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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909499/immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-and-radiosurgery-for-newly-diagnosed-melanoma-brain-metastases
#1
Tyler P Robin, Robert E Breeze, Derek E Smith, Chad G Rusthoven, Karl D Lewis, Rene Gonzalez, Amanda Brill, Robin Saiki, Kelly Stuhr, Laurie E Gaspar, Sana D Karam, David Raben, Brian D Kavanagh, Sameer K Nath, Arthur K Liu
INTRODUCTION: Brain metastases are common in metastatic melanoma and radiosurgery is often utilized for local control. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs) play a central role in contemporary melanoma management; however, there is limited data exploring outcomes and potential toxicities for patients treated with CPIs and radiosurgery. METHODS: We retrospectively identified all consecutive cases of newly diagnosed melanoma brain metastases (MBM) treated with Gamma Knife radiosurgery at a single institution between 2012 and 2017, and included only patients that initiated CPIs within 8 weeks before or after radiosurgery...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907867/the-common-%C3%AE-chain-cytokine-il-7-promotes-immunopathogenesis-during-fungal-asthma
#2
Kristen M Reeder, Chad W Dunaway, Jonathan P Blackburn, Zhihong Yu, Sadis Matalon, Annette T Hastie, Elizabeth J Ampleford, Deborah A Meyers, Chad Steele
Asthmatics sensitized to fungi are reported to have more severe asthma, yet the immunopathogenic pathways contributing to this severity have not been identified. In a pilot assessment of human asthmatics, those subjects sensitized to fungi demonstrated elevated levels of the common γ-chain cytokine IL-7 in lung lavage fluid, which negatively correlated with the lung function measurement PC20. Subsequently, we show that IL-7 administration during experimental fungal asthma worsened lung function and increased the levels of type 2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13), proallergic chemokines (CCL17, CCL22) and proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1α, IL-1β)...
June 15, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907612/predicting-human-genes-susceptible-to-genomic-instability-associated-with-alu-alu-mediated-rearrangements
#3
Xiaofei Song, Christine R Beck, Renqian Du, Ian M Campbell, Zeynep Coban-Akdemir, Shen Gu, Amy M Breman, Pawel Stankiewicz, Grzegorz Ira, Chad A Shaw, James R Lupski
Alu elements, the short interspersed element numbering >1 million copies per human genome, can mediate the formation of copy number variants (CNVs) between substrate pairs. These Alu/Alu-mediated rearrangements (AAMR) can result in pathogenic variants that cause diseases. To investigate the impact of AAMR on gene variation and human health, we first characterized Alus that are involved in mediating CNVs (CNV-Alus) and observed that these Alus tend to be evolutionarily younger. We then computationally generated, with the assistance of a supercomputer, a test dataset consisting of 78 million Alu pairs and predicted ~18% of them are potentially susceptible to AAMR...
June 15, 2018: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907518/ulnar-collateral-ligament-reconstruction-in-athletes-using-a-cortical-button-suspension-technique
#4
Chad Myeroff, J Logan Brock, G Russell Huffman
BACKGROUND: A variety of techniques currently exist for ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) reconstruction in symptomatic overhead athletes, all with the potential complication of fracture about the humeral or ulnar tunnels. Far cortical button fixation is a reproducible, biomechanically attractive option; however, no clinical series has been published on this technique to date. This study reports the clinical outcomes, with minimum 2-year follow-up, of a dual far cortical button suspension technique for UCL reconstruction in athletes...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903344/anticoagulation-and-antiplatelet-strategies-after-on-x-mechanical-aortic-valve-replacement
#5
John D Puskas, Marc Gerdisch, Dennis Nichols, Lilibeth Fermin, Birger Rhenman, Divya Kapoor, Jack Copeland, Reed Quinn, G Chad Hughes, Hormoz Azar, Michael McGrath, Michael Wait, Bobby Kong, Tomas Martin, E Charles Douville, Steven Meyer, Jian Ye, W R Eric Jamieson, Lance Landvater, Robert Hagberg, Timothy Trotter, John Armitage, Jeffrey Askew, Kevin Accola, Paul Levy, David Duncan, Bobby Yanagawa, John Ely, Allen Graeve
BACKGROUND: The burden oral anticoagulation is a limitation of mechanical valve prostheses. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to test whether patients could be safely managed with dual-antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) (aspirin 325 mg and clopidogrel 75 mg) or lower warfarin after On-X mechanical aortic valve replacement (mAVR). METHODS: PROACT (Prospective Randomized On-X Anticoagulation Trial) (n = 576) is a multicenter (41 sites) noninferiority trial...
June 19, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899519/genetic-inactivation-of-angptl4-improves-glucose-homeostasis-and-is-associated-with-reduced-risk-of-diabetes
#6
Viktoria Gusarova, Colm O'Dushlaine, Tanya M Teslovich, Peter N Benotti, Tooraj Mirshahi, Omri Gottesman, Cristopher V Van Hout, Michael F Murray, Anubha Mahajan, Jonas B Nielsen, Lars Fritsche, Anders Berg Wulff, Daniel F Gudbjartsson, Marketa Sjögren, Connor A Emdin, Robert A Scott, Wen-Jane Lee, Aeron Small, Lydia C Kwee, Om Prakash Dwivedi, Rashmi B Prasad, Shannon Bruse, Alexander E Lopez, John Penn, Anthony Marcketta, Joseph B Leader, Christopher D Still, H Lester Kirchner, Uyenlinh L Mirshahi, Amr H Wardeh, Cassandra M Hartle, Lukas Habegger, Samantha N Fetterolf, Teresa Tusie-Luna, Andrew P Morris, Hilma Holm, Valgerdur Steinthorsdottir, Patrick Sulem, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Jerome I Rotter, Lee-Ming Chuang, Scott Damrauer, David Birtwell, Chad M Brummett, Amit V Khera, Pradeep Natarajan, Marju Orho-Melander, Jason Flannick, Luca A Lotta, Cristen J Willer, Oddgeir L Holmen, Marylyn D Ritchie, David H Ledbetter, Andrew J Murphy, Ingrid B Borecki, Jeffrey G Reid, John D Overton, Ola Hansson, Leif Groop, Svati H Shah, William E Kraus, Daniel J Rader, Yii-Der I Chen, Kristian Hveem, Nicholas J Wareham, Sekar Kathiresan, Olle Melander, Kari Stefansson, Børge G Nordestgaard, Anne Tybjærg-Hansen, Goncalo R Abecasis, David Altshuler, Jose C Florez, Michael Boehnke, Mark I McCarthy, George D Yancopoulos, David J Carey, Alan R Shuldiner, Aris Baras, Frederick E Dewey, Jesper Gromada
Angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) is an endogenous inhibitor of lipoprotein lipase that modulates lipid levels, coronary atherosclerosis risk, and nutrient partitioning. We hypothesize that loss of ANGPTL4 function might improve glucose homeostasis and decrease risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). We investigate protein-altering variants in ANGPTL4 among 58,124 participants in the DiscovEHR human genetics study, with follow-up studies in 82,766 T2D cases and 498,761 controls. Carriers of p.E40K, a variant that abolishes ANGPTL4 ability to inhibit lipoprotein lipase, have lower odds of T2D (odds ratio 0...
June 13, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897957/preclinical-characterization-of-the-jak-stat-inhibitor-sgi-1252-on-skeletal-muscle-function-morphology-and-satellite-cell-content
#7
Jacob R Sorensen, Jordan D Fuqua, Michael R Deyhle, Jacob Parmley, Caitlin Skousen, Chad Hancock, Allen C Parcell, Robert D Hyldahl
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have highlighted the JAK/STAT signaling pathway in the regulation of muscle satellite cell behavior. Herein we report preclinical studies designed to characterize the effects of a novel JAK/STAT inhibitor on plantar flexor skeletal muscle function, morphology, and satellite cell content. METHODS: The compound, SGI-1252, was administered orally (400mg/kg) in a 10% dextrose solution to wild type mice (n = 6) 3 times per week for 8 weeks...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897241/global-and-local-sources-of-mercury-deposition-in-coastal-new-england-reconstructed-from-a-multi-proxy-high-resolution-estuarine-sediment-record
#8
William F Fitzgerald, Daniel R Engstrom, Chad R Hammerschmidt, Carl H Lamborg, Prentiss H Balcom, Ana L Lima-Braun, Michael H Bothner, Christopher M Reddy
Historical reconstruction of mercury (Hg) accumulation in natural archives, especially lake sediments, has been essential to understanding human perturbation of the global Hg cycle. Here we present a high-resolution chronology of Hg accumulation between 1727 and 1996 in a varved sediment core from the Pettaquamscutt River Estuary (PRE), Rhode Island (USA). Mercury accumulation is examined relative to (1) historic deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and lead (Pb) and its isotopes (206Pb/207Pb) in the same core, and (2) other reconstructions of Hg deposition in urban and remote settings...
June 13, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896930/lower-fasted-state-but-greater-increase-in-muscle-protein-synthesis-in-response-to-elevated-plasma-amino-acids-in-obesity
#9
Lee Tran, Katon A Kras, Nyssa Hoffman, Jayachandran Ravichandran, Jared M Dickinson, Andrew D'Lugos, Chad C Carroll, Shivam H Patel, Lawrence J Mandarino, Lori Roust, Christos S Katsanos
OBJECTIVE: Obesity alters protein metabolism in skeletal muscle, but consistent evidence is lacking. This study compared muscle protein synthesis in adults with obesity and in lean controls in the fasted state and during an amino acid infusion. METHODS: Ten subjects with obesity (age: 36 ± 3 years; BMI: 34 ± 1 kg/m2 ) and ten controls (age: 35 ± 3 years; BMI: 23 ± 1 kg/m2 ) received an infusion of L-[2,3,3,4,5,5,5,6,6,6-2 H10 ]leucine (0.15 μmol/kg fat-free mass/min) to measure muscle protein synthesis after an overnight fast and during amino acid infusion...
June 12, 2018: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895600/stroke-and-cardiovascular-outcomes-in-patients-with-carotid-disease-undergoing-transcatheter-aortic-valve-replacement
#10
Ajar Kochar, Zhuokai Li, J Kevin Harrison, G Chad Hughes, Vinod H Thourani, Michael J Mack, Roland A Matsouaka, David J Cohen, Eric D Peterson, W Schuyler Jones, Sreekanth Vemulapalli
BACKGROUND: Stroke is a serious complication of both transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) and carotid artery disease (CD). The implications of CD in patients undergoing TAVR are unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Society of Thoracic Surgeons and American College of Cardiology Transcatheter Valve Therapies Registry, consisting of data from consecutive US TAVR cases during the years 2013 to 2015, was linked to Medicare claims data to ascertain 30-day and 1-year cumulative incidence rates of stroke and all-cause mortality...
June 2018: Circulation. Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895583/dna-methylation-of-telomere-related-genes-and-cancer-risk
#11
Brian Thomas Joyce, Yinan Zheng, Drew Nannini, Zhou Zhang, Lei Liu, Tao Gao, Masha Kocherginsky, Robert Murphy, Hushan Yang, Chad J Achenbach, Lewis R Roberts, Mirjam Hoxha, Jincheng Shen, Pantel Vokonas, Joel Schwartz, Andrea Baccarelli, Lifang Hou
Researchers hypothesized that telomere shortening facilitates carcinogenesis. Previous studies found inconsistent associations between blood leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and cancer. Epigenetic reprogramming of telomere maintenance mechanisms may help explain this inconsistency. We examined associations between DNA methylation in telomere-related genes (TRGs) and cancer. We analyzed 475 participants providing 889 samples 1-3 times (median follow up: 10.1 years) from 1999-2013 in the Normative Aging Study...
June 12, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891245/a-single-center-experience-of-1500-lung-transplant-patients
#12
Keki R Balsara, Alexander S Krupnick, Jennifer M Bell, Ali Khiabani, Masina Scavuzzo, Ramsey Hachem, Elbert Trulock, Chad Witt, Derek E Byers, Roger Yusen, Bryan Meyers, Benjamin Kozower, G Alexander Patterson, Varun Puri, Daniel Kreisel
OBJECTIVE: Over the past 30 years, lung transplantation has emerged as the definitive treatment for end-stage lung disease. In 2005, the lung allocation score (LAS) was introduced to allocate organs according to disease severity. The number of transplants performed annually in the United States continues to increase as centers have become more comfortable expanding donor and recipient criteria and have become more facile with the perioperative and long-term management of these patients...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891176/the-effect-of-substantiated-and-unsubstantiated-investigations-of-child-maltreatment-and-subsequent-adolescent-health
#13
Kari C Kugler, Kate Guastaferro, Chad E Shenk, Sarah J Beal, Kathleen M Zadzora, Jennie G Noll
Children with substantiated child maltreatment (CM) experience adverse health outcomes. However, it is unclear whether substantiation vs. an investigation not resulting in substantiation has a greater impact on subsequent adolescent health. Propensity scores were used to examine the effect of investigated reports on the subsequent health of 503 adolescent females. CM was categorized into three levels: 1) investigated and substantiated, 2) investigated but unsubstantiated, and 3) no investigation. Models using inverse propensity score weights estimated the effect of an investigation on subsequent teen motherhood, HIV-risk behaviors, drug use, and depressive symptoms...
June 8, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29890268/hyaluronic-acid-formulation-of-near-infrared-fluorophores-optimizes-surgical-imaging-in-a-prostate-tumor-xenograft
#14
Joshua J Souchek, Nicholas E Wojtynek, William M Payne, Megan B Holmes, Samikshan Dutta, Bowen Qi, Kaustubh Datta, Chad A LaGrange, Aaron M Mohs
The presence of positive surgical margins confers an increased risk of biochemical relapse and need for salvage therapy in men undergoing radical prostatectomy. Image-guided surgery using near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent contrast agents is a potential method to detect remaining cancerous tissue. The objective of this study was to evaluate three hyaluronic acid (HA) nanoparticle (NP) formulations loaded with NIR fluorophore for their ability to contrast-enhance prostate cancer. HA was modified by conjugation with the hydrophobic ligand, aminopropyl-1-pyrenebutanamide to drive nanoparticle self-assembly...
June 8, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886451/the-7th-french-airborne-forward-surgical-team-experience-of-surgical-support-to-the-population-of-a-low-income-country-a-prospective-study-on-341-patients-with-short-term-follow-up
#15
Yvain Goudard, C Butin, C Carfantan, G Pauleau, E Soucanye de Landevoisin, G Goin, D Clement, J Bordes, P Balandraud
BACKGROUND: The 7th Airborne Forward Surgical Team (FST) has deployed to Chad in 2015 and 2016, in support of French military forces. Humanitarian surgical care is known to represent a significant part of the surgical activity in such missions, but to date limited data have been published on the subject. METHODS: All surgical patients from a civilian host population treated by the FST during these missions have been prospectively included. Indications, operative outcomes and postoperative outcomes were evaluated...
June 9, 2018: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885270/inflection-points-in-longitudinal-models-tracking-recovery-and-return-to-play-following-concussion
#16
Lucy Parrington, Nora F Fino, Peter C Fino, Chad F Murchison, James Chesnutt, Laurie A King
The return to play (RTP) process may occur during longitudinal studies tracking recovery after concussion. This factor, which is often omitted within statistical designs, could affect the fit and overall interpretation of the statistical model. This paper demonstrates the difference in results and interpretation between two linear mixed-model designs; 1) a between-group longitudinal (GROUP) analysis; and 2) a between-group longitudinal model that used an inflection point to account for changes around the time of RTP (RTP analysis)...
June 9, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29879283/safety-and-efficacy-of-panitumumab-plus-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-in-patients-with-primary-her2-negative-inflammatory-breast-cancer
#17
Naoko Matsuda, Xiaoping Wang, Bora Lim, Savitri Krishnamurthy, Ricardo H Alvarez, Jie S Willey, Charla A Parker, Juhee Song, Yu Shen, Jianhua Hu, Wenhui Wu, Nan Li, Gildy V Babiera, James L Murray, Banu K Arun, Abenaa M Brewster, James M Reuben, Michael C Stauder, Chad M Barnett, Wendy A Woodward, H T Carisa Le-Petross, Anthony Lucci, Sarah M DeSnyder, Debu Tripathy, Vicente Valero, Naoto T Ueno
Importance: Combining conventional chemotherapy with targeted therapy has been proposed to improve the pathologic complete response (pCR) rate in patients with inflammatory breast cancer (IBC). Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression is an independent predictor of low overall survival in patients with IBC. Objective: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of the anti-EGFR antibody panitumumab plus neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with primary human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative IBC...
June 7, 2018: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29873783/resection-of-2-intradural-extramedullary-cervical-spine-tumors-in-a-patient-with-neurofibromatosis-type-2-3-dimensional-operative-video
#18
Simone E Dekker, Chad A Glenn, Thomas A Ostergard, Osmond C Wu, Fernando Alonso, Jonathan A Pace, Brian D Rothstein, Abhishek Ray, Nicholas C Bambakidis
This 3-dimensional operative video illustrates resection of 2 cervical spine schwannomas in a 19-yr-old female with neurofibromatosis type 2. The patient presented with lower extremity hyperreflexity and hypertonicity. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated 2 contrast-enhancing intradural extramedullary cervical spine lesions causing spinal cord compression at C4 and C5. The patient underwent a posterior cervical laminoplasty with a midline dural opening for tumor resection. Curvilinear spine cord compression is demonstrated in the operative video...
June 5, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29871999/dosimetric-and-microdosimetric-analyses-for-blood-exposed-to-reactor-derived-thermal-neutrons
#19
Fawaz Ali, Jovica Atanackovic, Chad Boyer, Amy Festarini, John Kildea, Laura Paterson, Ronald Rogge, Marilyne Stuart, Richard Bernhard Richardson
Thermal neutrons are found in reactor, radiotherapy, aircraft, and space environments. The purpose of this study was to characterize the dosimetry and microdosimetry of thermal neutron exposures, using three simulation codes, as a precursor to quantitative radiobiological studies using blood samples. An irradiation line was designed employing a pyrolytic graphite crystal and alternatively, a super mirror to expose blood samples to thermal neutrons from the National Research Universal reactor to determine radiobiological parameters...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29871690/a-survey-of-microrna-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-identifies-novel-breast-cancer-susceptibility-loci-in-a-case-control-population-based-study-of-african-american-women
#20
Jeannette T Bensen, Mariaelisa Graff, Kristin L Young, Praveen Sethupathy, Joel Parker, Chad V Pecot, Kevin Currin, Stephen A Haddad, Edward A Ruiz-Narváez, Christopher A Haiman, Chi-Chen Hong, Lara E Sucheston-Campbell, Qianqian Zhu, Song Liu, Song Yao, Elisa V Bandera, Lynn Rosenberg, Kathryn L Lunetta, Christine B Ambrosone, Julie R Palmer, Melissa A Troester, Andrew F Olshan
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression and influence cancer. Primary transcripts of miRNAs (pri-miRNAs) are poorly annotated and little is known about the role of germline variation in miRNA genes and breast cancer (BC). We sought to identify germline miRNA variants associated with BC risk and tumor subtype among African-American (AA) women. METHODS: Under the African American Breast Cancer Epidemiology and Risk (AMBER) Consortium, genotyping and imputed data from four studies on BC in AA women were combined into a final dataset containing 224,188 miRNA gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for 8350 women: 3663 cases and 4687 controls...
June 5, 2018: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
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