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Hillary L Smith, Kirsten H Dillon, Jesse R Cougle
Interpretation Bias Modification (IBM) is gaining attention in the literature as an intervention that alters cognitive biases and reduces associated symptoms. Forty, primarily college-aged, non-treatment-seeking adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) were randomly assigned to receive either IBM targeting hostile interpretation bias (IBM-H) or a healthy video control (HVC) condition. Compared to those in HVC, participants in IBM-H reported more benign interpretations and fewer hostile interpretations at posttreatment...
March 2018: Behavior Therapy
Danelle Cayea, Kim Tartaglia, Amit Pahwa, Heather Harrell, Amy Shaheen, Valerie J Lang
PURPOSE: The clinical skills needed to practice high-value care (HVC) are core to all medical disciplines. Medical students form practice habits early and HVC instruction is essential to this formation. The purpose of this study was to describe the state of HVC instruction and assessment in internal medicine clerkships and identify needs for additional curricula. METHOD: In 2014, the Clerkship Directors in Internal Medicine conducted its annual survey of 121 U.S...
March 6, 2018: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Ramez Philips, Daniel Martin, Antoine Eskander, Jeffrey Schord, Nicole Brown, Songzhu Zhao, Guy Brock, Bhavna Kumar, Ricardo Carrau, Enver Ozer, Amit Agrawal, Stephen Y Kang, James W Rocco, David Schuller, Syed Ali, Dukagjin Blakaj, Aashish Bhatt, John Grecula, Theodoros Teknos, Virginia Diavolitsis, Matthew Old
OBJECTIVES: to examine the impact of radiotherapy center volume on overall survival in patients with oral cavity and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma getting adjuvant radiation therapy after receiving surgery at a high-volume center. MATERIALS AND METHODS: a retrospective study was conducted on patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma or oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma treated surgically at a tertiary institution from 2000 to 2012 who received adjuvant radiotherapy...
March 2018: Oral Oncology
Liliana Alvarez, Paul Jesús Tejada-Llacsa, Giannina Melgarejo-García, Gabriel Berto, Pedro Montes Teves, Eduardo Monge
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of sero positivity for HBsAg, Anti-HBcAg and AntiHVC in the blood bank of Hospital Daniel Carrion during the period 2010 - 2012. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective cross-sectional study. Potential donors who met the inclusion criteria were included. Sociodemographic factors, risk behaviors were gathered. A descriptive analysis was performed with STATA 14. RESULTS: 13,887 potential blood donors of the HNDAC between January 2010 and December 2012 were identified...
October 2017: Revista de Gastroenterología del Perú: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad de Gastroenterología del Perú
Jimmy B Beck, Corrie E McDaniel, Miranda C Bradford, Doug Brock, Carolyn D Sy, Tiffany Chen, Jeffrey Foti, Andrew A White
OBJECTIVES: Establishing a high-value care (HVC) culture within an institution requires a multidisciplinary commitment and participation. Bedside rounds provide an ideal environment for role modeling and learning behaviors that promote an HVC culture. However, little is understood regarding the types of HVC discussions that take place at the bedside and who participates in those discussions. METHODS: A prospective observational study at a tertiary-care, university-affiliated, free-standing children's hospital...
March 2018: Hospital Pediatrics
Santiago Boari, Ana Amador
Songbirds are a well-established animal model to study the neural basis of learning, perception and production of complex vocalizations. In this system, telencephalic neurons in HVC present a state-dependent, highly selective response to auditory presentations of the bird's own song (BOS). This property provides an opportunity to study the neural code behind a complex motor behavior. In this work, we explore whether changes in the temporal structure of the sound envelope can drive changes in the neural responses of highly selective HVC units...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
Dana L Moseley, Narendra R Joshi, Jonathan F Prather, Jeffrey Podos, Luke Remage-Healey
In humans and other animals, behavioural variation in learning has been associated with variation in neural features like morphology and myelination. By contrast, it is essentially unknown whether cognitive performance scales with electrophysiological properties of individual neurons. Birdsong learning offers a rich system to investigate this topic as song acquisition is similar to human language learning. Here, we address the interface between behavioural learning and neurophysiology in a cohort of wild-caught, hand-reared songbirds (swamp sparrows, Melospiza georgiana)...
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
Christopher E Vaaga, Kimberly E Miller, Ágnes L Bodor, David J Perkel
Songbirds learn to produce vocalizations early in life by listening to, then copying the songs of conspecific males. The anterior forebrain pathway, homologous to a basal ganglia-forebrain circuit, is essential for song learning. The projection between the striato-pallidal structure, Area X, and the medial portion of the dorsolateral thalamic nucleus (DLM) is strongly hyperpolarizing in adults, due to a very negative chloride reversal potential (Person & Perkel, Neuron 46:129-140, 2005). The chloride reversal potential is determined, in part, by the expression level of a neuron-specific potassium-chloride cotransporter, KCC2, which is developmentally upregulated in mammals...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Carolina Frankl-Vilches, Manfred Gahr
Singing of songbirds is sensitive to testosterone and its androgenic and estrogenic metabolites in a species-specific way. The hormonal effects on song pattern are likely mediated by androgen receptors (AR) and estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), ligand activated transcription factors that are expressed in neurons of various areas of the songbirds' vocal control circuit. The distribution of AR in this circuit is rather similar between species while that of ERα is species variant and concerns a key vocal control area, the HVC (proper name)...
January 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
Mary Ellen Dias Barbosa, Ana Luiza Zaninotto, Daniel Ferraz de Campos Mazo, Mario Guimarães Pessoa, Cláudia Pinto Marques Souza de Oliveira, Flair José Carrilho, Alberto Queiroz Farias
BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with impairment of cognitive function and mood disorders. Our aim was to evaluate the impact of sustained virological response (SVR) on cognitive function and mood disorders. METHOD: A prospective exploratory one arm study was conducted. Adult clinically compensated HVC patients were consecutively recruited before treatment with interferon and ribavirin for 24 to 48 weeks, according to HCV genotype...
November 25, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
Yueliu Zhao, Xuebo Zhang, Rui Wang, Jie Bing, Fan Wu, Yitong Zhang, Jincao Xu, Zhongming Han, Xinwen Zhang, Shaoju Zeng
Song control nuclei have distinct sexual differences in songbirds. However, the mechanism that underlies the sexual differentiation of song nuclei is still not well understood. Using a combination of anatomical, pharmacological, genetic, and behavioral approaches, the present study investigated the role of erbb2 (a homolog of the avian erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2) and the erbb2-interacting gene, erbin, in the sexual differentiation of the song nucleus HVC in the Bengalese finch. We first found that both erbin and erbb2 were expressed in the developing HVC at posthatch day (PHD) 15 in a male-biased fashion using qRT-PCR and in situ hybridization...
October 30, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
Jennifer DeLuca Baldwin, Jaclyn Cox, Zhao Helen Wu, Anne Kenny, Steven Angus
BACKGROUND : Residencies have incorporated high-value care (HVC) training to contain health care expenditures. Assessment methods of HVC curricula are limited. OBJECTIVE : In our clinical skills laboratory, we evaluated the effectiveness of HVC curricula using standardized patients (SPs) to determine if there is a correlation with performance in counseling, history and physical, HVC knowledge, and demographics. METHODS : Through ambulatory cases, SPs evaluated postgraduate year 2 (PGY-2) residents using checklists to determine if they obtained the chief complaint, medical and social history, focused physical examination, and conveyed information regarding patient management...
October 2017: Journal of Graduate Medical Education
Deepa Rani Nandiwada, Amar Kohli, Megan McNamara, Kenneth J Smith, Shanta Zimmer, Melissa McNeil, Carla Spagnoletti, Doris Rubio, Kathryn Berlacher
BACKGROUND : In an era when value-based care is paramount, teaching trainees to explicitly communicate the evidence behind recommendations fosters high-value care (HVC) in the consultation process. OBJECTIVE : To implement an HVC consult curriculum highlighting the need for clear consult questions, evidence-based recommendations to improve consult teaching, clinical decision-making, and the educational value of consults. METHODS : A pilot curriculum was implemented for residents on cardiology consult electives utilizing faculty and fellows as evidence-based medicine (EBM) coaches...
October 2017: Journal of Graduate Medical Education
Matthew T Ross, Diana Flores, Richard Bertram, Frank Johnson, Richard L Hyson
Juvenile male zebra finches learn their songs over distinct auditory and sensorimotor stages, the former requiring exposure to an adult tutor song pattern. The cortical premotor nucleus HVC (acronym is name) plays a necessary role in both learning stages, as well as the production of adult song. Consistent with neural network models where synaptic plasticity mediates developmental forms of learning, exposure to tutor song drives changes in the turnover, density, and morphology of HVC synapses during vocal development...
September 2017: ENeuro
Vanessa Lee, Benjamin A Pawlisch, Matheus Macedo-Lima, Luke Remage-Healey
Norepinephrine (NE) can dynamically modulate excitability and functional connectivity of neural circuits in response to changes in external and internal states. Regulation by NE has been demonstrated extensively in mammalian sensory cortices, but whether NE-dependent modulation in sensory cortex alters response properties in downstream sensorimotor regions is less clear. Here, we examine this question in male zebra finches, a songbird species with complex vocalizations and a well-defined neural network for auditory processing of those vocalizations...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
Christopher Steele, Justin Berk, Bimal Ashar, Amit Pahwa, Danelle Cayea
BACKGROUND: Medical schools are creating high-value care (HVC) curricula in undergraduate medical education; however, there are few studies identifying what are the most pressing low-value care (LVC) practices, as observed by students. This study is a multicentre, targeted needs assessment comparing medical student perceptions of LVC at four institutions, after completion of their internal medicine clerkship, to identify areas of focus for future HVC curriculum development. METHODS: A total of 307 medical students at four institutions participated in a voluntary survey and identified instances of LVC during the internal medicine clerkship...
October 3, 2017: Clinical Teacher
Jesse R Cougle, Berta J Summers, Nicholas P Allan, Kirsten H Dillon, Hillary L Smith, Sarah A Okey, Ashleigh M Harvey
High trait anger is associated with more severe alcohol use problems, and alcohol has been found to facilitate aggressive behavior among individuals with high trait anger. Treatments focused on a sample with alcohol use disorder with elevated anger could reduce alcohol use problems, as well as violence and aggression. We sought to examine the efficacy of interpretation bias modification for hostility (IBM-H) in a sample with high trait anger and alcohol use disorder (AUD). Fifty-eight individuals with AUD and elevated trait anger were randomly assigned to eight web-based sessions (two per week) of IBM-H or a healthy video control condition (HVC)...
September 19, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Corrie E McDaniel, Andrew A White, Miranda C Bradford, Carolyn D Sy, Tiffany Chen, Doug Brock, Jeffrey Foti, Jimmy B Beck
Little is known about current practices in high-value care (HVC) bedside teaching. A lack of instruments for measuring bedside HVC behaviors confounds efforts to assess the impact of curricular interventions. The authors aimed to define observable HVC concepts by developing an instrument to measure the content and frequency of HVC discussions.The authors developed the HVC Rounding Tool in four iterative phases, using Messick's validity framework. Phases 1 and 2 were designed to collect evidence of content validity, Phases 3 and 4 to collect evidence of response process and internal structure...
August 29, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Matías A Goldin, Gabriel B Mindlin
Different neuronal types within brain motor areas contribute to the generation of complex motor behaviors. A widely studied songbird forebrain nucleus (HVC) has been recognized as fundamental in shaping the precise timing characteristics of birdsong. This is based, among other evidence, on the stretching and the "breaking" of song structure when HVC is cooled. However, little is known about the temperature effects that take place in its neurons. To address this, we investigated the dynamics of HVC both experimentally and computationally...
August 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
Beau A Alward, Jacques Balthazart, Gregory F Ball
The neural basis of how learned vocalizations change during development and in adulthood represents a major challenge facing cognitive neuroscience. This plasticity in the degree to which learned vocalizations can change in both humans and songbirds is linked to the actions of sex steroid hormones during ontogeny but also in adulthood in the context of seasonal changes in birdsong. We investigated the role of steroid hormone signaling in the brain on distinct features of birdsong using adult male canaries (Serinus canaria), which show extensive seasonal vocal plasticity as adults...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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