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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065731/mechanisms-that-determine-nanocarrier-targeting-to-healthy-versus-inflamed-lung-regions
#1
Jacob S Brenner, Kartik Bhamidipati, Patrick Glassman, N Ramakrishnan, Depeng Jiang, Andrew J Paris, Jacob W Myerson, Daniel C Pan, Vladimir V Shuvaev, Carlos Villa, Elizabeth D Hood, Raisa Kiseleva, Colin F Greineder, Ravi Radhakrishnan, Vladimir R Muzykantov
Inflamed organs display marked spatial heterogeneity of inflammation, with patches of inflamed tissue adjacent to healthy tissue. To investigate how nanocarriers (NCs) distribute between such patches, we created a mouse model that recapitulates the spatial heterogeneity of the inflammatory lung disease ARDS. NCs targeting the epitope PECAM strongly accumulated in the lungs, but were shunted away from inflamed lung regions due to hypoxic vasoconstriction (HVC). In contrast, ICAM-targeted NCs, which had lower whole-lung uptake than PECAM/NCs in inflamed lungs, displayed markedly higher NC levels in inflamed regions than PECAM/NCs, due to increased regional ICAM...
January 5, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056038/comparison-of-primary-care-experiences-in-village-clinics-with-different-ownership-models-in-guangdong-province-china
#2
Shanshan Feng, Leiyu Shi, Jiazhi Zeng, Wen Chen, Li Ling
OBJECTIVES: In order to improve the quality of services at village clinics (VCs), which are important primary care service providers in rural China, the Chinese government has encouraged the township hospitals to own and manage VCs. There are currently three models of ownership and management of VCs: township hospital-owned and -managed (HVC), village committee-owned and -managed (VVC), and private-owned and -managed (PVC). This study aims to examine the association between these ownership models of VCs and patients' primary care experiences...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031398/principles-of-auditory-processing-differ-between-sensory-and-premotor-structures-of-the-songbird-forebrain
#3
Efe Soyman, David S Vicario
Sensory and motor brain structures work in collaboration during perception. To evaluate their respective contributions, the present study recorded neural responses to auditory stimulation at multiple sites simultaneously in both the higher-order auditory area NCM and premotor area HVC of the songbird brain in awake zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). Bird's own song (BOS) and various conspecific songs (CON) were presented in both blocked and shuffled sequences. Neural responses showed plasticity in the form of stimulus specific adaptation with markedly different dynamics between the two structures...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028087/floral-visitors-of-three-asteraceae-species-in-a-xeric-environment-in-central-mexico
#4
Dulce María Figueroa-Castro, Guadalupe González-Tochihuitl, Sombra Patricia Rivas-Arancibia, Gabriela Castaño-Meneses
We describe the spatial variation in the structure and composition of the communities of insects visiting the inflorescences of Flaveria ramosissima Klatt, Florestina pedata (Cav.) Cass., and Parthenium bipinnatifidum (Ort.) Rollins (Asteraceae) in a xeric environment in Central Mexico. Inflorescences of the three Asteraceae were visited by a total of 96 species of Hymenoptera, Diptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, and Hemiptera. Total species richness of floral visitors to the three Asteraceae and total abundance of insects of Fl...
December 2016: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965132/low-volume-vs-high-volume-centers-and-management-of-fournier-s-gangrene-in-washington-state
#5
Nathan Osbun, Lindsay A Hampson, Sarah K Holt, John L Gore, Hunter Wessells, Bryan B Voelzke
BACKGROUND: Fournier's gangrene (FG) is a life-threatening infection affecting the perineum and genitals. Complex patient management often necessitates transfer to tertiary centers. We aimed to characterize hospital transfer patterns and assess morbidity among patients with FG in Washington State. STUDY DESIGN: The Washington State Comprehensive Hospital Abstract Reporting System includes claims from all hospital discharges in Washington. We identified patients with FG in 2007-2013 based on diagnosis and treatment codes...
December 10, 2016: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928663/volume-of-hospital-is-important-for-the-prognosis-of-high-risk-patients-with-nonvariceal-upper-gastrointestinal-bleeding-nvugib
#6
Jin Woo Choi, Seong Woo Jeon, Jung Gu Kwon, Dong Wook Lee, Chang Yoon Ha, Kwang Bum Cho, Byung Ik Jang, Jung Bae Park, Youn Sun Park
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB) is a potentially life-threatening hospital emergency requiring hemodynamic stabilization and resuscitation. This study is carried out to determine whether hospital volume can influence outcome in patients with NVUGIB. METHOD: This is a retrospective study with a prospective cohort database (KCT 0000514. cris.nih.go.kr). Eight teaching hospitals were divided into two different groups: high-volume centers (HVC, ≥60 NVUGIB patients/year, four clinics) and low-volume centers (LVC, <60 NVUGIB patients/year, four clinics)...
December 7, 2016: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836364/the-association-between-nephroblastoma-specific-outcomes-and-high-versus-low-volume-treatment-centers
#7
Morgan K Richards, Adam B Goldin, Alexandra Savinkina, John Doski, Melanie Goldfarb, Jed Nuchtern, Monica Langer, Elizabeth A Beierle, Sanjeev Vasudevan, Kenneth W Gow, Mehul V Raval
BACKGROUND: Though the volume-outcome relationship has been well-established in adults, low mortality rates and small sample sizes have precluded definitive demonstration in children. This study compares treatment-specific factors for children with nephroblastoma at high (HVC) versus low volume centers (LVC). METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study comparing patients ≤18years with unilateral nephroblastoma treated at HVCs and LVCs using the National Cancer Data Base (1998-2012)...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776810/-management-following-sexual-exposure-to-hiv-hvb-and-hvc
#8
F-J Timsit, C Vernay-Vaisse, C Derancourt, R Viraben, C Chartier, N Spenatto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723764/a-neural-code-that-is-isometric-to-vocal-output-and-correlates-with-its-sensory-consequences
#9
Alexei L Vyssotski, Anna E Stepien, Georg B Keller, Richard H R Hahnloser
What cortical inputs are provided to motor control areas while they drive complex learned behaviors? We study this question in the nucleus interface of the nidopallium (NIf), which is required for normal birdsong production and provides the main source of auditory input to HVC, the driver of adult song. In juvenile and adult zebra finches, we find that spikes in NIf projection neurons precede vocalizations by several tens of milliseconds and are insensitive to distortions of auditory feedback. We identify a local isometry between NIf output and vocalizations: quasi-identical notes produced in different syllables are preceded by highly similar NIf spike patterns...
October 2016: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723744/unstable-neurons-underlie-a-stable-learned-behavior
#10
William A Liberti, Jeffrey E Markowitz, L Nathan Perkins, Derek C Liberti, Daniel P Leman, Grigori Guitchounts, Tarciso Velho, Darrell N Kotton, Carlos Lois, Timothy J Gardner
Motor skills can be maintained for decades, but the biological basis of this memory persistence remains largely unknown. The zebra finch, for example, sings a highly stereotyped song that is stable for years, but it is not known whether the precise neural patterns underlying song are stable or shift from day to day. Here we demonstrate that the population of projection neurons coding for song in the premotor nucleus, HVC, change from day to day. The most dramatic shifts occur over intervals of sleep. In contrast to the transient participation of excitatory neurons, ensemble measurements dominated by inhibition persist unchanged even after damage to downstream motor nerves...
December 2016: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713391/resolution-of-hepatic-venous-congestion-following-gradual-occlusion-of-middle-hepatic-vein-interposition-graft-in-living-donor-liver-transplantation
#11
Varvara A Kirchner, Shin Hwang, Gi-Won Song, Chul-Soo Ahn, Deok-Bog Moon, Ki-Hun Kim, Dong-Hwan Jung, Tae-Yong Ha, Gil-Chun Park, Sung-Gyu Lee
BACKGROUND The middle hepatic vein (MHV) interposition vessel graft (IVG) is often occluded within a few months after living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT). We aimed to assess the mechanisms of resolving the hepatic venous congestion (HVC) that develops after gradual occlusion of the MHV-IVG. MATERIAL AND METHODS This study comprised two parts. Part I involved an assessment of the process of HVC resolution in the remnant right liver after donation of an extended left liver graft (n=100). Part II involved an evaluation of the timing and patterns of gradual MHV-IVG occlusion and HVC resolution in LDLT recipients (n=100)...
October 7, 2016: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697612/exploring-sex-differences-in-the-adult-zebra-finch-brain-in-vivo-diffusion-tensor-imaging-and-ex-vivo-super-resolution-track-density-imaging
#12
Julie Hamaide, Geert De Groof, Gwendolyn Van Steenkiste, Ben Jeurissen, Johan Van Audekerke, Maarten Naeyaert, Lisbeth Van Ruijssevelt, Charlotte Cornil, Jan Sijbers, Marleen Verhoye, Annemie Van der Linden
Zebra finches are an excellent model to study the process of vocal learning, a complex socially-learned tool of communication that forms the basis of spoken human language. So far, structural investigation of the zebra finch brain has been performed ex vivo using invasive methods such as histology. These methods are highly specific, however, they strongly interfere with performing whole-brain analyses and exclude longitudinal studies aimed at establishing causal correlations between neuroplastic events and specific behavioral performances...
September 30, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694434/floral-visitors-of-three-asteraceae-species-in-a-xeric-environment-in-central-mexico
#13
Dulce María Figueroa-Castro, Guadalupe González-Tochihuitl, Sombra Patricia Rivas-Arancibia, Gabriela Castaño-Meneses
We describe the spatial variation in the structure and composition of the communities of insects visiting the inflorescences of Flaveria ramosissima Klatt, Florestina pedata (Cav.) Cass., and Parthenium bipinnatifidum (Ort.) Rollins (Asteraceae) in a xeric environment in Central Mexico. Inflorescences of the three Asteraceae were visited by a total of 96 species of Hymenoptera, Diptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, and Hemiptera. Total species richness of floral visitors to the three Asteraceae and total abundance of insects of Fl...
September 30, 2016: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693816/a-dynamic-sex-specific-expression-pattern-of-genes-regulating-thyroid-hormone-action-in-the-developing-zebra-finch-song-control-system
#14
Sander R Raymaekers, Wout Verbeure, Sita M Ter Haar, Charlotte A Cornil, Jacques Balthazart, Veerle M Darras
The zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) song control system consists of several series of interconnected brain nuclei that undergo marked changes during ontogeny and sexual development, making it an excellent model to study developmental neuroplasticity. Despite the demonstrated influence of hormones such as sex steroids on this phenomenon, thyroid hormones (THs) - an important factor in neural development and maturation - have not been studied in this regard. We used in situ hybridization to compare the expression of TH transporters, deiodinases and receptors between both sexes during all phases of song development in male zebra finch...
January 1, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688218/nonlinear-statistical-data-assimilation-for-hvc-formula-see-text-neurons-in-the-avian-song-system
#15
Nirag Kadakia, Eve Armstrong, Daniel Breen, Uriel Morone, Arij Daou, Daniel Margoliash, Henry D I Abarbanel
With the goal of building a model of the HVC nucleus in the avian song system, we discuss in detail a model of HVC[Formula: see text] projection neurons comprised of a somatic compartment with fast Na[Formula: see text] and K[Formula: see text] currents and a dendritic compartment with slower Ca[Formula: see text] dynamics. We show this model qualitatively exhibits many observed electrophysiological behaviors. We then show in numerical procedures how one can design and analyze feasible laboratory experiments that allow the estimation of all of the many parameters and unmeasured dynamical variables, given observations of the somatic voltage [Formula: see text] alone...
September 29, 2016: Biological Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27605157/automatic-construction-of-predictive-neuron-models-through-large-scale-assimilation-of-electrophysiological-data
#16
Alain Nogaret, C Daniel Meliza, Daniel Margoliash, Henry D I Abarbanel
We report on the construction of neuron models by assimilating electrophysiological data with large-scale constrained nonlinear optimization. The method implements interior point line parameter search to determine parameters from the responses to intracellular current injections of zebra finch HVC neurons. We incorporated these parameters into a nine ionic channel conductance model to obtain completed models which we then use to predict the state of the neuron under arbitrary current stimulation. Each model was validated by successfully predicting the dynamics of the membrane potential induced by 20-50 different current protocols...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27559175/adult-neurogenesis-leads-to-the-functional-reconstruction-of-a-telencephalic-neural-circuit
#17
Rachel E Cohen, Matheus Macedo-Lima, Kimberly E Miller, Eliot A Brenowitz
UNLABELLED: Seasonally breeding songbirds exhibit pronounced annual changes in song behavior, and in the morphology and physiology of the telencephalic neural circuit underlying production of learned song. Each breeding season, new adult-born neurons are added to the pallial nucleus HVC in response to seasonal changes in steroid hormone levels, and send long axonal projections to their target nucleus, the robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA). We investigated the role that adult neurogenesis plays in the seasonal reconstruction of this circuit...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27535375/model-of-the-songbird-nucleus-hvc-as-a-network-of-central-pattern-generators
#18
Eve Armstrong, Henry D I Abarbanel
We propose a functional architecture of the adult songbird nucleus HVC in which the core element is a "functional syllable unit" (FSU). In this model, HVC is organized into FSUs, each of which provides the basis for the production of one syllable in vocalization. Within each FSU, the inhibitory neuron population takes one of two operational states: 1) simultaneous firing wherein all inhibitory neurons fire simultaneously, and 2) competitive firing of the inhibitory neurons. Switching between these basic modes of activity is accomplished via changes in the synaptic strengths among the inhibitory neurons...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27520802/role-of-a-heart-valve-clinic-programme-in-the-management-of-patients-with-aortic-stenosis
#19
Robert Zilberszac, Patrizio Lancellotti, Dan Gilon, Harald Gabriel, Michael Schemper, Gerald Maurer, Massimo Massetti, Raphael Rosenhek
AIMS: We sought to assess the efficacy of a heart valve clinic (HVC) follow-up programme for patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS). METHODS AND RESULTS: Three hundred and eighty-eight consecutive patients with AS (age 71 ± 10 years; aortic-jet velocity 5.1 ± 0.6 m/s) and an indication for aortic valve replacement (AVR) were included. Of these, 290 patients presented with an indication for surgery at their first visit at the HVC and 98 asymptomatic patients who had been enrolled in an HVC monitoring programme developed indications for surgery during follow-up...
August 12, 2016: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27506786/auditory-induced-neural-dynamics-in-sensory-motor-circuitry-predict-learned-temporal-and-sequential-statistics-of-birdsong
#20
Kristofer E Bouchard, Michael S Brainard
Predicting future events is a critical computation for both perception and behavior. Despite the essential nature of this computation, there are few studies demonstrating neural activity that predicts specific events in learned, probabilistic sequences. Here, we test the hypotheses that the dynamics of internally generated neural activity are predictive of future events and are structured by the learned temporal-sequential statistics of those events. We recorded neural activity in Bengalese finch sensory-motor area HVC in response to playback of sequences from individuals' songs, and examined the neural activity that continued after stimulus offset...
August 23, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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