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Neutral sphingomyelinase 2

Michael V Airola, Prajna Shanbhogue, Achraf A Shamseddine, Kip E Guja, Can E Senkal, Rohan Maini, Nana Bartke, Bill X Wu, Lina M Obeid, Miguel Garcia-Diaz, Yusuf A Hannun
Neutral sphingomyelinase 2 (nSMase2, product of the SMPD3 gene) is a key enzyme for ceramide generation that is involved in regulating cellular stress responses and exosome-mediated intercellular communication. nSMase2 is activated by diverse stimuli, including the anionic phospholipid phosphatidylserine. Phosphatidylserine binds to an integral-membrane N-terminal domain (NTD); however, how the NTD activates the C-terminal catalytic domain is unclear. Here, we identify the complete catalytic domain of nSMase2, which was misannotated because of a large insertion...
July 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Caroline Camaré, Corinne Vanucci-Bacqué, Nathalie Augé, Mélanie Pucelle, Corinne Bernis, Audrey Swiader, Michel Baltas, Florence Bedos-Belval, Robert Salvayre, Anne Nègre-Salvayre
The neovascularization of atherosclerotic lesions is involved in plaque development and may contribute to intraplaque hemorrhage and plaque fragilization and rupture. Among the various proangiogenic agents involved in the neovascularization process, proatherogenic oxidized LDLs (oxLDLs) contribute to the formation of tubes via the generation of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), a major mitogenic and proangiogenic sphingolipid mediator. In this study, we investigated whether 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), an aldehydic lipid oxidation product abundantly present in oxLDLs, contributes to their proangiogenic properties...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Y Zhou, X-W Lin, M-A Begum, C-H Zhang, X-X Shi, W-J Jiao, Y-R Zhang, J-Q Yuan, H-Y Li, Q Yang, C Mao, Z-R Zhu
The neutral sphingomyelinase (nSMase) 1 homologue gene LsSMase was cloned from Laodelphax striatellus, a direct sap-sucker and virus vector of gramineous plants, and expressed via a Bac to Bac baculovirus expression system. The LsSMase-enhanced green fluorescent protein fusion protein was located in the endoplasmic reticulum in a similar manner to mammalian nSMase 1. The biochemical properties of LsSMase were determined in detail. The optimal pH and temperature for recombinant LsSMase were 8 and 37 °C, respectively...
April 4, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
Yuka Aoyama, Sayaka Sobue, Naoki Mizutani, Chisato Inoue, Yoshiyuki Kawamoto, Yuji Nishizawa, Masatoshi Ichihara, Mamoru Kyogashima, Motoshi Suzuki, Yoshinoti Nozawa, Takashi Murate
Taxoids are anti-cancer drugs frequently used to treat solid tumors, but they are sometimes ineffective and tumors may become resistant to their action. Here, we examined the involvement of sphingolipid metabolic enzymes in paclitaxel (PTX) resistance using a human prostate cancer cell line, PC3, and its PTX-resistant subline, PC3-PR. PTX (20 nM) suppressed cell proliferation and increased various ceramide species in PC3, but not PC3-PR, cells. PC3-PR contained higher S1P levels than did PC3, regardless of PTX treatment...
April 29, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
S Miyauchi, J Kitagaki, R Masumoto, A Imai, K Kobayashi, A Nakaya, S Kawai, C Fujihara, Y Asano, M Yamashita, M Yanagita, S Yamada, M Kitamura, S Murakami
Sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 3 ( Smpd3), which encodes neutral sphingomyelinase 2 (nSMase2), is a key molecule for skeletal development as well as for the cytodifferentiation of odontoblasts and alveolar bone. However, the effects of nSMase2 on the cytodifferentiation of periodontal ligament (PDL) cells are still unclear. In this study, the authors analyzed the effects of Smpd3 on the cytodifferentiation of human PDL (HPDL) cells. The authors found that Smpd3 increases the mRNA expression of calcification-related genes, such as alkaline phosphatase (ALPase), type I collagen, osteopontin, Osterix (Osx), and runt-related transcription factor (Runx)-2 in HPDL cells...
March 2017: Journal of Dental Research
Alla Khodorova, Grant D Nicol, Gary Strichartz
The p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)) and its activation of the sphingomyelin signaling cascade are essential for mechanical hypersensitivity resulting from locally injected nerve growth factor (NGF). Here the roles of the same effectors, and of the tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA) receptor, are evaluated for thermal hyperalgesia from NGF. Sensitivity of rat hind paw plantar skin to thermal stimulation after local sub-cutaneous injection of NGF (500ng) was measured by the latency for paw withdrawal (PWL) from a radiant heat source...
January 6, 2017: Neuroscience
Yohei Iguchi, Lara Eid, Martin Parent, Geneviève Soucy, Christine Bareil, Yuichi Riku, Kaori Kawai, Shinnosuke Takagi, Mari Yoshida, Masahisa Katsuno, Gen Sobue, Jean-Pierre Julien
Cytoplasmic TDP-43 aggregation is a pathological hallmark of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Here we investigated the role of exosomes in the secretion and propagation of TDP-43 aggregates. TDP-43 was detected in secreted exosomes from Neuro2a cells and primary neurons but not from astrocytes or microglia. Evidence is presented that protein aggregation and autophagy inhibition are factors that promote exosomal secretion of TDP-43. We also report that levels of exosomal TDP-43 full length and C-terminal fragment species are upregulated in human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis brains...
December 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Simon R Lea, Hannah J Metcalfe, Jonathan Plumb, Christian Beerli, Chris Poll, Dave Singh, Katharine H Abbott-Banner
BACKGROUND: Increased pulmonary ceramide levels are suggested to play a causative role in lung diseases including COPD. Neutral sphingomyelinase-2 (nSMase-2) and acid SMase (aSMase), which hydrolyze sphingomyelin to produce ceramide, are activated by a range of cellular stresses, including inflammatory cytokines and pathogens, but notably cigarette smoke appears to only activate nSMase-2. Our primary objective was to investigate nSMase-2 and aSMase protein localization and quantification in lung tissue from nonsmokers (NS), smokers (S), and COPD patients...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Antje Scholl, Igor Ivanov, Burkhard Hinz
The role of cannabinoids in thrombosis remains controversial. In view of the primary importance of tissue factor (TF) in blood coagulation and its involvement in the pathology of several cardiovascular, inflammatory and neoplastic diseases, a regulation of this initial procoagulant signal seems to be of particular interest. Using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) the present study investigated the impact of the synthetic cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 on interleukin (IL)-1β-induced TF expression and activity...
September 20, 2016: Oncotarget
Michael B Dinkins, John Enasko, Caterina Hernandez, Guanghu Wang, Jina Kong, Inas Helwa, Yutao Liu, Alvin V Terry, Erhard Bieberich
UNLABELLED: Recent evidence implicates exosomes in the aggregation of Aβ and spreading of tau in Alzheimer's disease. In neural cells, exosome formation can be blocked by inhibition or silencing of neutral sphingomyelinase-2 (nSMase2). We generated genetically nSMase2-deficient 5XFAD mice (fro;5XFAD) to assess AD-related pathology in a mouse model with consistently reduced ceramide generation. We conducted in vitro assays to assess Aβ42 aggregation and glial clearance with and without exosomes isolated by ultracentrifugation and determined exosome-induced amyloid aggregation by particle counting...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Justyna Sosna, Stephan Philipp, Johaiber Fuchslocher Chico, Carina Saggau, Jürgen Fritsch, Alexandra Föll, Johannes Plenge, Christoph Arenz, Thomas Pinkert, Holger Kalthoff, Anna Trauzold, Ingo Schmitz, Stefan Schütze, Dieter Adam
Recently, a type of regulated necrosis (RN) called necroptosis was identified to be involved in many pathophysiological processes and emerged as an alternative method to eliminate cancer cells. However, only a few studies have elucidated components of TRAIL-mediated necroptosis useful for anticancer therapy. Therefore, we have compared this type of cell death to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-mediated necroptosis and found similar signaling through acid and neutral sphingomyelinases, the mitochondrial serine protease HtrA2/Omi, Atg5, and vacuolar H(+)-ATPase...
October 15, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biology
N I Hanafi, A S Mohamed, J Md Noor, N Abdu, Hamid Hasani, R Siran, N J Osman, S Ab Rahim, S H Sheikh Abdul Kadir
Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is used to treat liver diseases and demonstrates cardioprotective effects. Accumulation of the plasma membrane sphingolipid sphingomyelin in the heart can lead to atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease. Sphingomyelinases (SMases) break down sphingomyelin, producing ceramide, and inhibition of SMases activity can promote cell survival. We hypothesized that UDCA regulates activation of ERK and Akt survival signaling pathways and SMases in protecting cardiac cells against hypoxia...
June 17, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Yingping Xu, Yi Liu, Chunqing Yang, Li Kang, Meixiang Wang, Jingxia Hu, Hao He, Wengang Song, Hua Tang
Defects in rapid clearance of apoptotic cells lead to an accumulation of dead cells (late apoptotic or secondary necrotic cells), which results in an aberrant immune response. However, little is known about whether and how macrophages (Mφs) cooperate with dendritic cells (DCs) in the presentation of dead-cell-associated antigens in this process. By transferring high numbers of dead cells to mimic a failure of apoptotic cell clearance in vivo, we found that Mφs and neutrophils were the predominant phagocytes in the uptake of dead cells in the spleen...
October 2016: Immunology
Hiroshi Watanabe, Kyohei Okahara, Yuko Naito-Matsui, Mitsuhiro Abe, Shinji Go, Jinichi Inokuchi, Toshiro Okazaki, Toshihide Kobayashi, Yasunori Kozutsumi, Shogo Oka, Hiromu Takematsu
Endomitosis is a special type of mitosis in which only cytokinesis-the final step of the cell division cycle-is defective, resulting in polyploid cells. Although endomitosis is biologically important, its regulatory aspects remain elusive. Psychosine, a lysogalactosylceramide, prevents proper cytokinesis when supplemented to proliferating cells. Cytokinetic inhibition by psychosine does not inhibit genome duplication. Consequently cells undergo multiple rounds of endomitotic cell cycles, resulting in the formation of giant multiploid cells...
July 1, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Betul Unal, Filiz Ozcan, Hazal Tuzcu, Ebru Kırac, Gulsum O Elpek, Mutay Aslan
Oxidative stress and excessive nitric oxide production via induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-2 have been shown in the pathogenesis of liver ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Neutral sphingomyelinase (N-SMase)/ceramide pathway can regulate NOS2 expression therefore this study determined the role of selective N-SMase inhibition on nitrative and oxidative stress markers following liver IR injury. Selective N-SMase inhibitor was administered via intraperitoneal injections. Liver IR injury was created by clamping blood vessels supplying the median and left lateral hepatic lobes for 60 min, followed by 60 min reperfusion...
March 24, 2016: Redox Report: Communications in Free Radical Research
Juan Liao, Ran Liu, Ya-Juan Shi, Li-Hong Yin, Yue-Pu Pu
Recent evidence indicates that exosomes can mediate certain microRNAs (miRNAs) involved in a series of biological functions in tumor occurrence and development. Our previous studies showed that microRNA-21 (miR-21) was abundant in both esophageal cancer cells and their corresponding exosomes. The present study explored the function of exosome-shuttling miR-21 involved in esophageal cancer progression. We found that exosomes could be internalized from the extracellular space to the cytoplasm. The exosome-derived Cy3-labeled miR-21 mimics could be transported into recipient cells in a neutral sphingomyelinase 2 (nSMase2)-dependent manner...
June 2016: International Journal of Oncology
Christopher J Clarke, Achraf A Shamseddine, Joseph J Jacob, Gabrielle Khalife, Tara A Burns, Yusuf A Hannun
Neutral sphingomyelinase-2 (nSMase2) is a key ceramide-producing enzyme in cellular stress responses. While many posttranslational regulators of nSMase2 are known, emerging evidence suggests a more protracted regulation of nSMase2 at the transcriptional level. Previously, we reported that nSMase2 is induced by all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) in MCF7 cells and implicated nSMase2 in ATRA-induced growth arrest. Here, we further investigated how ATRA regulates nSMase2. We find that ATRA regulates nSMase2 transcriptionally through the retinoic acid receptor-α, but this is independent of previously identified transcriptional regulators of nSMase2 (Sp1, Sp3, Runx2) and is not through increased promoter activity...
May 2016: Journal of Lipid Research
Caroline Camaré, Nathalie Augé, Mélanie Pucelle, Bertrand Saint-Lebes, Marie-Hélène Grazide, Anne Nègre-Salvayre, Robert Salvayre
Capillaries of the external part of the normal arterial wall constitute the vasa vasorum network. In atherosclerotic lesions, neovascularization occurs in areas of intimal hyperplasia where it may promote plaque expansion, and intraplaque hemorrhage. Oxidized LDL that are present in atherosclerotic areas activate various angiogenic signaling pathways, including reactive oxygen species and the sphingosine kinase/sphingosine-1-phosphate pathway. We aimed to investigate whether oxidized LDL-induced angiogenesis requires neutral sphingomyelinase-2 activation and the neutral sphingomyelinase-2/sphingosine kinase-1 pathway...
April 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Biswarup Ghosh, Matthew V Green, Kelly A Krogh, Stanley A Thayer
The plasma membrane Ca(2+) ATPase (PMCA) plays a major role in clearing Ca(2+) from the neuronal cytoplasm. The cytoplasmic Ca(2+) clearance rate affects neuronal excitability, synaptic plasticity, and neurotransmission. Here, we examined the modulation of PMCA activity by PTKs in hippocampal neurons. PMCA-mediated Ca(2+) clearance slowed in the presence of pyrazolopyrimidine 2, an inhibitor of Src family kinases (SFKs), and accelerated in the presence of C2-ceramide, an activator of PTKs. Ca(2+) clearance kinetics were attenuated in cells expressing a dominant-negative Src mutant, suggesting that the pump is tonically stimulated by a PTK...
April 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
A A Shamseddine, C J Clarke, B Carroll, M V Airola, S Mohammed, A Rella, L M Obeid, Y A Hannun
Neutral sphingomyelinase-2 (nSMase2) is a ceramide-generating enzyme that has been implicated in growth arrest, apoptosis and exosome secretion. Although previous studies have reported transcriptional upregulation of nSMase2 in response to daunorubicin, through Sp1 and Sp3 transcription factors, the role of the DNA damage pathway in regulating nSMase2 remains unclear. In this study, we show that doxorubicin induces a dose-dependent induction of nSMase2 mRNA and protein with concomitant increases in nSMase activity and ceramide levels...
October 29, 2015: Cell Death & Disease
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