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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909054/identification-of-a-substrate-selective-exosite-within-the-metalloproteinase-anthrax-lethal-factor
#1
Allison B Goldberg, Eunice Cho, Chad J Miller, Hua Jane Lou, Benjamin E Turk
The metalloproteinase anthrax lethal factor (LF) is secreted by Bacillus anthracis to promote disease virulence through disruption of host signaling pathways. LF is a highly specific protease, exclusively cleaving mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MKKs) and rodent NACHT leucine-rich repeat and pyrin domain containing protein 1B (NLRP1B). How LF achieves such restricted substrate specificity is not understood. Previous studies have suggested the existence of an exosite interaction between LF and MKKs that promotes cleavage efficiency and specificity...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908828/assessment-of-the-potential-for-host-targeted-iminosugars-uv-4-and-uv-5-activity-against-filovirus-infections-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#2
Kelly L Warfield, Travis K Warren, Xiangguo Qiu, Jay Wells, Chad E Mire, Joan B Geisbert, Kelly S Stuthman, Nicole L Garza, Sean A Van Tongeren, Amy C Shurtleff, Krystle N Agans, Gary Wong, Michael V Callahan, Thomas W Geisbert, Brennan Klose, Urban Ramstedt, Anthony M Treston
Iminosugars are host-directed antivirals with broad-spectrum activity. The iminosugar, N-butyl-deoxynojirimycin (NB-DNJ or Miglustat(®)), is used in humans for treatment of Gaucher's disease and has mild antiviral properties. More potent analogs of NB-DNJ have been generated and have demonstrated activity against a variety of viruses including flaviviruses, influenza, herpesviruses and filoviruses. In the current study, a panel of analogs based on NB-DNJ was analyzed for activity against Ebola (EBOV) and Marburg viruses (MARV)...
November 28, 2016: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903197/upfront-boost-gamma-knife-leading-edge-radiosurgery-to-flair-mri-defined-tumor-migration-pathways-in-174-patients-with-glioblastoma-multiforme-a-15-year-assessment-of-a-novel-therapy
#3
Christopher M Duma, Brian S Kim, Peter V Chen, Marianne E Plunkett, Ralph Mackintosh, Marlon S Mathews, Ryan M Casserly, Gustavo A Mendez, Daniel J Furman, Garrett Smith, Nathan Oh, Chad A Caraway, Ami R Sanathara, Robert O Dillman, Azzurra-Sky Riley, David Weiland, Lian Stemler, Ruslana Cannell, Daniela Alexandru Abrams, Alexa Smith, Christopher M Owen, Burton Eisenberg, Michael Brant-Zawadzki
OBJECTIVE Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is composed of cells that migrate through the brain along predictable white matter pathways. Targeting white matter pathways adjacent to, and leading away from, the original contrast-enhancing tumor site (termed leading-edge radiosurgery [LERS]) with single-fraction stereotactic radiosurgery as a boost to standard therapy could limit the spread of glioma cells and improve clinical outcomes. METHODS Between December 2000 and May 2016, after an initial diagnosis of GBM and prior to or during standard radiation therapy and carmustine or temozolomide chemotherapy, 174 patients treated with radiosurgery to the leading edge (LE) of tumor cell migration were reviewed...
December 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902461/whole-exome-sequencing-in-75-high-risk-families-with-validation-and-replication-in-independent-case-control-studies-identifies-tango2-or5h14-and-chad-as-new-prostate-cancer-susceptibility-genes
#4
Danielle M Karyadi, Milan S Geybels, Eric Karlins, Brennan Decker, Laura McIntosh, Amy Hutchinson, Suzanne Kolb, Shannon K McDonnell, Belynda Hicks, Sumit Middha, Liesel M FitzGerald, Melissa S DeRycke, Meredith Yeager, Daniel J Schaid, Stephen J Chanock, Stephen N Thibodeau, Sonja I Berndt, Janet L Stanford, Elaine A Ostrander
Prostate cancer (PCa) susceptibility is defined by a continuum from rare, high-penetrance to common, low-penetrance alleles. Research to date has concentrated on identification of variants at the ends of that continuum. Taking an alternate approach, we focused on the important but elusive class of low-frequency, moderately penetrant variants by performing disease model-based variant filtering of whole exome sequence data from 75 hereditary PCa families. Analysis of 341 candidate risk variants identified nine variants significantly associated with increased PCa risk in a population-based, case-control study of 2,495 men...
November 26, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894915/postoperative-temporal-hollowing-is-there-a-surgical-approach-that-prevents-this-complication-a-systematic-review-and-anatomic-illustration
#5
REVIEW
Elbert E Vaca, Chad A Purnell, Arun K Gosain, Mohammed S Alghoul
BACKGROUND: Temporal hollowing is a common complication following surgical dissection in the temporal region. Our objectives were to: (1) review and clarify the temporal soft tissue relationships - supplemented by cadaveric dissection - to better understand surgical approach variations and elucidate potential etiologies of postoperative hollowing; (2) identify if there is any evidence to support a surgical approach that prevents hollowing through a systematic review. METHODS: Cadaveric dissection was performed on six hemi-heads...
November 5, 2016: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894306/first-phase-i-human-clinical-trial-of-a-killed-whole-hiv-1-vaccine-demonstration-of-its-safety-and-enhancement-of-anti-hiv-antibody-responses
#6
Eunsil Choi, Chad J Michalski, Seung Ho Choo, Gyoung Nyoun Kim, Elizabeth Banasikowska, Sangkyun Lee, Kunyu Wu, Hwa-Yong An, Anthony Mills, Stefan Schneider, U Fritz Bredeek, Daniel R Coulston, Shilei Ding, Andrés Finzi, Meijuan Tian, Katja Klein, Eric J Arts, Jamie F S Mann, Yong Gao, C Yong Kang
BACKGROUND: Vaccination with inactivated (killed) whole-virus particles has been used to prevent a wide range of viral diseases. However, for an HIV vaccine this approach has been largely negated due to inherent safety concerns, despite the ability of killed whole-virus vaccines to generate a strong, predominantly antibody-mediated immune response in vivo. HIV-1 Clade B NL4-3 was genetically modified by deleting the nef and vpu genes and substituting the coding sequence for the Env signal peptide with that of honeybee melittin signal peptide to produce a less virulent and more replication efficient virus...
November 28, 2016: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884440/re-infection-with-fasciola-gigantica-6-month-post-treatment-with-triclabendazole-in-cattle-from-mobile-pastoralist-husbandry-systems-at-lake-chad
#7
Helena Greter, Annour A Batil, Idriss O Alfaroukh, Felix Grimm, Bongo N Ngandolo, Jennifer Keiser, Jürg Utzinger, Jakob Zinsstag, Jan Hattendorf
At Lake Chad in central Africa, livestock fascioliasis caused by Fasciola gigantica represents a major veterinary health problem, particularly in cattle reared in mobile pastoralist husbandry systems. We assessed re-infection after a single dose of triclabendazole with fascioliasis in cattle in a mobile pastoralist setting towards the end of the dry season. Within the cattle herds of 14 groups of mobile pastoralists, 375 cattle were randomly selected. A faecal sample was obtained from each animal to determine the prevalence of F...
October 30, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881671/sex-based-difference-in-achilles-peritendinous-levels-of-matrix-metalloproteinases-and-growth-factors-after-acute-resistance-exercise
#8
Broc D Astill, Mark S Katsma, David J Cauthon, Jason Greenlee, Mark Murphy, Donald Curtis, Chad C Carroll
Several recent investigations have demonstrated that the ability of various tendons to alter structural and functional properties in response to exercise are muted in women when compared to men. We hypothesize that this disparity between men and women may be due to a reduced tendon production of key mediators of tendon extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling in response to mechanical loading, e.g. exercise. Using microdialysis before and after an acute bout of resistance exercise, we evaluated Achilles peritendinous levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), which have both been shown to increase tendon collagen synthesis...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878510/influence-of-perioperative-complication-severity-on-1-and-2-year-outcomes-of-low-back-surgery
#9
James Grainger, Thomas Hammett, Robert Isaacs, Chad Cook
BACKGROUND: Several factors potentially influence outcomes of surgery, including perioperative complications. Complications may take many forms and the Clavien-Dindo (CD) classification is designed to categorize them by degree of severity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of perioperative complications by severity categorization on the 1-and 2-year pain and disability outcomes for patients who received low back surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data used for the study involved a purposive sample (N = 477; 8...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology: Official Journal of the Italian Society of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866157/loss-of-free-fatty-acid-receptor-2-enhances-colonic-adenoma-development-and-reduces-the-chemopreventive-effects-of-black-raspberries-in-apcmin-mice
#10
Pan Pan, Chad W Skaer, Hsin-Tzu Wang, Kiyoko Oshima, Yi-Wen Huang, Jianhua Yu, Jianying Zhang, Martha Yearsley, Kimberle Agle, William Drobyski, Xiao Chen, Li-Shu Wang
We previously showed that black raspberries (BRBs) have beneficial effects in human colorectal cancer and a mouse model of colorectal cancer (Apc(Min/+)). The current study investigated the role of free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFAR2) in colon carcinogenesis and whether the FFAR2 signaling pathway contributes to BRB-mediated chemoprevention in mice. FFAR2 (also named GPR43) is a member of the G-protein-coupled receptor family that is expressed in leukocytes and colon. Apc(Min/+) and Apc(Min/+)-FFAR2(-/-) mice were given a control diet or the control diet supplemented with 5% BRBs for 8 weeks...
November 19, 2016: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864921/what-is-the-role-of-retroperitoneal-exploration-in-optimally-debulked-stage-iiic-epithelial-ovarian-cancer-an-nrg-oncology-gynecologic-oncology-group-ancillary-data-study
#11
Bunja J Rungruang, Austin Miller, Thomas C Krivak, Neil S Horowitz, Noah Rodriguez, Chad A Hamilton, Floor J Backes, Linda F Carson, Michael Friedlander, David G Mutch, Michael J Goodheart, Krishnansu S Tewari, Robert M Wenham, Michael A Bookman, G Larry Maxwell, Scott D Richard
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of retroperitoneal (RP) exploration on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients with stage IIIC disease who underwent optimal debulking surgery. METHODS: Data were collected from records of the Gynecologic Oncology Group 182 (GOG-182) study of stage IIIC EOC patients cytoreduced to no gross residual disease (R0) or minimal gross residual (<1 cm) disease (MGRD) at primary surgery...
November 16, 2016: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860218/treatment-effectiveness-and-fidelity-of-manual-therapy-to-the-knee-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
Paul Salamh, Chad Cook, Michael P Reiman, Charles Sheets
Manual therapy (MT) is a commonly used treatment for knee osteoarthritis (OA) but to date only one systematic review has explored its effectiveness. The purpos e of the present study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature, to determine the effectiveness and fidelity of studies using MT techniques in individuals with knee OA. Relevant studies were assessed for inclusion. Effectiveness was measured using effect sizes, and methodological bias and treatment fidelity were both explored...
November 18, 2016: Musculoskeletal Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856725/the-bad-is-black-effect-why-people-believe-evildoers-have-darker-skin-than-do-gooders
#13
Adam L Alter, Chadly Stern, Yael Granot, Emily Balcetis
Across six studies, people used a "bad is black" heuristic in social judgment and assumed that immoral acts were committed by people with darker skin tones, regardless of the racial background of those immoral actors. In archival studies of news articles written about Black and White celebrities in popular culture magazines (Study 1a) and American politicians (Study 1b), the more critical rather than complimentary the stories, the darker the skin tone of the photographs printed with the article. In the remaining four studies, participants associated immoral acts with darker skinned people when examining surveillance footage (Studies 2 and 4), and when matching headshots to good and bad actions (Studies 3 and 5)...
December 2016: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855873/household-transmission-of-neisseria-meningitidis-in-the-african-meningitis-belt-a-longitudinal-cohort-study
#14
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Information on transmission of meningococcal infection in the African meningitis belt is scarce. We aimed to describe transmission patterns of Neisseria meningitidis (meningococcus) in households in the African meningitis belt. METHODS: Cross-sectional carriage surveys were done in seven African meningitis belt countries (Chad, Ethiopia, Ghana, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, and Senegal) between Aug 1, 2010, and Oct 15, 2012. Meningococcal carriers identified in these surveys and all available people in their households were recruited into this longitudinal cohort study...
December 2016: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852920/thrombin-induced-inflammation-in-human-decidual-cells-is-not-affected-by-heparin
#15
Michael P Smrtka, Liping Feng, Amy P Murtha, Chad A Grotegut
OBJECTIVE: Thrombin (Thr) generation at the uteroplacental interface induces inflammation and weakens fetal membranes. Tissue factor (TF) is a powerful procoagulant that is increased by Thr in decidual cells (DCs). The TF expression may play an important role in modulating Thr-induced inflammation. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of heparin, including nonanticoagulant (desulfated) heparins, on basal and Thr-induced expression of TF and inflammatory cytokines in DCs...
November 16, 2016: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852698/modifying-the-clinical-research-infrastructure-at-a-dedicated-clinical-trials-unit-assessment-of-trial-development-activation-and-participant-accrual
#16
Chad Tang, Kenneth R Hess, Dwana Sanders, Suzanne E Davis, Aman U Buzdar, Razelle Kurzrock, J Jack Lee, Funda Meric-Bernstam, David S Hong
PURPOSE: Information on processes for trials assessing investigational therapeutics is sparse. We assessed the trial development processes within the Department of Investigational Cancer Therapeutics (ICT) at MD Anderson Cancer Center and analyzed their effects on the trial activation timeline and enrollment. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Data were from a prospectively maintained registry that tracks all clinical studies at MD Anderson. From this database we identified 2,261 activated phase I-III trials; 221 were done at the ICT...
November 16, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852036/interim-analysis-of-a-phase-i-iia-trial-assessing-e39-gm-csf-a-folate-binding-protein-vaccine-to-prevent-recurrence-in-ovarian-and-endometrial-cancer-patients
#17
Doreen O Jackson, Kevin Byrd, Timothy J Vreeland, Diane F Hale, Garth S Herbert, Julia M Greene, Erika J Schneble, John S Berry, Alfred F Trappey, G T Clifton, Mark O Hardin, Jonathan Martin, John C Elkas, Thomas P Conrads, Kathleen M Darcy, Chad A Hamilton, George L Maxwell, George E Peoples
BACKGROUND: Folate binding protein(FBP) is an immunogenic protein over-expressed in endometrial(EC) and ovarian cancer(OC). We are conducting a phase I/IIa trial of E39 (GALE 301)+GM-CSF, an HLA-A2-restricted, FBP-derived peptide vaccine to prevent recurrences in disease-free EC and OC patients. This interim analysis summarizes toxicity, immunologic responses, and clinical outcomes to date. METHODS: HLA-A2+ patients were vaccinated(VG), and HLA-A2- or -A2+ patients were followed as controls(CG)...
November 11, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852011/a-new-chicken-genome-assembly-provides-insight-into-avian-genome-structure
#18
Wesley C Warren, LaDeana W Hillier, Chad Tomlinson, Patrick Minx, Milinn Kremitzki, Tina Graves, Chris Markovic, Nathan Bouk, Kim D Pruitt, Francoise Thibaud-Nissen, Valerie Schneider, Tamer A Mansour, C Titus Brown, Aleksey Zimin, Rachel Hawken, Mitch Abrahamsen, Alexis B Pyrkosz, Mireille Morisson, Valerie Fillon, Alain Vignal, William Chow, Kerstin Howe, Janet E Fulton, Marcia M Miller, Peter Lovell, Claudio V Mello, Morgan Wirthlin, Andrew S Mason, Richard Kuo, David W Burt, Jerry B Dodgson, Hans H Cheng
The importance of the Gallus gallus (chicken) as a model organism and agricultural animal merits a continuation of sequence assembly improvement efforts. We present a new version of the chicken genome assembly (Gallus_gallus-5.0; GCA_000002315.3) built from combined long single molecule sequencing technology, finished BACs, and improved physical maps. In overall assembled bases, we see a gain of 183 Mb including 16.4 Mb in placed chromosomes with a corresponding gain in the percentage of intact repeat elements characterized...
November 14, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847253/necessity-of-hospitalization-and-stress-testing-in-low-risk-chest-pain-patients
#19
Neil Beri, Nicholas A Marston, Lori B Daniels, Richard M Nowak, Donald Schreiber, Christian Mueller, Allan Jaffe, Deborah B Diercks, Nicholas Wettersten, Christopher DeFilippi, W Frank Peacock, Alexander T Limkakeng, Inder Anand, James McCord, Judd E Hollander, Alan H B Wu, Fred S Apple, John T Nagurney, Cecilia Berardi, Chad M Cannon, Paul Clopton, Sean-Xavier Neath, Robert H Christenson, Christopher Hogan, Gary Vilke, Alan Maisel
BACKGROUND: Copeptin is a marker of endogenous stress including early myocardial infarction(MI) and has value in early rule out of MI when used with cardiac troponin I(cTnI). OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to demonstrate that patients with a normal electrocardiogram and cTnI<0.040μg/l and copeptin<14pmol/l at presentation and after 2 h may be candidates for early discharge with outpatient follow-up potentially including stress testing. METHODS: This study uses data from the CHOPIN trial which enrolled 2071 patients with acute chest pain...
October 29, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835717/high-rates-of-psychiatric-comorbidity-in-narcolepsy-findings-from-the-burden-of-narcolepsy-disease-bond-study-of-9-312-patients-in-the-united-states
#20
Chad M Ruoff, Nancy L Reaven, Susan E Funk, Karen J McGaughey, Maurice M Ohayon, Christian Guilleminault, Jed Black
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate psychiatric comorbidity patterns in patients with a narcolepsy diagnosis in the United States. METHODS: Truven Health Analytics MarketScan Research Databases were accessed to identify individuals ≥ 18 years of age with ≥ 1 ICD-9 diagnosis code(s) for narcolepsy continuously insured between 2006 and 2010 and non-narcolepsy controls matched 5:1 (age, gender, region, payer). Extensive subanalyses were conducted to confirm the validity of narcolepsy definitions...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
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