Küçükşen, A Rişvanlı, Ö O Demiral, A Wehrend
The clinical effects of aglepristone treatment to induce parturition in ewes and their newborns were reported. Three experimental groups were defined: group AG5 (n = 5), group AG10 (n = 5), and group CG (n = 5) in which ewes were injected twice with 5, 10 mg/kg of aglepristone, and saline solution of ewes, respectively. Different parameters associated with parturition in ewes and their newborns were investigated. Serum progesterone, oxytocin, and free and conjugated total estrogens were measured after treatments until parturition...
August 22, 2016: Theriogenology
Pedro-Antonio Regidor, Adolf Eduard Schindler
The use of 2 × 2000 mg myoinositol + 2 × 200 μg folic acid per day is a safe and promising tool in the effective improvement of symptoms and infertility for patients with a polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Using a questionnaire an observational study was performed under German gynecologists to collect data on ovulation and pregnancy rates in PCOS patients with infertility. In this observational study, 3602 infertile women used myoinositol and folic acid between 2 and 3 months in a dosage of 2 × 2000 mg myoinositol + 2 × 200 μg folic acid per day...
2016: International Journal of Endocrinology
Laura Garay, Paula Gonzalez Giqueaux, Rachida Guennoun, Michael Schumacher, Maria Claudia Gonzalez Deniselle, Alejandro F De Nicola
Previous studies of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) have shown that progesterone decreases inflammatory cell infiltration and proinflammatory factors, increases myelination and attenuates clinical grade of EAE mice. To elucidate potential mediators of these effects, we analyzed the mRNA expression of neurosteroidogenic enzymes in the spinal cord, in view of the protective role of steroids in EAE. We also analyzed mitochondrial morphology and dynamics (fusion and fission proteins), considering the role of mitochondria in neurosteroidogenesis...
September 2, 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Santiago Palacios, Andrea Mejía
INTRODUCTION: Today, it is a mandatory practice to prescribe a combination of estrogens and progestogens for menopausal women requiring hormone therapy and with a uterus. The WHI study and its reanalysis demonstrate a big difference in results between the conjugated equin estrogen (CEE) only vs.CEE plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) arms in relation with breast cancer and cardiovascular risk. The conclusion is that risk is clearly higher in the arm with MPA than in the CEE only arm...
August 22, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
N Smolinska, K Dobrzyn, M Kiezun, K Szeszko, A Maleszka, T Kaminski
Adiponectin and its receptors are expressed in the human and porcine uterus and this endocrine system has important role in the regulation of reproductive processes. The expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD3B1) were observed in the human and porcine uterus during the oestrous cycle and pregnancy. The de novo synthesis of steroids in the uterus might be a crucial factor for effective implantation and maintenance of pregnancy. We hypothesized that adiponectin modulates the expression of key enzymes in the synthesis of the steroids: StAR, P450 side chain cleavage enzyme (CYP11A1) and HSD3B1, as well as progesterone (P4) and androstenedione (A4) secretion by the porcine uterus...
June 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
Claudia Tosti, Antonella Biscione, Giuseppe Morgante, Giuseppe Bifulco, Stefano Luisi, Felice Petraglia
Endometriotic lesions are associated with hormonal imbalance, including increased estrogen synthesis, metabolism and progesterone resistance. These hormonal changes cause increased proliferation, inflammation, pain and infertility. Hormonal imbalances are targets for treatment. Therapeutic strategies and innovations of hormonal drugs for endometriosis are increasing. Acting on estrogen receptors are hormonal drugs decreasing systemic and local estrogen synthesis (GnRH analogs, GnRH antagonists, Aromatase inhibitors) or estrogen activity (selective estrogen receptor modulators)...
May 27, 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Molly B Moravek, Min Shang, Bindu Menon, K M J Menon
Luteinizing hormone/human chorionic gonadotropin stimulates progesterone biosynthesis in the corpus luteum by activating cyclic adenosine monophosphate/protein kinase A cascade. Recent studies have shown that cyclic adenosine monophosphate-mediated activation of protein kinase A interacts with the mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathways. Furthermore, the use of mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors for immunosuppression in transplant patients has shown adverse effects in reproductive functions. This study examined whether the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway plays any role in luteinizing hormone-mediated regulation of progesterone production...
August 8, 2016: Endocrine
Guo-Hong Zhang, Li-Jing Cui, Ai-Ying Li, Jian-Ping Zhang, Yu Liu, Jing-Shan Zhao, Xiang-Bo Xu, Bin He, Jie-Dong Wang, Li Chu, Yun-Feng Li
Irregular uterine bleeding is a major side effect of long-acting progestogen-only contraceptives in women, and is the primary reason women discontinue their use. In this study, a mouse model of endometrial breakdown was established using a subcutaneous progesterone implant to understand how irregular bleeding begins. Although progestogens sustained decidualization, endometrial breakdown was still observed in this model. We, therefore, hypothesized that endometrial breakdown might involve functional progesterone withdrawal...
September 2016: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Hwei-Ming Peng, Sang-Choul Im, Naw May Pearl, Adina F Turcu, Juilee Rege, Lucy Waskell, Richard J Auchus
Human cytochrome P450 17A1 is required for all androgen biosynthesis and is the target of abiraterone, a drug used widely to treat advanced prostate cancer. P450 17A1 catalyzes both 17-hydroxylation and subsequent 17,20-lyase reactions with pregnenolone, progesterone, and allopregnanolone. The presence of cytochrome b5 (b5) markedly stimulates the 17,20-lyase reaction, with little effect on 17-hydroxylation; however, the mechanism of this b5 effect is not known. We determined the influence of b5 on coupling efficiency-defined as the ratio of product formation to NADPH consumption-in a reconstituted system using these 3 pairs of substrates for the 2 reactions...
August 9, 2016: Biochemistry
Tahereh-Sadat Javadifar, Hedayat Sahraei, Mohammad-Ali Ketabi, Mohammad Nasehi, Mohammad-Reza Zarrindast
It is clear that the stress response differs between females and males. Moreover, the nucleus accumbens shell is considered a critical area in the brain's response to stress. In the present study we investigate the effect of the transient inactivation of the NAc shell on the metabolic and hormonal disturbance induced by acute stress in female rats. Female Wistar rats were canulated uni- or bilaterally in the NAc shell before stress induction. Electric foot shock was applied to the animals and lidocaine hydrochloride was administered intra-acumbally 5min before each stress session...
July 12, 2016: Brain Research
Frederik J R Hermans, Ewoud Schuit, Brent C Opmeer, Martijn A Oudijk, Mireille Bekker, Mallory Woiski, Caroline J Bax, Marieke Sueters, Hubertina C J Scheepers, Maureen T M Franssen, Eva Pajkrt, Ben Willem J Mol, Marjolein Kok
BACKGROUND: Preterm birth is a major cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity. As preventive strategies are largely ineffective, threatened preterm labor is a frequent problem that affects approximately 10 % of pregnancies. In recent years, risk assessment in these women has incorporated cervical length measurement and fetal fibronectin testing, and this has improved the capacity to identify women at increased risk for delivery within 14 days. Despite these improvements, risk for preterm birth continues to be increased in women who did not deliver after an episode of threatened preterm labor, as indicated by a preterm birth rate between 30 to 60 % in this group of women...
2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Zhihong Zhuo, Aiming Wang, Huimin Yu
PURPOSE: Metformin is the most prescribed anti-diabetic medication worldwide because of its proven efficacy and limited side effects. In this study, the significant anticancer effect of metformin was investigated in both endometrial carcinoma and progesterone-resistant endometrial carcinoma cells. METHODS: We tested the growth inhibition assay using MTT cell proliferation, cell cycle assay, apoptosis assessment with flow cytometry using propidium iodide and Annexin V, and autophagy protein expression with western blot analysis...
July 11, 2016: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
N K J Pandey, H P Gupta, Shiv Prasad, S K Sheetal
AIM: This study was designed to evaluate the effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and progesterone impregnated intra-vaginal device on progesterone profile and conception rate in repeat-breeding crossbred cows. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Repeat-breeding crossbred cows aged 3-8 years (n=32), lactating and negative to white side test were randomly divided into four groups: Group 1 (Control, n=8), Group 2 (GnRH at 10 µg i...
June 2016: Veterinary World
R Reshma, S R Mishra, N Thakur, M S Parmar, A Somal, M K Bharti, S Pandey, V Chandra, V S Chouhan, M R Verma, G Singh, G T Sharma, V P Maurya, M Sarkar
The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the modulatory role of leptin on bubaline granulosa cells (GCs) and luteal cells (LCs) functions using an in vitro cell culture system and to establish a cross talk between leptin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). GCs were collected from group IV follicles (>13 mm size) and LCs from mid-luteal phase corpus luteum and were grown in serum-containing media supplemented with leptin at three different dose rates (0.1, 1, and 10 ng/mL) and time durations (24, 48, and 72 hours)...
October 15, 2016: Theriogenology
Vincenzo De Leo, Maria Concetta Musacchio, Valentina Cappelli, Paola Piomboni, Giuseppe Morgante
BACKGROUND: In recent years, several new oral contraceptives have become available. In some ways, they represent an evolution in terms of individualization and compliance on the part of women. The new formulations make it increasingly possible to prescribe a specific hormonal contraceptive on an individual basis. METHODS: A systematic literature search of PubMed was performed using the following combination of terms: 'oral contraceptives', 'estroprogestins' and 'combined oral contraceptive'...
September 2016: Human Reproduction Update
Elizabeth Vieyra, Deyra A Ramírez, Noé Lagunas, Mario Cárdenas, Roberto Chavira, Pablo Damián-Matsumura, Angélica Trujillo, Roberto Domínguez, Leticia Morales-Ledesma
BACKGROUND: The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and the cholinergic system of various regions of the hypothalamus participate in the regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and gonadotropin secretion, which are necessary for the occurrence of ovulation. In the present study, our goal was to analyse the effects of unilaterally blocking the muscarinic receptors in the SCN on ovulation and steroid secretion. METHODS: Cyclic rats were randomly allotted to one of the experimental groups...
2016: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Agneta Oskarsson, Erik Ullerås, Åsa Ohlsson Andersson
BACKGROUND: Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is a widely used analgesic and antipyretic drug. Potential side effects are of public health concern, and liver toxicity from acute overdose is well known. More recently, a regular use of acetaminophen has been associated with an increased risk of hypertension. METHODS: We investigated effects of acetaminophen on steroidogenesis as a possible mechanism for the hypertensive action by using the human adrenocortical cell line, H295R...
October 2016: American Journal of Hypertension
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