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Huawang Wu, Hui Sun, Chao Wang, Lin Yu, Yilan Li, Hongjun Peng, Xiaobing Lu, Qingmao Hu, Yuping Ning, Tianzi Jiang, Jinping Xu, Jiaojian Wang
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common psychiatric disorder that is characterized by cognitive deficits and affective symptoms. To date, an increasing number of neuroimaging studies have focused on emotion regulation and have consistently shown that emotion dysregulation is one of the central features and underlying mechanisms of MDD. Although gray matter morphological abnormalities in regions within emotion regulation networks have been identified in MDD, the interactions and relationships between these gray matter structures remain largely unknown...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Antti Kujansuu, Simo Rautiainen, Helinä Hakko, Juha Kanamüller, Niina Sihvola, Pirkko Riipinen
Relatively little is known about fatal motor vehicle accidents (FMVA) involving drivers with psychiatric disorders. In this study of all drivers killed in FMVAs in Finland between 1990 and 2011, we aimed to study drivers' death rate trends in FMVAs, with special focus on drivers with a history of psychiatric disorders. Prevalence of drivers' hospital treated psychiatric disorders, and characteristics of drivers with psychiatric disorders were also studied. For the purpose of this study, three national registers were accessed...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Michael W Best, Christopher R Bowie, Melanie R Naiberg, Dwight F Newton, Benjamin I Goldstein
BACKGROUND: Adults with bipolar disorder demonstrate significantly poorer psychosocial functioning and neurocognition compared to controls. In adult bipolar disorder neurocognition predicts a substantial portion of variance in functioning. Adolescents with bipolar disorder have reducedpsychosocial functioning, but less is known about neurocognitive impairments, and no studies have examined the relationship between neurocognition and functioning in an adolescent sample. METHODS: 38 adolescents with bipolar disorder and 49 healthy controls under 20 years of age completed assessments of psychosocial functioning, neurocognitive ability, and psychiatric symptoms...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Xiao Wei Tang, Miao Yu, Wei Wei Duan, Xiang Rong Zhang, Wei Wei Sha, Xiang Wang, Xiao Bin Zhang
Deficit schizophrenia (DS) has been proposed as a pathophysiologically distinct schizophrenia subtype. This study investigated facial emotion recognition deficits and alexithymia in DS and non-deficit schizophrenia patients (NDS) and their relationships with other clinical variables. The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), and Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS) were employed to evaluate the psychiatric symptoms in patients with schizophrenia...
September 29, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Esra Özdil Demiryürek, Atilla Tekin, Engin Çakmak, Osman Temizkan, Oğuz Karamustafalıoğlu, Sibel Gökova, Enes Demiryürek
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between anger, impulsiveness, and biochemical parameters (testosterone, insulin, insulin resistance) in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. STUDY DESIGN: We recruited 84 women diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome according to the Rotterdam diagnostic criteria. Psychiatric interviews were performed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders. The Barratt Impulsiveness Scale and the State Trait Anger Expression Inventory were also administered to each participant...
October 6, 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Emel Sari Gokten, Nagihan Saday Duman, Nusret Soylu, Mehmet Erdem Uzun
It is known that children with mental and developmental problems are at risk of abuse and neglect. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is one of the most frequent neurodevelopmental disorders in children and adolescents. The purpose of this study is to examine whether children diagnosed with ADHD are under more risk in terms of child abuse and neglect compared to controls. In this case-control study, 104 children, who applied to Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Unit of Bursa Yuksek Ihtisas Training and Research Hospital between January and June 2015, were diagnosed with ADHD, and had no other psychiatric comorbidity except for disruptive behavior disorders, and 104 healthy children were compared...
October 19, 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
Carol Chu, Melanie A Hom, Megan L Rogers, Ian H Stanley, Fallon B Ringer-Moberg, Matthew C Podlogar, Jameson K Hirsch, Thomas E Joiner
BACKGROUND: Insomnia is a robust correlate of suicidal ideation and behavior. Preliminary research has identified thwarted belongingness (c.f. social disconnection) as an explanatory link between insomnia and suicidal ideation. OBJECTIVES: This study replicates and extends previous findings using both cross-sectional and longitudinal designs in four demographically diverse samples. Additionally, the specificity of thwarted belongingness was evaluated by testing anxiety as a rival mediator...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Hilde de Kluiver, Jacobine E Buizer-Voskamp, Conor V Dolan, Dorret I Boomsma
We review the hypotheses concerning the association between the paternal age at childbearing and childhood psychiatric disorders (autism spectrum- and attention deficit/hyperactive disorder) and adult disorders (schizophrenia, bipolar-, obsessive-compulsive-, and major depressive disorder) based on epidemiological studies. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the paternal age effect. We discuss the four main-not mutually exclusive-hypotheses. These are the de novo mutation hypothesis, the hypothesis concerning epigenetic alterations, the selection into late fatherhood hypothesis, and the environmental resource hypothesis...
October 22, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
Thomas Vanicek, Alexandra Kutzelnigg, Cecile Philippe, Helen L Sigurdardottir, Gregory M James, Andreas Hahn, Georg S Kranz, Anna Höflich, Alexander Kautzky, Tatjana Traub-Weidinger, Marcus Hacker, Wolfgang Wadsak, Markus Mitterhauser, Siegfried Kasper, Rupert Lanzenberger
Altered serotonergic neurotransmission has been found to cause impulsive and aggressive behavior, as well as increased motor activity, all exemplifying key symptoms of ADHD. The main objectives of this positron emission tomography (PET) study were to investigate the serotonin transporter binding potential (SERT BPND ) in patients with ADHD and to assess associations of SERT BPND between the brain regions. 25 medication-free patients with ADHD (age ± SD; 32.39 ± 10.15;10 females) without any psychiatric comorbidity and 25 age and sex matched healthy control subjects (33...
October 22, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Rodrigo Antonio Rocha da Cruz Adry, Lucas Crociati Meguins, Sebastião Carlos da Silva Júnior, Carlos Umberto Pereira, Gerardo Maria de Araújo Filho, Lúcia Helena Neves Marques
BACKGROUND: Mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) is the most common disease found in an epilepsy surgery series. Early age of onset, a history of febrile convulsions, epileptiform discharges on EEG, duration of epilepsy, number of generalized seizures and severity of psychiatric disorders are possible prognostic factors in patients with MTS. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to review the clinical, semiotic, psychological, electrophysiological and neuroradiological researches and relate their findings to the prognosis of patients with MTS who underwent anteromedial temporal lobectomy (ATL)...
October 21, 2016: Acta Neurochirurgica
Vicky Long
This article examines Scottish provision of psychiatric care in the 1960s and 1970s. It demonstrates that institutional services did not rapidly disappear across the UK following the Ministry of Health's decision to shut down psychiatric hospitals in 1961, and highlights Scotland's distinctive trajectory. Furthermore, it contends that psychiatric hospitals developed new approaches to assist patients in this era, thereby contributing towards the transformation of post-war psychiatric practice. Connecting a discussion of policy with an analysis of provision, it examines the Department of Health for Scotland's cautious response to the Ministry's embrace of deinstitutionalization, before analysing Glasgow's psychiatric provision in the 1970s...
October 21, 2016: History of Psychiatry
Yuzuki Kanda, Miho Okada, Rina Ikarashi, Eri Morioka, Takashi Kondo, Masayuki Ikeda
Clozapine (Clz) and olanzapine (Olz) are second generation (atypical) antipsychotics, used widely for treating schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. These drugs share multiple sites of actions, however their mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Here, we analyzed the effects of these drugs on primary cultures of rat cortical astrocytes and C6 glioma cells using fura-2-based Ca(2+) imaging. C6 cells, but not cortical astrocytes, express the serotonin 2A receptor subtype, which couples to phospholipase C. Clz (1μM) significantly blocked serotonin-induced Ca(2+) transients in C6 cells, consistent with known antagonistic actions of Clz...
October 18, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Andrea Locci, Patrizia Porcu, Giuseppe Talani, Francesca Santoru, Roberta Berretti, Elisa Giunti, Valentina Licheri, Enrico Sanna, Alessandra Concas
Exposure of female rats to estradiol during the perinatal period has profound effects on GABAergic neurotransmission that are crucial to establish sexually dimorphic brain characteristics. We previously showed that neonatal β-estradiol 3-benzoate (EB) treatment decreases brain concentrations of the neurosteroid allopregnanolone, a potent positive modulator of extrasynaptic GABAA receptors (GABAAR). We thus evaluated whether neonatal EB treatment affects GABAAR expression and function in the hippocampus of adult female rats...
October 18, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
Ljiljana Zmak, Mihaela Obrovac, Zvjezdana Lovric, Mateja Jankovic Makek, Vera Katalinic Jankovic
As tuberculosis incidence decreases, the possibility of overlooking the disease increases, especially in vulnerable populations. We describe here a major tuberculosis outbreak among mentally ill patients in Croatia, focusing on 1 regional hospital where most patients were hospitalized. The outbreak emphasizes the vulnerability of mentally ill patients to tuberculosis infection and the complexity of infection control measures in psychiatric institutions. The awareness of tuberculosis in these settings should be maintained to interrupt prolonged exposure and avoid unnecessary infection...
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
Ethan A Winkler, John K Yue, Adam R Ferguson, Nancy R Temkin, Murray B Stein, Jason Barber, Esther L Yuh, Sourabh Sharma, Gabriela G Satris, Thomas W McAllister, Jonathan Rosand, Marco D Sorani, Hester F Lingsma, Phiroz E Tarapore, Esteban G Burchard, Donglei Hu, Celeste Eng, Kevin K W Wang, Pratik Mukherjee, David O Okonkwo, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Geoffrey T Manley
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) results in variable clinical trajectories and outcomes. The source of variability remains unclear, but may involve genetic variations, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). A SNP in catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT) is suggested to influence development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but its role in TBI remains unclear. Here, we utilize the Transforming Research and Clinical Knowledge in Traumatic Brain Injury Pilot (TRACK-TBI Pilot) study to investigate whether the COMT Val(158)Met polymorphism is associated with PTSD and global functional outcome as measured by the PTSD Checklist - Civilian Version and Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE), respectively...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Karen H Wang, Joseph L Goulet, Constance M Carroll, Melissa Skanderson, Samah Fodeh, Joseph Erdos, Julie A Womack, Erica A Abel, Harini Bathulapalli, Amy C Justice, Marcella Nunez-Smith, Cynthia A Brandt
BACKGROUND: Healthcare mobility, defined as healthcare utilization in more than one distinct healthcare system, may have detrimental effects on outcomes of care. We characterized healthcare mobility and associated characteristics among a national sample of Veterans. METHODS: Using the Veterans Health Administration Electronic Health Record, we conducted a retrospective cohort study to quantify healthcare mobility within a four year period. We examined the association between sociodemographic and clinical characteristics and healthcare mobility, and characterized possible temporal and geographic patterns of healthcare mobility...
October 21, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Sonja Rutten, Chris Vriend, Jan H Smit, Henk W Berendse, Adriaan W Hoogendoorn, Odile A van den Heuvel, Ysbrand D van der Werf
BACKGROUND: A disturbed circadian rhythm seems to be a causal factor in the occurrence of depressive disorders in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The circadian rhythm can be restored with light. Therefore, Bright Light Therapy (BLT) might be a new treatment option for depression in PD patients. METHODS/DESIGN: In this double-blind controlled trial, 84 subjects with idiopathic PD are randomized to either BLT or a control light condition. The BLT condition emits white light with an intensity of 10,000 Lux, while the control device emits dim white light of 200 Lux, which is presumed to be too low to influence the circadian rhythm...
October 21, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
Pearl L H Mok, Sussie Antonsen, Carsten Bøcker Pedersen, Roger T Webb
BACKGROUND: Younger or older parental age has been linked with a range of adverse offspring endpoints. We investigated associations between parental age and nine adverse offspring outcomes in three correlated domains: (i) Premature death: suicide, unnatural death, natural death; (ii) Psychiatric morbidity: any mental illness, suicide attempt, substance misuse; (iii) Criminality: violent offending, imprisonment, driving whilst intoxicated. METHODS: Persons born in Denmark 1966-1996 were followed from their 15th until 40th birthday or December 2011 (N=1,793,681)...
October 2, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Lotta Walz, Anna K Jönsson, Brita Zilg, Carl Johan Östgren, Henrik Druid
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to identify risk factors associated with confirmed fatal hyperglycaemia, which could predispose potentially preventable deaths in individuals on glucose lowering drugs. METHODS: A retrospective register-based case-control study conducted on a nationwide cohort with individuals who died due to hyperglycaemia as determined by forensic postmortem examination, in Sweden August 2006 to December 2012. Vitreous glucose was used to diagnose hyperglycaemia postmortem...
2016: PloS One
Eunjoo Kim, Amy Garrett, Spencer Boucher, Min-Hyeon Park, Meghan Howe, Erica Sanders, Ryan G Kelley, Allan L Reiss, Kiki D Chang, Manpreet K Singh
BACKGROUND: Prior studies have suggested that inhibited temperament may be associated with an increased risk for developing anxiety or mood disorder, including bipolar disorder. However, the neurobiological basis for this increased risk is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine temperament in symptomatic and asymptomatic child offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (OBD) and to investigate whether inhibited temperament is associated with aberrant hippocampal volumes compared with healthy control (HC) youth...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
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