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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234861/neural-coding-of-sound-envelope-structure-in-songbirds
#1
Santiago Boari, Ana Amador
Songbirds are a well-established animal model to study the neural basis of learning, perception and production of complex vocalizations. In this system, telencephalic neurons in HVC present a state-dependent, highly selective response to auditory presentations of the bird's own song (BOS). This property provides an opportunity to study the neural code behind a complex motor behavior. In this work, we explore whether changes in the temporal structure of the sound envelope can drive changes in the neural responses of highly selective HVC units...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229942/a-neuronal-signature-of-accurate-imitative-learning-in-wild-caught-songbirds-swamp-sparrows-melospiza-georgiana
#2
Dana L Moseley, Narendra R Joshi, Jonathan F Prather, Jeffrey Podos, Luke Remage-Healey
In humans and other animals, behavioural variation in learning has been associated with variation in neural features like morphology and myelination. By contrast, it is essentially unknown whether cognitive performance scales with electrophysiological properties of individual neurons. Birdsong learning offers a rich system to investigate this topic as song acquisition is similar to human language learning. Here, we address the interface between behavioural learning and neurophysiology in a cohort of wild-caught, hand-reared songbirds (swamp sparrows, Melospiza georgiana)...
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218745/expression-of-the-potassium-chloride-co-transporter-kcc2-within-the-avian-song-system
#3
Christopher E Vaaga, Kimberly E Miller, Agnes L Bodor, David J Perkel
Songbirds learn to produce vocalizations early in life by listening to, then copying the songs of conspecific males. The anterior forebrain pathway, homologous to a basal ganglia-forebrain circuit, is essential for song learning. The projection between the striato-pallidal structure, Area X, and the medial portion of the dorsolateral thalamic nucleus (DLM) is strongly hyperpolarizing in adults, due to a very negative chloride reversal potential (Person and Perkel, 2005). The chloride reversal potential is determined, in part, by the expression level of a neuron-specific potassium-chloride cotransporter, KCC2, which is developmentally upregulated in mammals...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209770/androgen-and-estrogen-sensitivity-of-bird-song-a-comparative-view-on-gene-regulatory-levels
#4
REVIEW
Carolina Frankl-Vilches, Manfred Gahr
Singing of songbirds is sensitive to testosterone and its androgenic and estrogenic metabolites in a species-specific way. The hormonal effects on song pattern are likely mediated by androgen receptors (AR) and estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), ligand activated transcription factors that are expressed in neurons of various areas of the songbirds' vocal control circuit. The distribution of AR in this circuit is rather similar between species while that of ERα is species variant and concerns a key vocal control area, the HVC (proper name)...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178838/hepatitis-c-virus-eradication-improves-immediate-and-delayed-episodic-memory-in-patients-treated-with-interferon-and-ribavirin
#5
Mary Ellen Dias Barbosa, Ana Luiza Zaninotto, Daniel Ferraz de Campos Mazo, Mario Guimarães Pessoa, Cláudia Pinto Marques Souza de Oliveira, Flair José Carrilho, Alberto Queiroz Farias
BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with impairment of cognitive function and mood disorders. Our aim was to evaluate the impact of sustained virological response (SVR) on cognitive function and mood disorders. METHOD: A prospective exploratory one arm study was conducted. Adult clinically compensated HVC patients were consecutively recruited before treatment with interferon and ribavirin for 24 to 48 weeks, according to HCV genotype...
November 25, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082632/erbin-and-erbb2-play-roles-in-the-sexual-differentiation-of-the-song-system-nucleus-hvc-in-bengalese-finches-lonchura-striata-var-domestica
#6
Yueliu Zhao, Xuebo Zhang, Rui Wang, Jie Bing, Fan Wu, Yitong Zhang, Jincao Xu, Zhongming Han, Xinwen Zhang, Shaoju Zeng
Song control nuclei have distinct sexual differences in songbirds. However, the mechanism that underlies the sexual differentiation of song nuclei is still not well understood. Using a combination of anatomical, pharmacological, genetic, and behavioral approaches, the present study investigated the role of erbb2 (a homolog of the avian erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2) and the erbb2-interacting gene, erbin, in the sexual differentiation of the song nucleus HVC in the Bengalese finch. We first found that both erbin and erbb2 were expressed in the developing HVC at posthatch day (PHD) 15 in a male-biased fashion using qRT-PCR and in situ hybridization...
October 30, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075388/delivery-and-measurement-of-high-value-care-in-standardized-patient-encounters
#7
Jennifer DeLuca Baldwin, Jaclyn Cox, Zhao Helen Wu, Anne Kenny, Steven Angus
BACKGROUND : Residencies have incorporated high-value care (HVC) training to contain health care expenditures. Assessment methods of HVC curricula are limited. OBJECTIVE : In our clinical skills laboratory, we evaluated the effectiveness of HVC curricula using standardized patients (SPs) to determine if there is a correlation with performance in counseling, history and physical, HVC knowledge, and demographics. METHODS : Through ambulatory cases, SPs evaluated postgraduate year 2 (PGY-2) residents using checklists to determine if they obtained the chief complaint, medical and social history, focused physical examination, and conveyed information regarding patient management...
October 2017: Journal of Graduate Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075387/high-value-consults-a-curriculum-to-promote-point-of-care-evidence-based-recommendations
#8
Deepa Rani Nandiwada, Amar Kohli, Megan McNamara, Kenneth J Smith, Shanta Zimmer, Melissa McNeil, Carla Spagnoletti, Doris Rubio, Kathryn Berlacher
BACKGROUND : In an era when value-based care is paramount, teaching trainees to explicitly communicate the evidence behind recommendations fosters high-value care (HVC) in the consultation process. OBJECTIVE : To implement an HVC consult curriculum highlighting the need for clear consult questions, evidence-based recommendations to improve consult teaching, clinical decision-making, and the educational value of consults. METHODS : A pilot curriculum was implemented for residents on cardiology consult electives utilizing faculty and fellows as evidence-based medicine (EBM) coaches...
October 2017: Journal of Graduate Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062887/neuronal-intrinsic-physiology-changes-during-development-of-a-learned-behavior
#9
Matthew T Ross, Diana Flores, Richard Bertram, Frank Johnson, Richard L Hyson
Juvenile male zebra finches learn their songs over distinct auditory and sensorimotor stages, the former requiring exposure to an adult tutor song pattern. The cortical premotor nucleus HVC (acronym is name) plays a necessary role in both learning stages, as well as the production of adult song. Consistent with neural network models where synaptic plasticity mediates developmental forms of learning, exposure to tutor song drives changes in the turnover, density, and morphology of HVC synapses during vocal development...
September 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021389/norepinephrine-enhances-song-responsiveness-and-encoding-in-the-auditory-forebrain-of-male-zebra-finches
#10
Vanessa Lee, Benjamin A Pawlisch, Matheus Macedo-Lima, Luke Remage-Healey
Norepinephrine (NE) can dynamically modulate excitability and functional connectivity of neural circuits in response to changes in external and internal states. Regulation by NE has been demonstrated extensively in mammalian sensory cortices, but whether NE-dependent modulation in sensory cortex alters response properties in downstream sensorimotor regions is less clear. Here, we examine this question in male zebra finches, a songbird species with complex vocalizations and a well-defined neural network for auditory processing of those vocalizations...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971621/medical-students-perceptions-of-low-value-care
#11
Christopher Steele, Justin Berk, Bimal Ashar, Amit Pahwa, Danelle Cayea
BACKGROUND: Medical schools are creating high-value care (HVC) curricula in undergraduate medical education; however, there are few studies identifying what are the most pressing low-value care (LVC) practices, as observed by students. This study is a multicentre, targeted needs assessment comparing medical student perceptions of LVC at four institutions, after completion of their internal medicine clerkship, to identify areas of focus for future HVC curriculum development. METHODS: A total of 307 medical students at four institutions participated in a voluntary survey and identified instances of LVC during the internal medicine clerkship...
October 3, 2017: Clinical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941810/hostile-interpretation-training-for-individuals-with-alcohol-use-disorder-and-elevated-trait-anger-a-controlled-trial-of-a-web-based-intervention
#12
Jesse R Cougle, Berta J Summers, Nicholas P Allan, Kirsten H Dillon, Hillary L Smith, Sarah A Okey, Ashleigh M Harvey
High trait anger is associated with more severe alcohol use problems, and alcohol has been found to facilitate aggressive behavior among individuals with high trait anger. Treatments focused on a sample with alcohol use disorder with elevated anger could reduce alcohol use problems, as well as violence and aggression. We sought to examine the efficacy of interpretation bias modification for hostility (IBM-H) in a sample with high trait anger and alcohol use disorder (AUD). Fifty-eight individuals with AUD and elevated trait anger were randomly assigned to eight web-based sessions (two per week) of IBM-H or a healthy video control condition (HVC)...
September 19, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857791/the-high-value-care-rounding-tool-development-and-validity-evidence
#13
Corrie E McDaniel, Andrew A White, Miranda C Bradford, Carolyn D Sy, Tiffany Chen, Doug Brock, Jeffrey Foti, Jimmy B Beck
Little is known about current practices in high-value care (HVC) bedside teaching. A lack of instruments for measuring bedside HVC behaviors confounds efforts to assess the impact of curricular interventions. The authors aimed to define observable HVC concepts by developing an instrument to measure the content and frequency of HVC discussions.The authors developed the HVC Rounding Tool in four iterative phases, using Messick's validity framework. Phases 1 and 2 were designed to collect evidence of content validity, Phases 3 and 4 to collect evidence of response process and internal structure...
August 29, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829769/temperature-manipulation-of-neuronal-dynamics-in-a-forebrain-motor-control-nucleus
#14
Matías A Goldin, Gabriel B Mindlin
Different neuronal types within brain motor areas contribute to the generation of complex motor behaviors. A widely studied songbird forebrain nucleus (HVC) has been recognized as fundamental in shaping the precise timing characteristics of birdsong. This is based, among other evidence, on the stretching and the "breaking" of song structure when HVC is cooled. However, little is known about the temperature effects that take place in its neurons. To address this, we investigated the dynamics of HVC both experimentally and computationally...
August 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821656/dissociable-effects-on-birdsong-of-androgen-signaling-in-cortex-like-brain-regions-of-canaries
#15
Beau A Alward, Jacques Balthazart, Gregory F Ball
The neural basis of how learned vocalizations change during development and in adulthood represents a major challenge facing cognitive neuroscience. This plasticity in the degree to which learned vocalizations can change in both humans and songbirds is linked to the actions of sex steroid hormones during ontogeny but also in adulthood in the context of seasonal changes in birdsong. We investigated the role of steroid hormone signaling in the brain on distinct features of birdsong using adult male canaries (Serinus canaria), which show extensive seasonal vocal plasticity as adults...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789903/patients-with-resected-histologically-re-confirmed-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma-pdac-can-achieve-long-term-survival-despite-t3-tumour-or-nodal-involvement-the-finnish-register-study-2000-2013
#16
Reea Ahola, Antti Siiki, Kaija Vasama, Martine Vornanen, Juhani Sand, Johanna Laukkarinen
BACKGROUND: Long-term survival of patients with operated pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has been associated with resection status, disease stage and centralisation. However, no previous reports are available about long-term survivors of PDAC with confirmed histology covering an entire nation. Our aim was to analyze retrospectively confirmed long-term survivors of PDAC operated on in Finland 2000-2008. METHOD: PDAC patients operated between 2000 and 2008 were selected from Finnish patient registers and archives...
September 2017: Pancreatology: Official Journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758205/clustered-organization-and-region-specific-identities-of-estrogen-producing-neurons-in-the-forebrain-of-zebra-finches-taeniopygia-guttata
#17
Maaya Z Ikeda, Amanda A Krentzel, Tessa J Oliver, Garrett B Scarpa, Luke Remage-Healey
A fast, neuromodulatory role for estrogen signaling has been reported in many regions of the vertebrate brain. Regional differences in the cellular distribution of aromatase (estrogen synthase) in several species suggest that mechanisms for neuroestrogen signaling differ between and even within brain regions. A more comprehensive understanding of neuroestrogen signaling depends on characterizing the cellular identities of neurons that express aromatase. Calcium-binding proteins such as parvalbumin and calbindin are molecular markers for interneuron subtypes, and are co-expressed with aromatase in human temporal cortex...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743448/chronic-cb1-cannabinoid-receptor-antagonism-persistently-increases-dendritic-spine-densities-in-brain-regions-important-to-zebra-finch-vocal-learning-and-production-in-an-antidepressant-sensitive-manner
#18
Tessa L Holland, Ken Soderstrom
During typical late-postnatal CNS development, net reductions in dendritic spine densities are associated with activity-dependent learning. Prior results showed agonist exposure in young animals increased spine densities in a subset of song regions while adult exposures did not, suggesting endocannabinoid signaling regulates dendritic spine dynamics important to vocal development. Here we addressed this question using the CB1 receptor-selective antagonist SR141716A (SR) to disrupt endocannabinoid signaling both during and after vocal learning...
October 1, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617829/rhythmic-syllable-related-activity-in-a-songbird-motor-thalamic-nucleus-necessary-for-learned-vocalizations
#19
Husain H Danish, Dmitriy Aronov, Michale S Fee
Birdsong is a complex behavior that exhibits hierarchical organization. While the representation of singing behavior and its hierarchical organization has been studied in some detail in avian cortical premotor circuits, our understanding of the role of the thalamus in adult birdsong is incomplete. Using a combination of behavioral and electrophysiological studies, we seek to expand on earlier work showing that the thalamic nucleus Uvaeformis (Uva) is necessary for the production of stereotyped, adult song in zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578082/an-updated-comparison-of-high-and-low-viscosity-cement-vertebroplasty-in-the-treatment-of-osteoporotic-thoracolumbar-vertebral-compression-fractures-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#20
Zhao-Fei Zhang, Jun-Long Yang, Huan-Chang Jiang, Zhen Lai, Feng Wu, Yong-Quan Pan, Zhi-Xiang Liu
OBJECTIVE: This study mainly aimed to evaluate complications of cement leakage for osteoporotic thoracolumbar vertebral compression fractures by PVP using HVC, and access the clinical efficacy. METHODS: Between May 2013 and June 2015, 66 patients with osteoporotic thoracolumbar vertebral compression fractures, who underwent PVP (36 HVC and 30 LVC) in our hospital, were enrolled. Cement leakage, Visual Analog Scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), refracture of the cemented vertebrae, and adjacent vertebral fractures were evaluated...
May 31, 2017: International Journal of Surgery
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