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Yi-Feng Carol Lan, Diane C Zelman, Wen-Tao Chao
Bipolar disorder (BD) affects a significant proportion of Taiwanese individuals (Weissman et al., 1996; Yang, Yeh, & Hwu, 2012). Psychotropic medications are typically the mainstay of treatment for BD, and there is an abundance of international research on biological etiology and medication options. However, there is comparatively little research on psychosocial aspects of BD, including how it is understood and managed within families. As culture provides the context in which psychiatric disease is managed, there is a need to identify distinct Chinese psychosocial perspectives that might shed light on intervention options...
January 1, 2018: Transcultural Psychiatry
Tambri Housen, Annick Lenglet, Cono Ariti, Shabnum Ara, Showkat Shah, Maqbool Dar, Arshad Hussain, Altaf Paul, Zahoor Wagay, Kerri Viney, Simon Janes, Giovanni Pintaldi
The present study aimed to culturally adapt, translate, and validate the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL-25) and the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire-Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Checklist (HTQ-16) prior to use in a cross-sectional mental health population survey in the Kashmir Valley. Cultural adaptation and translation of the HSCL-25 and the HTQ-16 employed multiple forms of transcultural validity check. The HSCL-25 and HTQ-16 were compared against a "gold standard" structured psychiatric interview, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI)...
January 1, 2018: Transcultural Psychiatry
James E Bennett, Chris Brickell
'Medicalisation' of same sex relations is a phenomenon that reached its peak in the 1950s and 1960s. The rise of gay liberation produced a divisive political contest with the psychiatric profession and adherents of the orthodox 'medical model' in the United States and - to a lesser extent - in the United Kingdom. This socio-historical process occurred throughout the English-speaking world, but much less is known about its dynamics in smaller countries such as New Zealand where the historiography on this issue is very sparse...
April 2018: Medical History
Viktoriya L Nikolova, Keerati Pattanaseri, Diego Hidalgo-Mazzei, David Taylor, Allan H Young
BACKGROUND: Lithium is widely used for the treatment of bipolar disorder. Owing to its narrow therapeutic index and side-effect profile, regular monitoring of serum levels, renal and thyroid function has been recommended by all major guidelines on lithium use. OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether lithium monitoring during maintenance phase treatment in clinical practice meets the latest recommendation by the National Institute for Health and Clinical excellence (i...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Karla Soares-Weiser, John Rathbone, Yusuke Ogawa, Kiyomi Shinohara, Hanna Bergman
BACKGROUND: Antipsychotic (neuroleptic) medication is used extensively to treat people with chronic mental illnesses. Its use, however, is associated with adverse effects, including movement disorders such as tardive dyskinesia (TD) - a problem often seen as repetitive involuntary movements around the mouth and face. This review, one in a series examining the treatment of TD, covers miscellaneous treatments not covered elsewhere. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether drugs, hormone-, dietary-, or herb-supplements not covered in other Cochrane reviews on TD treatments, surgical interventions, electroconvulsive therapy, and mind-body therapies were effective and safe for people with antipsychotic-induced TD...
March 19, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Rose Mary Xavier, Jennifer R Dungan, Richard S E Keefe, Allison Vorderstrasse
Genetic etiology of psychopathology symptoms and cognitive performance in schizophrenia is supported by candidate gene and polygenic risk score (PRS) association studies. Such associations are reported to be dependent on several factors - sample characteristics, illness phase, illness severity etc. We aimed to examine if schizophrenia PRS predicted psychopathology symptoms and cognitive performance in patients with chronic schizophrenia. We also examined if schizophrenia associated autosomal loci were associated with specific symptoms or cognitive domains...
June 2018: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
Richard A Hansen, Natalie Hohmann, Matthew L Maciejewski, Marisa E Domino, Neepa Ray, Nirosha Mahendraratnam, Joel F Farley
Objectives: Adults with schizophrenia and cardiometabolic conditions may be good candidates for co-management by primary care prescribers and specialists. Associated risks for discontinuity in medication management have not been well-studied. This study examines whether medication adherence, inpatient admissions, and emergency department (ED) visits vary by the number and types of prescribers seen by adults with schizophrenia and cardiometabolic conditions. Methods: This study used a retrospective cohort of 4,223 adult Medicaid enrollees with schizophrenia and hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and/or diabetes from three states in 2009-2010...
March 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Health Services Research
Daniel Pensold, Geraldine Zimmer
The correct establishment of inhibitory circuits is crucial for cortical functionality and defects during the development of γ-aminobutyric acid-expressing cortical interneurons contribute to the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. A critical developmental step is the migration of cortical interneurons from their site of origin within the subpallium to the cerebral cortex, orchestrated by intrinsic and extrinsic signals. In addition to genetic networks, epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation by DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) are suggested to drive stage-specific gene expression underlying developmental processes...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Armel Rivallan
The Abri côtier-Urgence Femmes is an association in Concarneau, Brittany, which helps victims of domestic abuse, by offering them shelter and support, 24/7. A former psychiatric nurse and manager, Edith Rivet volunteers for the association, and shares with us her commitment to the cause.
March 2018: Soins. Psychiatrie
C Laurel Franklin, Amanda M Raines, Jessica L Chambliss, Jessica L Walton, Kelly P Maieritsch
BACKGROUND: The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013) includes Other- and Unspecified- Trauma and Stressor-Related Disorders to capture subthreshold Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms. However, the DSM-5 does not specify the number or type of symptoms needed to assign them. The purpose of the current study was to extend our understanding of subthreshold PTSD by comparing four commonly used definitions adapted to the DSM-5 PTSD criteria in an outpatient treatment-seeking sample...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Jonika Tannous, Henrique Amaral-Silva, Bo Cao, Mon-Ju Wu, Giovana B Zunta-Soares, Iram Kazimi, Cristian Zeni, Benson Mwangi, Jair C Soares
The hippocampus has been implicated in various mood disorders, with global volume deficits consistently found in patient populations. The hippocampus, however, consists of anatomically distinct subfields, and examination of specific subfield differences may elucidate the possible molecular mechanisms behind psychiatric pathologies. Indeed, adult studies have reported smaller hippocampal subfield volumes in regions within the cornu ammonis (CA1 and CA4), dentate gyrus (DG), and hippocampal tails in both patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and Bipolar Disorder (BD) compared to healthy controls...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Fabian Wenzel, Carsten Meyer, Thomas Stehle, Jochen Peters, Susanne Siemonsen, Christian Thaler, Lyubomir Zagorchev
This work presents a novel approach for the rapid segmentation of clinically relevant subcortical brain structures in T1-weighted MRI by utilizing a shape-constrained deformable surface model. In contrast to other approaches for segmenting brain structures, its design allows for parallel segmentation of individual brain structures within a flexible and robust hierarchical framework such that accurate adaptation and volume computation can be achieved within a minute of processing time. Furthermore, adaptation is driven by local and not global contrast, potentially relaxing requirements with respect to preprocessing steps such as bias-field correction...
March 9, 2018: Medical Image Analysis
Lars-Olov Lundqvist, Suryani, Nur Anna, Imas Rafiyah, Agneta Schröder
AIM: The aim of the present study was to adapt and evaluate the psychometric properties and factor structure of the Indonesian version of the Quality in Psychiatric Care - Inpatient (QPC-IP) instrument. METHODS: The QPC-IP is based on a definition of quality of care from the patient's perspective; it consists of 30 items covering six factors. A sample of 150 inpatients at general psychiatric wards in Indonesia completed the QPC-IP questionnaire. RESULTS: Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the factor structure of the Indonesian version was equivalent to that of the original Swedish QPC-IP, with the exception of the secluded environment factor...
March 8, 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
Tina D Kristensen, Rene C W Mandl, Jens R M Jepsen, Egill Rostrup, Louise B Glenthøj, Merete Nordentoft, Birte Y Glenthøj, Bjørn H Ebdrup
OBJECTIVE: Neuroplasticity is a well-described phenomenon, but effects of non-pharmacological interventions on white matter (WM) are unclear. Here we review associations between active non-pharmacological interventions and WM organization in healthy subjects and in psychiatric patients. METHOD: A systematic review of non-psychiatric and psychiatric studies in MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. We included longitudinal, controlled studies in human participants aged 18-60 years published in peer-reviewed journals between 2000 and 2017...
March 14, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Min Li, Jia Liu, Huan Yi, Li Xu, Xiufeng Zhong, Fuhua Peng
BACKGROUND: Wolfram syndrome (WS), caused by mutations of the Wolfram syndrome 1 (WFS1) gene on chromosome 4p16.1, is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by diabetes insipidus (DI), neuro-psychiatric disorders, hearing deficit, and urinary tract anomalies. CASE PRESENTATION: Here we report a 11-year-old Chinese boy who presented with visual loss, was suspected with optic neuritis (ON) or neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and referred to our department for further diagnosis...
March 17, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Jokthan Guivarch, Clarisse Chatel, Jeremie Mortreux, Chantal Missirian, Nicole Philip, François Poinso
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorders are serious neurodevelopmental disorders that affect approximately 1% of the population. These disorders are substantially influenced by genetics. Several recent linkage analyses have examined copy number variations associated with autism risk. Microdeletion of the 2q13 region is considered a pathogenic copy number variation. This microdeletion is involved in developmental delays, congenital heart defects, dysmorphism, and various psychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorders...
March 18, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Sanju Silwal, Ragnhild Dybdahl, Roshan Chudal, Andre Sourander, Lars Lien
BACKGROUND: In 2015, Nepal was hit by two major earthquakes, which caused 8900 deaths and displaced more than 450,000 people. We assessed the prevalence of post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and depressive symptoms and explored potential risk factors among adolescents. METHODS: This cross-sectional study comprised 893 students aged 11-17 in school grades 7-10. They lived in two districts affected by the earthquakes: Sindhupalchok and Kathmandu. Psychiatric symptoms were assessed using Child PTSD symptom scale and Depression Self-Rating Scale...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Taras R Reshetukha, Nazanin Alavi, Eric Prost, Ryan H Kirkpatrick, Saad Sajid, Charmy Patel, Dianne L Groll
OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of two interventions on suicide risk assessment within emergency departments (EDs) on improving the documentation of suicide risk factors by emergency medicine and psychiatric physicians during suicide risk assessment. METHOD: An educational intervention on suicide was provided to all emergency medicine and psychiatry physicians and was followed by the placement of a suicide risk assessment prompt within local EDs. The medical charts of all ED patients presenting with suicidal ideation or behaviours were reviewed immediately and six months after the interventions and compared to pre-intervention...
March 2, 2018: General Hospital Psychiatry
Buğra Çetin, Hüseyin Güleç, Hayal Ergin Toktaş, Özgür Ulutaş, Seda Güleç Yılmaz, Turgay İsbir
We aimed to investigate the changes in the objective and subjective sleep variables during painful episodes of fibromyalgia and post-episode period, and to evaluate the impact of the sleep variables on the current clinical, psychological, and immunologic parameters. Thirty-one consecutive patients who were referred to the Erenköy Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Polyclinic with a diagnosis of fibromyalgia were evaluated before and in the sixth week of the acute pain treatment. The sleep variables were measured by polysomnography, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and Epworth Sleepiness Scale...
March 3, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Jayashri Kulkarni, Natalie Thomas, Abdul-Rahman Hudaib, Emorfia Gavrilidis, Jasmin Grigg, Raelene Tan, Jacinta Cheng, Amelia Arnold, Caroline Gurvich
BACKGROUND: Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a complex, severe and highly stigmatised psychiatric illness. Several lines of evidence highlight the causal link between chronic stress, glucocorticoid response to stress and glutamatergic overactivity as a key event in the pathophysiology of BPD. Therefore, molecular mechanisms capable of regulating glutamate excitotoxicity represent novel and potentially promising treatment targets. Memantine-HCl is a voltage-dependent N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor 'channel blocker' that selectively blocks pathological glutamate overactivity...
March 16, 2018: CNS Drugs
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