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Josephine A Afema, Kimberlee B Beckmen, Stephen M Arthur, Kathy Burek Huntington, Jonna A K Mazet
The muskox ( Ovibos moschatus ) population inhabiting the eastern North Slope (ENS) of Alaska declined dramatically during 1999-2006, whereas populations in western Alaska (WA) were stable or increasing. To understand morbidity and mortality factors contributing to the decline, Alaska Department of Fish and Game conducted pathologic investigations of carcasses from 2005 until 2008. Additionally, archived sera from both ENS and WA muskoxen collected during 1984-1992, before the documented beginning of the ENS decline; sera collected during 2000, near the beginning of the decline; and contemporary sera (from live capture-release, adult females) collected during 2006, 2007, and 2008 were analyzed to determine whether prevalence of antibody to potential pathogens differed in the two areas or changed over time...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Kim Lewis
The spread of resistant organisms is producing a human health crisis, as we are witnessing the emergence of pathogens resistant to all available antibiotics. An increase in chronic infections presents an additional challenge - these diseases are difficult to treat due to antibiotic-tolerant persister cells. vermining of soil Actinomycetes ended the golden era of antibiotic discovery in the 60s, and efforts to replace this source by screening synthetic compound libraries was not successful. Bacteria have an efficient permeability barrier, preventing penetration of most synthetic compounds...
November 4, 2016: Biochemical Pharmacology
Sócrates Fraga da Costa Neto, Raquel de Oliveira Simões, Éster Maria Mota, Roberto do Val Vilela, Eduardo José Lopes Torres, Helene Santos Barbosa, Rosana Gentile, Arnaldo Maldonado Junior
Nematode parasites of the cardiopulmonary system of livestock and pet animals have been receiving attention due to the pathogenic effects they produce in the course of the infection. However, parasitism in wild animals by metastrongilid nematodes has been neglected, resulting in potential risk to wildlife. Heterostrongylus heterostrongylus is the etiological agent of bronchial pneumonia in the black-eared opossum, Didelphis aurita, a widely distributed marsupial frequently reported to inhabit areas from wild environments to peri-urban spaces...
September 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
S L Roberts, J Dukes-McEwan
The Donkey Sanctuary (DS) owns 3500-4000 donkeys, estimated to be about 35 per cent of the UK population. Although postmortem surveys suggest a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease in donkeys, there is sparse clinical information about cardiovascular examination findings and echocardiographic findings in health and disease. In this cross-sectional study, auscultation findings were recorded, and in a subset of donkeys, echocardiography was used to screen for structural and functional cardiac disease. 202 donkeys were examined; 117 geldings and 85 females...
October 15, 2016: Veterinary Record
Călin Mircea Gherman, Georgiana Deak, Ioana Adriana Matei, Angela Monica Ionică, Gianluca D'Amico, Marian Taulescu, Lucian Barbu-Tudoran, Alexandru Sarmaşi, Andrei Daniel Mihalca, Vasile Cozma
BACKGROUND: Angiostrongylus daskalovi is a rare cardiopulmonary nematode infecting badgers. The parasite was described in 1988 and, since then, found only once in mustelids in Europe. The present study aims to report new cases of patent A. daskalovi infection in badgers from northern Romania and to provide new information on its ultrastructure, molecular diagnosis, and pathology. METHODS: Eight road-killed or hunted badgers originating from Maramureș and Alba counties in Romania were collected and necropsied...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
Daniel J White, Richard J Hall, Jing Wang, Nicole E Moore, Duckchul Park, Kate McInnes, Brett D Gartrell, Daniel M Tompkins
Circoviruses are circular, non-enveloped, single-stranded DNA viruses around 2000 nucleotides (nt) in length and include the pathogenic species, Porcine circovirus 1 and Beak and feather disease virus, capable of causing significant morbidity and mortality. This group of viruses may be robust to degradation by external environments, and avian circoviruses are known to move between closely related hosts. Using a de novo metagenomic approach, followed by confirmatory PCR, we identify for the first time a circular Rep-encoding single-stranded (CRESS) DNA virus in New Zealand kiwi, Apteryx spp...
October 2016: Virus Genes
J Díaz-Delgado, A Fernández, A Xuriach, E Sierra, Y Bernaldo de Quirós, B Mompeo, L Pérez, M Andrada, J Marigo, J L Catão-Dias, K R Groch, J F Edwards, M Arbelo
The vascular system of Cuvier's beaked whales (CBW) (Ziphius cavirostris; family Ziphiidae), an extremely deep, prolonged-diving cetacean, is increasingly receiving anatomic and physiologic study due to possible anthropogenic interactions; however, vascular pathology rarely has been reported in this species. Thirteen CBW stranded in the Canary Islands from June 2008 to June 2014 were autopsied. A careful dissection of the thoracic and abdominal vasculature was performed on these animals. All had moderate to severe and extensive chronic fibrosing arteritis with aneurysms, hemorrhages, and thrombosis primarily involving the mesenteric and gastroepiploic arteries and the thoracic and abdominal aorta...
April 22, 2016: Veterinary Pathology
Ana Margarida Alho, Manuela Schnyder, Roland Schaper, José Meireles, Silvana Belo, Peter Deplazes, Luís Madeira de Carvalho
Angiostrongylus vasorum is a nematode that lives in the pulmonary arteries and right cardiac ventricle of domestic dogs and wild canids. It is increasingly being reported in several European countries and North America. This parasite induces inflammatory verminous pneumonia, causing severe respiratory disease in dogs. In some instances, coagulopathies, neurological signs and even death may occur. Scant data are available regarding the occurrence of A. vasorum in Portugal. Therefore, sera of 906 shelter dogs from North to South mainland Portugal were collected...
July 2016: Parasitology Research
S Lair, L N Measures, D Martineau
An isolated population of beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) inhabits the St Lawrence Estuary, Quebec, Canada. This population has failed to recover despite the prohibition of hunting >30 years ago, suggesting the presence of other limiting factors. The authors summarize the reported causes of death and propose risk factors to explain the lack of recovery of this population. From 1983 to 2012, a total of 472 beluga were found stranded. Complete necropsies were carried out on 222 beluga, including 178 adults, 25 juveniles, and 19 newborn calves...
January 2016: Veterinary Pathology
Ohood Felemban, Winsome St John, Ramon Zenel Shaban
AIM: The aim of this case study was to explore the environmental challenges nurses experience with infection control practice, and the strategies they use to overcome those challenges. METHOD: An exploratory case study was conducted in four home visiting nursing organisations in southeast Queensland, Australia, using data triangulation (document review, individual interviews, and focus groups). Data were analysed using a framework approach to identify themes. RESULTS: Three major infection prevention and control challenges were experienced in the community context...
September 2015: British Journal of Community Nursing
Manuela Schnyder, Roland Schaper, Zoltán Lukács, Sándor Hornok, Róbert Farkas
The occurrence of the nematode Angiostrongylus vasorum, also known as the French heartworm, is increasingly being reported from various European countries. The adults of this parasite species live in the pulmonary arteries and right cardiac ventricle of wild canids and domestic dogs. Larval stages and eggs in the lungs induce inflammatory verminous pneumonia, causing severe respiratory disease in dogs. Furthermore, haematological and neurological signs and even death may occur. In Hungary, A. vasorum has been identified in red foxes, golden jackals and in two dogs and some slugs...
August 2015: Parasitology Research
T Gorgani-Firouzjaee, A A Farshid, S Naem
Ultrastructural changes of gastritis due to infection with Physaloptera clausa in 12 fresh carcasses of euthanized European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) collected from different part of Urmia, Iran, in which they were highly populated with this animal, six females and six males were subjected to detail necropsy with special reference to the stomach. Macroscopic changes of stomach were recorded and some of the worms collected. Based on number of parasites present in the stomach, they were divided into light infection, mild infection, and severe infection...
October 2015: Parasitology Research
Martina Gatzka, Karin Scharffetter-Kochanek
According to the concept of T-cell plasticity, peripheral T cells - once differentiated into a specific T cell subset - may, in response to new environmental cues or signaling alterations, adopt the phenotype of a different helper cell subset with regard to cytokine production and regulatory functions. In a variety of T cell-mediated inflammatory disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease, and psoriasis, T-cell plasticity - in particular the conversion of regulatory T cells (Tregs) to IL-17-producing inflammatory cells - has recently been described as key pathomechanism contributing to the aggravation of inflammatory symptoms and disease chronification...
July 2015: Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft, Journal of the German Society of Dermatology: JDDG
Paola Cavana, Emmanuel Bensignor, Stéphane Blot, Marine Carlus, René Chermette, Odile Crosaz, Felix Grimm, Murielle Hurion, Aurélien Jeandel, Bruno Polack
BACKGROUND: Angiostrongylus vasorum is a nematode that primarily infects Canidae. The adult parasites are found in the pulmonary arterial circulation and the right side of the heart. The most common clinical sign is respiratory dysfunction. Bleeding, neurological, ocular, cardiovascular and gastrointestinal disorders are also reported. Skin lesions are very unusual. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: This report describes a nematode dermatitis due to A. vasorum infection. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of a dog infected with this parasite that initially presented with skin lesions only...
August 2015: Veterinary Dermatology
Kathleen A Burek-Huntington, Jennifer L Dushane, Caroline E C Goertz, Lena N Measures, Carlos H Romero, Stephen A Raverty
The endangered Cook Inlet (Alaska, USA) stock of beluga whales Delphinapterus leucas declined 47% between 1994 and 1998, from an estimated 653 whales to 347 whales, with a continued decline to approximately 312 in 2012. Between 1998 and 2013, 164 known dead strandings were reported by the National Marine Fisheries Service. Only 38 of these animals, or 23% of the known stranded carcasses, were necropsied. Carcasses were found between April and October. The majority of animals necropsied were adults (n=25), followed by juveniles (n=6), calves (n=3), and aborted fetuses (n=4)...
May 11, 2015: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
R Zafra, J R Jaber, J Pérez, J de la Fuente, M Arbelo, M Andrada, A Fernández
This is the first work that applies immunohistochemistry in the characterisation of the inflammatory infiltrate of verminous bronchopneumonia associated with lungworm parasites in stranded dolphins. Samples from three different species (Stenella coerulealba, Stenella frontalis and Delphinus delphis) stranded in the Canary Islands were used. The most common findings found in these animals varied from bronchitis to verminous bronchopneumonia with different degree of severity. The immunohistochemical study showed variable expressions of Lysozyme, MHC-II, iNOS and IgG...
June 2015: Research in Veterinary Science
Tracy Chu, Martine Hackett, Navpreet Kaur
This article examines the role of housing conditions in sleep-related infant injury death, a leading cause of infant mortality in the USA. The use of an unsafe sleep surface is a major risk factor for sleep-related infant injury. This exploratory study examined contextual circumstances, specifically those related to the physical environment, which may contribute to caregivers' decisions to place an infant on an unsafe sleep surface. It employed a retrospective review of 255 sleep-related infant injury death cases in a large urban area from 2004 to 2010 where an infant was found sleeping on an unsafe sleep surface, including 122 cases where a crib or bassinet was identified in the home...
June 2016: Health Promotion International
Hassan Borji, Zahra Moosavi, Fatemeh Ahmadi
Arteritis due to Strongylus vulgaris is a well-known cause of colic in horses and donkeys. The current report describes a fatal incidence of arterial obstruction in cranial mesenteric artery caused by S. vulgaris infection in an adult donkey in which anthelmintic treatment was not regularly administered. Necropsy findings of the abdominal cavity revealed a complete cranial mesenteric arterial obstruction due to larvae of S. vulgaris, causing severe colic. To the authors' knowledge, a complete cranial mesenteric arterial obstruction due to verminous arteritis has rarely been described in horses and donkeys...
September 2014: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
Yasar Ozgok
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A well planned, well designed, well constructed, properly maintained and managed surgery room is an important element of an animal laboratory. RECENT FINDINGS: The design and size of an ideal animal laboratory surgery room setup depends on the scope of institutional mission of research activities, the animals to be housed and the physical relationship to the rest of the institution. Building materials for animal facilities should be selected to facilitate efficient and hygienic operation...
March 2015: Current Opinion in Urology
Martin K Nielsen, Anand N Vidyashankar, Jennifer Bellaw, Holli S Gravatte, Xin Cao, Emily F Rubinson, Craig R Reinemeyer
Strongylus vulgaris is the most pathogenic helminth parasite of horses, causing verminous endarteritis with thromboembolism and infarction. A serum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been validated for detection of antibodies to an antigen produced by migrating larvae of this parasite. The aim was to evaluate ELISA responses to anthelmintic treatment in cohorts of naturally infected horses. Fifteen healthy horses harboring patent S. vulgaris infections were turned out for communal grazing in May 2013 (day 0)...
February 2015: Parasitology Research
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