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Kidney transplantation

Kelsey Connelly, David Collister, Navdeep Tangri
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with the development of mineral bone disorder (MBD), osteoporosis, and fragility fractures. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on recent findings in the diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis in patients with CKD. RECENT FINDINGS: Multiple observational studies have shown that bone mineral density measurement using DEXA is equally predictive in CKD stages 1-3, as in the general population...
March 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
Thomas Tängdén, Pier Giorgio Cojutti, Jason A Roberts, Federico Pea
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Valganciclovir is used as oral prophylaxis for cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in kidney transplant recipients. However, limited pharmacokinetic data exist to guide dosing in this patient group. This study aimed to describe the population pharmacokinetics of valganciclovir in a large sample of kidney transplant recipients and predict optimal dosing based on Monte Carlo simulations. METHODS: Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) data from adult kidney transplant recipients who received valganciclovir prophylaxis during a 10-year study period were collected retrospectively...
March 15, 2018: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
Yuehong Li, Binbin Li, Wei Wang, Jiaxuan Lv
The aim of the present study was to analyze the risk factors for new-onset chronic kidney disease (CKD) in patients who have received a liver transplant. A total of 190 patients who underwent liver transplantation between March 2001 and January 2015 were followed up, and analyzed retrospectively. Sex, age, primary disease, preoperative laboratory findings (hemoglobin, albumin, creatinine and glomerular filtration rate), surgical approach, blood loss during the surgery and transfusion volume, postoperative complications, and the average levels of calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) (from liver transplantation to the onset of CKD) were analyzed...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Si Liu, Baoshan Gao, Gang Wang, Weigang Wang, Xin Lian, Shan Wu, Jinyu Yu, Yaowen Fu, Honglan Zhou
Primary hyperoxaluria type 2 is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by glyoxylate reductase/hydroxypyruvate reductase deficiency and characterized by recurrent episodes of nephrolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis. Herein, we describe a case of primary hyperoxaluria type 2 in a 33-year-old man who failed to respond to conventional therapies; thus renal transplantation was performed. This case demonstrated that, although primary hyperoxaluria type 2 is rare, hyperoxaluria should be suspected and blood oxalate and stone component be examined in patients with recurrent episodes of nephrolithiasis, particularly in those who are unresponsive to conventional therapies...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Giorgina B Piccoli, Mona Alrukhaimi, Zhi-Hong Liu, Elena Zakharova, Adeera Levin
Chronic Kidney Disease affects approximately 10% of the world's adult population: it is within the top 20 causes of death worldwide, and its impact on patients and their families can be devastating. World Kidney Day and International Women's Day in 2018 coincide, thus offering an opportunity to reflect on the importance of women's health and specifically their kidney health, on the community, and the next generations, as well as to strive to be more curious about the unique aspects of kidney disease in women so that we may apply those learnings more broadly...
March 15, 2018: BMC Nephrology
Brett W Plattner, Pauline Chen, Richard Cross, Matthew A Leavitt, Paul D Killen, Michael Heung
INTRODUCTION: Kidney biopsies are an essential tool in the diagnosis and management of kidney diseases, particularly in kidney transplant recipients. Biopsies carry a risk for serious complications and not all biopsies achieve adequate tissue. We examined the impact of kidney biopsy technique on complications and biopsy adequacy. METHODS: The cohort consisted of consecutive kidney transplant patients undergoing biopsy by one of three techniques: ultrasound localization, real-time ultrasound guidance, and ultrasound-guided trocar placement...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Vascular Access
Tatsushi Ruike, Yoshihiro Kanai, Kazuki Iwabata, Yuki Matsumoto, Hiroshi Murata, Masahiro Ishima, Keisuke Ohta, Masahiko Oshige, Shinji Katsura, Koji Kuramochi, Shinji Kamisuki, Hiroeki Sahara, Masahiko Miura, Fumio Sugawara, Kengo Sakaguchi
Sulfoquinovosylacylpropanediol (SQAP) is a novel potent radiosensitizer that inhibits angiogenesis in vivo and results in increased hypoxia and reduced tumor volume. We investigated the distribution, metabolism, and excretion of SQAP in male KSN-nude mice transplanted with a human pulmonary carcinoma, Lu65. For the metabolism analysis, a 2 mg (2.98 MBq)/kg of [glucose-U-14 C]-SQAP (CP-3839) was intravenously injected. The injected SQAP was decomposed into a stearic acid and a sulfoquinovosylpropanediol (SQP) in the body...
March 15, 2018: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
Gregory J Kato, Frédéric B Piel, Clarice D Reid, Marilyn H Gaston, Kwaku Ohene-Frempong, Lakshmanan Krishnamurti, Wally R Smith, Julie A Panepinto, David J Weatherall, Fernando F Costa, Elliott P Vichinsky
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a group of inherited disorders caused by mutations in HBB, which encodes haemoglobin subunit β. The incidence is estimated to be between 300,000 and 400,000 neonates globally each year, the majority in sub-Saharan Africa. Haemoglobin molecules that include mutant sickle β-globin subunits can polymerize; erythrocytes that contain mostly haemoglobin polymers assume a sickled form and are prone to haemolysis. Other pathophysiological mechanisms that contribute to the SCD phenotype are vaso-occlusion and activation of the immune system...
March 15, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
Joseph M Ladowski, Gregory R Martens, Luz M Reyes, Zheng-Yu Wang, Devin E Eckhoff, Vera Hauptfeld-Dolejsek, Matt Tector, A Joseph Tector
Genetically engineered pig organs could provide transplants to all patients with end-stage organ failure, but Ab-mediated rejection remains an issue. This study examines the class II swine leukocyte Ag (SLA) as a target of epitope-restricted Ab binding. Transfection of individual α- and β-chains into human embryonic kidney cells resulted in both traditional and hybrid class II SLA molecules. Sera from individuals on the solid organ transplant waiting list were tested for Ab binding and cytotoxicity to this panel of class II SLA single-Ag cells...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Haruki Katsumata, Izumi Yamamoto, Yo Komatsuzaki, Mayuko Kawabe, Yusuke Okabayashi, Takafumi Yamakawa, Ai Katsuma, Yasuyuki Nakada, Akimitsu Kobayashi, Yudo Tanno, Jun Miki, Hiroki Yamada, Ichiro Ohkido, Nobuo Tsuboi, Hiroyasu Yamamoto, Takashi Yokoo
BACKGROUND: Both prevention and treatment of recurrent immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) in kidney transplant recipients are important since recurrent IgAN seems to affect long-term graft survival. We present here a case of recurrent IgAN that was successfully treated using steroid pulse therapy plus tonsillectomy 10 years after kidney transplantation. CASE PRESENTATION: A 46-year-old male was admitted for an episode biopsy with a serum creatinine level of 1...
March 14, 2018: BMC Nephrology
Douglas A Canning
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Journal of Urology
David A Goldfarb
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Journal of Urology
David A Goldfarb
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Journal of Urology
Nicole A Pilch, Vinayak Rohan, Vinaya Rao, Patrick D Mauldin, Zemin Su, Derek A Dubay, Thomas A Morinelli, David J Taber
BACKGROUND: Several studies have been performed to evaluate surrogate markers of long-term allograft function in renal transplant recipients. These include serum creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), slope of eGFR, and more recently eGFR variability. The aim of this study was to measure eGFR slope while assessing the variability of this slope and if high variability occurring at any time post-transplant was predictive of poorer long-term outcomes in a large cohort of kidney transplant recipients...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Nephrology
Suwasin Udomkarnjananun, Natavudh Townamchai, Pajaree Chariyavilaskul, Kroonpong Iampenkhae, Krit Pongpirul, Boonchoo Sirichindakul, Kamol Panumatrassamee, Jakapat Vanichanan, Yingyos Avihingsanon, Somchai Eiam-Ong, Kearkiat Praditpornsilpa
BACKGROUND: Tacrolimus is mainly metabolized by cytochrome P450 3A5 (CYP3A5), which is expressed in the liver. However, CYP3A5 is also expressed in the kidney tissue and may contribute to local tacrolimus clearance in the kidney allograft. We aimed to evaluate the association between the allograft CYP3A5 genotype and transplant outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study at the King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Thailand, comparing 2 groups of donor and recipient CYP3A5 genotypes, the expressor (*1/*1 and *1/*3) and the non-expressor (*3/*3)...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Nephrology
Lara Danziger-Isakov, William J Steinbach, Grant Paulsen, Flor M Munoz, Leigh R Sweet, Michael Green, Marian G Michaels, Janet A Englund, Alastair Murray, Natasha Halasa, Daniel E Dulek, Rebecca Pellett Madan, Betsy C Herold, Brian T Fisher
Background: Respiratory virus infection (RVI) in pediatric solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients poses a significant risk; however, the epidemiology and effects of an RVI after pediatric SOT in the era of current molecular diagnostic assays are unclear. Methods: A retrospective observational cohort of pediatric SOT recipients (January 2010 to June 2013) was assembled from 9 US pediatric transplant centers. Charts were reviewed for RVI events associated with hospitalization within 1 year after the transplant...
March 10, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Hasan Yuksekkaya, Meltem Gumus, Aylin Yucel, Meltem Energin, Serafettin Demirci
BACKGROUND: Mistaken ingestion of all manner of toxic matter is common in childhood, but poisoning with fireworks and matchsticks is rare. Fireworks usually contain 10% yellow phosphorus and 50% potassium chlorate. Potassium chlorate is an extremely reactive and toxic agent that is used in fireworks and matchstick heads. METHODS: Eleven cases (7 females and 5 males; median age, 36 months [ranging from 24 to 48 months]) of poisoning after ingestion of fireworks and matchstick(s), between February 2008 and June 2014, were reviewed...
March 12, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
Liaoran Wang, David K C Cooper, Lars Burdorf, Yi Wang, Hayato Iwase
There has recently been considerable progress in the results of pig organ transplantation in nonhuman primates (NHPs), largely associated with the availability of (i) pigs genetically-engineered to overcome coagulation dysregulation, and (ii) novel immunosuppressive agents. The barriers of thrombotic microangiopathy and/or consumptive coagulation were believed to be associated with (i) activation of the graft vascular endothelial cells (VECs) by a low level of anti-pig antibody binding and/or complement deposition and/or innate immune cell activity, and (ii) molecular incompatibilities between the NHP and pig coagulation-anticoagulation systems...
March 10, 2018: Transplantation
Steven Habbous, Eric McArthur, Stephanie N Dixon, Susan McKenzie, Carlos Garcia-Ochoa, Ngan N Lam, Krista L Lentine, Christine Dipchand, Kenneth Litchfield, Mehmet A Begen, Sisira Sarma, Amit X Garg
BACKGROUND: Preemptive kidney transplants result in better outcomes and patient experiences than transplantation after dialysis onset. It is unknown how often a person initiates maintenance dialysis prior to living kidney donor transplantation when their donor candidate evaluation is well underway. METHODS: Using healthcare databases, we retrospectively studied 478 living donor kidney transplants from 2004-2014 across 5 transplant centres in Ontario, Canada where the recipients were not receiving dialysis when their donor's evaluation was well underway...
March 10, 2018: Transplantation
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