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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27652215/the-pathophysiology-of-lifelong-premature-ejaculation
#1
REVIEW
Marcel D Waldinger
For many decades it has been thought that lifelong premature ejaculation (PE) is only characterized by persistent early ejaculations. Despite enormous progress of in vivo animal research, and neurobiological, genetic and pharmacological research in men with lifelong PE, our current understanding of the mechanisms behind early ejaculations is far from complete. The new classification of PE into four PE subtypes has shown that the symptomatology of lifelong PE strongly differs from acquired PE, subjective PE and variable PE...
August 2016: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27543885/common-variant-in-oxtr-predicts-growth-in-positive-emotions-from-loving-kindness-training
#2
Suzannah F Isgett, Sara B Algoe, Aaron J Boulton, Baldwin M Way, Barbara L Fredrickson
Ample research suggests that social connection reliably generates positive emotions. Oxytocin, a neuropeptide implicated in social cognition and behavior, is one biological mechanism that may influence an individual's capacity to extract positive emotions from social contexts. Because variation in certain genes may indicate underlying neurobiological differences, we tested whether several SNPs in two genes related to oxytocin signaling would show effects on positive emotions that were context-specific, depending on sociality...
November 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26869941/the-addictive-model-of-self-harming-non-suicidal-and-suicidal-behavior
#3
REVIEW
Hilario Blasco-Fontecilla, Roberto Fernández-Fernández, Laura Colino, Lourdes Fajardo, Rosa Perteguer-Barrio, Jose de Leon
INTRODUCTION: Behavioral addictions such as gambling, sun-tanning, shopping, Internet use, work, exercise, or even love and sex are frequent, and share many characteristics and common neurobiological and genetic underpinnings with substance addictions (i.e., tolerance, withdrawal, and relapse). Recent literature suggests that both non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal behavior (SB) can also be conceptualized as addictions. The major aim of this mini review is to review the literature and explore the neurobiological and psychological mechanisms underlying the addiction to self-harming behaviors...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26709192/the-science-of-consciousness-basics-models-and-visions
#4
Thilo Hinterberger
This article presents a few models and aspects of the phenomenon consciousness that are emerging from modern neuroscience and might serve as a basis for scientific discourse in the field of Applied Consciousness Sciences. A first model describes the dynamics of information processing in the brain. The evoked electric brain potentials represent a hierarchical sequence of functions playing an important role in conscious perception. These range from primary processing, attention, pattern recognition, categorization, associations to judgments, and complex thoughts...
December 18, 2015: Journal of Physiology, Paris
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26348241/making-the-ineffable-visible
#5
COMMENT
Ronald M Epstein
Given that presence is ineffable yet real and universal, it is no surprise that it has historically been the domain of mystics. However, presence and its cousins—shared mind, love, and compassion—have now become of intense interest among members of the scientific community under the banners of interpersonal neurobiology and social neuroscience (Decety & Lamm, 2009; Epstein & Street, 2011; Klimecki, Leiberg, Lamm, & Singer, 2013; Zlatev, Racine, Sinha, & Itkonen, 2008). This may seem obvious to readers of Families Systems, and Health, but it is not the basis for medical practice or psychotherapy in general...
September 2015: Families, Systems & Health: the Journal of Collaborative Family Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26174585/switch-from-distress-to-well-being-by-strong-emotions-speculations-on-three-clinical-vignettes
#6
REVIEW
Carlo Calanchini
Starting from three clinical vignettes representing two mental disorders and different approaches to their treatment, we ask whether and how an unexpected event occurring at a particular time in a person's life could provoke such strong emotions as to determine a sudden transition from a state of severe distress to one of well-being. In this transition, we postulate that a major role is played by biological tendencies and brain plasticity under the influence of psychotherapy and positive emotions, emotions--especially trust, the sense of being cared for, and falling in love--that are awakened by openness to novelty and to the Other...
June 1, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25963198/the-significance-and-scope-of-evolutionary-developmental-biology-a-vision-for-the-21st-century
#7
Armin P Moczek, Karen E Sears, Angelika Stollewerk, Patricia J Wittkopp, Pamela Diggle, Ian Dworkin, Cristina Ledon-Rettig, David Q Matus, Siegfried Roth, Ehab Abouheif, Federico D Brown, Chi-Hua Chiu, C Sarah Cohen, Anthony W De Tomaso, Scott F Gilbert, Brian Hall, Alan C Love, Deirdre C Lyons, Thomas J Sanger, Joel Smith, Chelsea Specht, Mario Vallejo-Marin, Cassandra G Extavour
Evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo) has undergone dramatic transformations since its emergence as a distinct discipline. This paper aims to highlight the scope, power, and future promise of evo-devo to transform and unify diverse aspects of biology. We articulate key questions at the core of eleven biological disciplines-from Evolution, Development, Paleontology, and Neurobiology to Cellular and Molecular Biology, Quantitative Genetics, Human Diseases, Ecology, Agriculture and Science Education, and lastly, Evolutionary Developmental Biology itself-and discuss why evo-devo is uniquely situated to substantially improve our ability to find meaningful answers to these fundamental questions...
May 2015: Evolution & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25805350/stalking-a-neurobiological-perspective
#8
Donatella Marazziti, Valentina Falaschi, Amedeo Lombardi, Francesco Mungai, Liliana Dell'Osso
Nowadays stalking is becoming a real social emergency, as it may often fuel severe aggressive behaviours. No exhaustive aetiological hypothesis is still available regarding this complex phenomenon. However, the detailed descriptions of some of its peculiar features allow to draw with cautions some general suggestions. Probably stalking may arise from the derangement of those neural networks subserving the so-called social brain and the pair bonding formation, in particular the processes of attachment/separation, attraction/romantic love/reward...
January 2015: Rivista di Psichiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25777496/speech-repetition-as-a-window-on-the-neurobiology-of-auditory-motor-integration-for-speech-a-voxel-based-lesion-symptom-mapping-study
#9
Corianne Rogalsky, Tasha Poppa, Kuan-Hua Chen, Steven W Anderson, Hanna Damasio, Tracy Love, Gregory Hickok
For more than a century, speech repetition has been used as an assay for gauging the integrity of the auditory-motor pathway in aphasia, thought classically to involve a linkage between Wernicke's area and Broca's area via the arcuate fasciculus. During the last decade, evidence primarily from functional imaging in healthy individuals has refined this picture both computationally and anatomically, suggesting the existence of a cortical hub located at the parietal-temporal boundary (area Spt) that functions to integrate auditory and motor speech networks for both repetition and spontaneous speech production...
May 2015: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25750852/culture-inequality-and-health-evidence-from-the-midus-and-midja-comparison
#10
Carol D Ryff, Yuri Miyamoto, Jennifer Morozink Boylan, Christopher L Coe, Mayumi Karasawa, Norito Kawakami, Chiemi Kan, Gayle D Love, Cynthia Levine, Hazel R Markus, Jiyoung Park, Shinobu Kitayama
This article seeks to forge scientific connections between three overarching themes (culture, inequality, health). Although the influence of cultural context on human experience has gained notable research prominence, it has rarely embraced another large arena of science focused on the influence social hierarchies have on how well and how long people live. That literature is increasingly focused psychosocial factors, working interactively with biological and brain-based mechanisms, to account for why those with low socioeconomic standing have poorer health...
2015: Culture and Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25566168/varieties-of-male-sexual-identity-development-in-clinical-practice-a-neuropsychoanalytic-model
#11
Frans Stortelder
Variations of sexual identity development are present in all cultures, as well as in many animal species. Freud - founding father of psychoanalysis - believed that all men have an inherited, bisexual disposition, and that many varieties of love and desire are experienced as alternative pathways to intimacy. In the neuropsychoanalytic model, psychic development starts with the constitutional self. The constitutional self is comprised of the neurobiological factors which contribute to sexual identity development...
2014: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25563449/what-can-neuroscience-tell-us-about-the-potential-of-psychedelics-in-healthcare-how-the-neurophenomenology-of-psychedelics-research-could-help-us-to-flourish-throughout-our-lives-as-well-as-to-enhance-our-dying
#12
Robin Mackenzie
Health-related psychedelic research should focus on helping us flourish, not just remedying ill-health or addiction. We don't know enough about how psychedelics could enhance human flourishing. Factors promoting health-through-flourishing include finding meaning in life, spiritual practices, comfortable levels of social bonds, emotionally/physically satisfying sex in a long-term monogamous relationship and control over one's daily life. Psychedelic research could find more. Neuroscience anchors psychedelic research into disease and disorder, e...
2014: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25413551/neurobiology-of-love
#13
Franza Francesco, Alba Cervone
Romantic love is a "universal... or near universal" human phenomenon. Recently, love, romantic love, also became a theme of interest for scientists. The current research is seeking an explanation to clarify the brain mechanisms that are responsible for love behavior and feelings. Until recently, the study of love has been mainly the field of psychology. The biology of love originates in the primitive parts of brain that eolved long before the cerebral cortex. Discoveries in neuroscience have led to the identification of specific areas, facilities, brain circuits that are involved in the genesis of love...
November 2014: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24760847/valence-specific-effects-of-bdnf-val66met-polymorphism-on-dopaminergic-stress-and-reward-processing-in-humans
#14
Marta Peciña, Mercedes Martínez-Jauand, Tiffany Love, Joseph Heffernan, Pedro Montoya, Colin Hodgkinson, Christian S Stohler, David Goldman, Jon-Kar Zubieta
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in dopaminergic (DA) cells within the ventral tegmental area (VTA)/nucleus accumbens (NAc) circuitry appear to be a candidate mechanism for the neuroadaptive changes that follow stress and reward responses in animal models. However, the role of the BDNF gene variants in responses to salient cues through DA neurotransmission in humans remains unexplored. Here, we studied the effect of the common functional BDNF Val(66)Met (rs6265) polymorphism on rewarding experiences in the striatum and DA-mediated responses to stress...
April 23, 2014: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24702209/could-spirituality-and-religion-promote-stress-resilience-in-survivors-of-childhood-trauma
#15
Kathleen Brewer-Smyth, Harold G Koenig
Trauma is a precursor to many mental health conditions that greatly impact victims, their loved ones, and society. Studies indicate that neurobiological associations with adverse childhood experiences are mediated by interpersonal relationships and play a role in adult behavior, often leading to cycles of intergenerational trauma. There is a critical need to identify cost effective community resources that optimize stress resilience. Faith-based communities may promote forgiveness rather than retaliation, opportunities for cathartic emotional release, and social support, all of which have been related to neurobiology, behavior, and health outcomes...
April 2014: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24333546/ejaculatio-praecox-erectio-praecox-and-detumescentia-praecox-as-symptoms-of-a-hypertonic-state-in-lifelong-premature-ejaculation-a-new-hypothesis
#16
REVIEW
Marcel D Waldinger
In the last two decades, in vivo animal research and human neurobiological, genetic and pharmacological research of lifelong premature ejaculation (PE) have much contributed to a better understanding of the role of the central and peripheral nervous systems in mediating ejaculation. Research of genetic polymorphisms in men with lifelong PE and clinical research of the validity of the classification into four PE subtypes have provided a better insight into lifelong PE and its distinction from the three other PE subtypes...
June 2014: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23995157/preventing-toxicomania-and-addictive-behaviour-in-adolescence
#17
REVIEW
Pauline Manceaux, Aurélie Maricq, Nicolas Zdanowicz, Christine Reynaert
OBJECTIVES: Drug addicts are more and more stigmatized in our society. Recent data show a connection between substance abuse and other behaviors considered normal, such as passionate love. Adolescence is characterized by a biopsychosocial, cognitive and neurodevelopmental immaturity. This article aims to understand if these subjects are more likely to develop addictions to certain products or addictive behaviors such as passionate love. It also offers a better understanding of the current models for prevention of substance abuse during adolescence...
September 2013: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23974948/cumulative-risk-on-the-oxytocin-receptor-gene-oxtr-underpins-empathic-communication-difficulties-at-the-first-stages-of-romantic-love
#18
Inna Schneiderman, Yaniv Kanat-Maymon, Richard P Ebstein, Ruth Feldman
Empathic communication between couples plays an important role in relationship quality and individual well-being and research has pointed to the role of oxytocin in providing the neurobiological substrate for pair-bonding and empathy. Here, we examined links between genetic variability on the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) and empathic behaviour at the initiation of romantic love. Allelic variations on five OXTR single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with susceptibility to disorders of social functioning were genotyped in 120 new lovers: OXTRrs13316193, rs2254298, rs1042778, rs2268494 and rs2268490...
October 2014: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23916423/why-social-attachment-and-oxytocin-protect-against-addiction-and-stress-insights-from-the-dynamics-between-ventral-and-dorsal-corticostriatal-systems
#19
Mattie Tops, Sander L Koole, Hans IJzerman, Femke T A Buisman-Pijlman
The present article advances a neurobiological model of the reciprocal associations between social attachment and drug abuse, and social attachment and chronic stress, as overlapping systems are involved in stress coping and social attachment. In terms of coping, responding to a novel stressor or challenge involves initial novelty processing and activation of learning mechanisms that allow habituation to the stressor through familiarization. Similarly, social attachments are initially formed by being attracted by rewarding properties of an as-yet novel individual, and subsequently developing feelings of attachment towards the familiarized individual...
April 2014: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23369894/everyday-cognition-in-older-adults-associations-with-neuropsychological-performance-and-structural-brain-imaging
#20
Sarah Tomaszewski Farias, Lovingly Quitania Park, Danielle J Harvey, Christa Simon, Bruce R Reed, Owen Carmichael, Dan Mungas
The recently developed Everyday Cognition scales (ECog) measure multiple cognitively relevant functional domains (e.g., Everyday Memory, Everyday Language, Everyday Visuospatial abilities, and three everyday executive domains). The present study further evaluated the validity of the ECog by examining its relationship with objective measures of neuropsychological function, and neurobiological markers of disease as reflected by structural neuroimaging. Participants included 474 older adults (244 normals, 142 with MCI, 88 with dementia)...
April 2013: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
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