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Gender differences and relationships

Ying Wang, Shaoyan Si, Junli Liu, Zongye Wang, Haiying Jia, Kai Feng, Lili Sun, Shu Jun Song
AIMS: Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with some disorders including cardiovascular diseases. Dyslipidemia is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. However, data about the relationships between vitamin D and lipids are inconsistent. The relationship of vitamin D and Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP), as an excellent predictor of level of small and dense LDL, has not been reported. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of vitamin D status on serum lipids in Chinese adults...
2016: PloS One
Kelly R Moran, Sara Y Del Valle
Respiratory infectious disease epidemics and pandemics are recurring events that levy a high cost on individuals and society. The health-protective behavioral response of the public plays an important role in limiting respiratory infectious disease spread. Health-protective behaviors take several forms. Behaviors can be categorized as pharmaceutical (e.g., vaccination uptake, antiviral use) or non-pharmaceutical (e.g., hand washing, face mask use, avoidance of public transport). Due to the limitations of pharmaceutical interventions during respiratory epidemics and pandemics, public health campaigns aimed at limiting disease spread often emphasize both non-pharmaceutical and pharmaceutical behavioral interventions...
2016: PloS One
Margaret L Salisbury, David A Lynch, Edwin J R van Beek, Ella A Kazerooni, Junfeng Guo, Meng Xia, Susan Murray, Kevin J Anstrom, Eric Yow, Fernando J Martinez, Eric A Hoffman, Kevin R Flaherty
RATIONALE: Adaptive Multiple Features Method (AMFM) lung texture analysis software recognizes high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) patterns. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated AMFM and visual quantification of HRCT patterns and their relationship with disease progression in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis. METHODS: IPF patients in a clinical trial of prednisone, azathioprine, and N-acetylcysteine underwent HRCT at study start and finish. Proportion of lung occupied by ground glass, ground glass-reticular (GGR), honeycombing, emphysema, and normal were measured by AMFM and 3 radiologists, documenting baseline disease extent and post-baseline change...
October 21, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Eric J Lammers, Catherine G McLaughlin, Michael Barna
OBJECTIVE: To test for correlation between the growth in adoption of ambulatory electronic health records (EHRs) in the United States during 2010-2013 and hospital admissions and readmissions for elderly Medicare beneficiaries with at least one of four common ambulatory care-sensitive conditions (ACSCs). DATA SOURCES: SK&A Information Services Survey of Physicians, American Hospital Association General Survey and Information Technology Supplement; and the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Chronic Conditions Data Warehouse Geographic Variation Database for 2010 through 2013...
October 21, 2016: Health Services Research
Clare F Heisey, J Derek Kingsley
Static stretching was once recognized as a method of preparation for physical activity that would inhibit performance and increase risk of injury. However, a growing body of research suggests that static stretching may not have an inhibitory effect. Regardless, the data have not examined gender differences or the fatigue index (FI) and flexibility effects of static stretching on the back squat over multiple sets. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between a static-stretch condition (SC) and control condition (CC) on flexibility and the FI of Division I female athletes during 4 sets of the back squat...
2016: International Journal of Exercise Science
Mitsuru Yagi, Hideaki Ohne, Tsunehiko Konomi, Kanehiro Fujiyoshi, Shinjiro Kaneko, Masakazu Takemitsu, Masafumi Machida, Yoshiyuki Yato, Takashi Asazuma
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Gait patterns and their relationship to demographic and radiographic data in patients with adult spinal deformity (ASD) have not been fully documented. PURPOSE: To assess gait pattern in patients with ASD and the effect of corrective spinal surgery on gait. STUDY DESIGN/SETTING: Prospective case series. PATIENT SAMPLE: The gait patterns of 33 consecutive female with ASD (age 67.1 years; body mass index (BMI) 22...
October 17, 2016: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
Viola Bulgari, Laura Iozzino, Clarissa Ferrari, Marco Picchioni, Valentina Candini, Alessandra De Francesco, Paolo Maggi, Beatrice Segalini, Giovanni de Girolamo
The increased risk of violence in schizophrenia has been linked to several environmental, clinical and neuropsychological factors, including executive dysfunction. However, data about the nature of these effects are mixed and controversial. The main aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between clinical and neuropsychological factors with violence risk in patients with schizophrenia, taking into account current psychopathology and lifetime alcohol use. We compared a sample of patients living in Residential Facilities (RFs) with schizophrenia and a past history of interpersonal violence (vSZ, N=50) to patients with schizophrenia matched on age, gender and alcohol abuse/dependence but with no violence history (nvSZ, N=37)...
October 17, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
Yuqin Wang, Baochan Wang, Shiyan Yan, Feng Shen, Haixia Cao, Jiangao Fan, Rongrong Zhang, Jun Gu
PURPOSE: Questions remain uncertainty regarding the gender differences in the relationship between type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and liver cancer risk. By considering several confounding factors, we aimed to identify this issue according to a meta-analysis of cohort studies. METHODS: We searched EMBASE and MEDLINE for studies on the association between T2DM and risk of liver cancer up to November 30, 2014. A random-effects model was performed to calculate summary relative risks (SRRs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs)...
September 22, 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
Rong Ye, Ting Shen, Yasi Jiang, Lingjia Xu, Xiaoli Si, Baorong Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Epidemiological studies have investigated the association between Parkinson disease (PD) occurrence and the risk of brain tumors, while the results remain controversial. We performed a meta-analysis to clarify the exact relationship between PD and brain tumors. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed, Embase, ScienceDirect and CBM (China Biology Medicine Disc) before February 2016. Eligible studies were those that reported risk estimates of brain tumors among patients with PD or vice versa...
2016: PloS One
Nastasia Marinus, Liene Bervoets, Guy Massa, Kenneth Verboven, An Stevens, Tim Takken, Dominique Hansen
BACKGROUND: Cardiopulmonary exercise testing is advised ahead of exercise intervention in obese adolescents to assess medical safety of exercise and physical fitness. Optimal validity and reliability of test results are required to identify maximal exercise effort. As fat oxidation during exercise is disturbed in obese individuals, it remains an unresolved methodological issue whether the respiratory gas exchange ratio (RER) is a valid marker for maximal effort during exercise testing in this population...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Chih-Yuan Steven Lee, Bryan J Dik
This study aimed to examine how sources of social support intersect with stress and health by testing two theoretical models. Three relationship-specific sources of social support (family, friends, and romantic partners) and two health indicators (self-rated physical health and depressive symptoms) were investigated. The sample consisted of 636 emerging adults attending college (age range: 18-25). Results suggest that only support from family was a stress-buffer, in that it buffered the adverse association between stress and depressive symptoms...
October 20, 2016: Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress
Wang I Wong
Spatial abilities are pertinent to mathematical competence, but evidence of the space-math link has largely been confined to older samples and intrinsic spatial abilities (e.g., mental transformation). The roles of gender and affective factors are also unclear. This study examined the correlations between counting ability, mental transformation, and targeting accuracy in 182 Hong Kong preschoolers, and whether these relationships were weaker at higher spatial anxiety levels. Both spatial abilities related with counting similarly for boys and girls...
October 20, 2016: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Mohsen Pourghasem, Nematollah Kamali, Mehrdad Farsi, Nabiollah Soltanpour
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze the relation between the flat-footedness and obesity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 1158 school children (653 male and 505 female) participated in this cross sectional descriptive study. According to their age, children were divided into three groups for each gender (6-10, 11-13, 14-18 years old). Diagnosis and severity of flatfoot was assessed in using the Dennis method. BMI of children were calculated as body weight divided by height squared (kg*m(-2))...
October 16, 2016: Acta Orthopaedica et Traumatologica Turcica
Patrícia Fernanda Saboya Ribeiro, Luiz Fernandao Kubrusly, Paulo Afonso Nunes Nassif, Irma Cláudia Saboya Ribeiro, Andressa de Souza Bertoldi, Venessa Caroline Batistão
Background: The Helicobacter pylori infection (HP) is related to the development of gastric lesions and lymphoma; however, it is not known if there is a relation with gastroesophageal reflux disease and reflux esophagitis. Aim: To evaluate HP's relationship with esophagitis in patients undergoing upper endoscopy. Methods: Observational, retrospective and cross-sectional study, being evaluated 9576 patients undergoing outpatient endoscopic examination during the period between January and December 2015...
July 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva: ABCD, Brazilian Archives of Digestive Surgery
Qing Wang, Wenwen Liu, Yili Wu, Yan Ma, Guiqiu Zhao
BACKGROUND: An investigation was carried out to find the distribution of central corneal thickness (CCT) and the association between CCT and ocular factors in a cohort of myopic Chinese adults who underwent laser refractive surgery. METHODS: Medical records of 1,190 subjects (754 males) aged from 18 to 44 years (21.5 ± 3.5 years for males and 24.9 ± 5.5 years for females) undergoing myopic refractive surgery were filtered and analysed. Each parameter was stratified by gender and eye, respectively...
October 18, 2016: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
Leila Vali, Azar Izadi, Yunes Jahani, Maryam Okhovati
INTRODUCTION: Education and research are two major functions of universities, which require proper and systematic exploitation of available knowledge and information. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the knowledge management status in an education system by considering the function of faculty members in creation and dissemination of knowledge. This study was conducted to investigate the knowledge management status among faculty members of the Kerman University of Medical Sciences based on the Nonaka and Takeuchi models in 2015...
August 2016: Electronic Physician
Natalia Suárez, Bibiana Regueiro, Joyce L Epstein, Isabel Piñeiro, Sara M Díaz, Antonio Valle
Homework is a debated issue in society and its relationship with academic achievement has been deeply studied in the last years. Nowadays, schools are multicultural stages in which students from different cultures and ethnicities work together. In this sense, the present study aims to compare homework involvement and academic achievement in a sample of native and immigrant students, as well as to study immigrant students' relationship between homework involvement and Math achievement. The sample included 1328 students, 10-16 years old from Spanish families (85...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Natalia Sanchez-Aguadero, Rosario Alonso-Dominguez, Jose I Recio-Rodriguez, Maria C Patino-Alonso, Manuel A Gomez-Marcos, Carlos Martin-Cantera, Yolanda Schmolling-Guinovart, Luis Garcia-Ortiz
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the relationship between dietary glycemic index (GI) and retinal microvasculature in adults. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 300 subjects from the EVIDENT II study. Dietary GI was calculated using a validated, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Retinal photographs were digitized, temporal vessels were measured in an area 0.5-1 disc diameter from the optic disc and arteriolar-venular index (AVI) was estimated with semi-automated software...
October 18, 2016: Nutrition Journal
Nuria Berrocal-Izquierdo, Miquel Bioque, Miguel Bernardo
Patients with chronic schizophrenia-related disorders are at a heightened risk of developing cardiovascular disease. The presence and interpretation of cerebral vascular lesions in neuroimaging tests in these patients represents a common clinical challenge. Nevertheless, the literature on cerebrovascular disease in this population is scarce and contradictory. The aim of this study was to analyse the relationship between schizophrenia-related disorders and cerebrovascular morbidity. A case-control study compared cerebrovascular morbidity in a group of patients with schizophrenia-related disorder versus a group of patients with another severe mental illness...
October 14, 2016: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
Enayet Chowdhury, Lindon Wing, Garry Jennings, Christopher Reid
OBJECTIVE: Differences in blood pressure (BP) reading between multiple measurements, known as BP variability, is a strong predictor of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Lack of consensus on quantifying and reporting BP variability has limited its use in clinical practice. We aimed to determine the best possible way to quantify BP variability that would improve predictability of long-term mortality among elderly hypertensive population. DESIGN AND METHOD: We used data from a subset of patients (n = 694) aged > 65 years from the Second Australian National Blood Pressure (ANBP2) study...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
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