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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668051/evidence-for-a-specific-and-critical-role-of-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-20-in-uni-to-binucleate-transition-of-microgametogenesis-in-tomato
#1
Lifei Chen, Dandan Yang, Youwei Zhang, Limin Wu, Yaoyao Zhang, Lei Ye, Changtian Pan, Yanjun He, Li Huang, Yong-Ling Ruan, Gang Lu
Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) regulate diverse aspects of plant growth. However, their potential role in reproductive development remains elusive. Here, we discovered an unique role of SlMPK20, a plant-specific group D MAPK, in pollen development in tomato. RNAi-mediated suppression of SlMPK20 or its knockout using CRISPR/Cas9 significantly reduced or completely abolished pollen viability, respectively, with no effects on maternal fertility. Cell biology and gene expression analyses established that SlMPK20 exerts its role specifically at the uni-to-binucleate transition during microgametogenesis...
April 18, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668032/presence-of-meniscus-tear-alters-gene-expression-profile-of-anterior-cruciate-ligament-tears
#2
Robert H Brophy, Marcus A Rothermich, Eric D Tycksen, Lei Cai, Muhammad Farooq Rai
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears occur in isolation or in tandem with other intra-articular injuries such as meniscus tears. The impact of injury pattern on the molecular biology of the injured ACL is unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the biological response of the ACL to injury varies based on the presence or absence of concomitant meniscus tear. We performed RNA-seq on 28 ACL tears remnants (12 isolated, 16 combined). In total, 16,654 transcripts were differentially-expressed between isolated and combined injury groups at false-discovery-rate of 0...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667924/telomerase-may-paradoxically-accelerate-aging-of-the-dna-methylome
#3
Andrew R Mendelsohn, James W Larrick
DNA methylation (DNAm) clocks such as the Horvath DNAm clock provide the most accurate biological determination of biological age relative to chronological age available today. However, there is little correlation between DNAm clocks, telomere-based aging clocks, and transcriptomic-based aging clocks. Recently, a genome-wide association study identified single-nucleotide polymorphism variants of TERT, the gene that encodes telomerase, as accelerating intrinsic aging in the Horvath DNAm clock. These same variants have been previously associated with long telomeres in leukocytes, suggesting that TERT acts paradoxically on telomere-associated aging and DNAm-associated aging...
April 2018: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667905/essential-role-of-mohawk-for-tenogenic-tissue-homeostasis-including-spinal-disc-and-periodontal-ligament
#4
Ryo Nakamichi, Kensuke Kataoka, Hiroshi Asahara
Tendons and ligaments play essential roles in connecting muscle and bone and stabilizing the connections between bones. The damage to tendons and ligaments caused by aging, injury, and arthritis induces the dysfunction of the musculoskeletal system and reduces the quality of life. Current therapy for damaged tendons and ligaments depends on self-repair; however, it is difficult to reconstruct normal tissue. Regeneration therapy for tendons and ligaments has not been achieved, partly because the mechanism, cell biology, and pathophysiology of tendon and ligament development remain unclear...
April 18, 2018: Modern Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667836/molecular-dynamics-simulations-are-redefining-our-view-of-peptides-interacting-with-biological-membranes
#5
Jakob P Ulmschneider, Martin B Ulmschneider
Ever since the first molecular mechanics computer simulations of biological molecules became possible, there has been the dream to study all complex biological phenomena in silico, simply bypassing the enormous experimental challenges and their associated costs. For this, two inherent requirements need to be met: First, the time scales achievable in simulations must reach up to the millisecond range and even longer. Second, the computational model must accurately reproduce what is measured experimentally. Despite some recent successes, the general consensus in the field to date has been that neither of these conditions have yet been met and that the dream will be realized, if at all, only in the distant future...
April 18, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667761/plant-glycosylphosphatidylinositol-gpi-anchored-proteins-at-the-plasma-membrane-cell-wall-nexus
#6
REVIEW
Trevor H Yeats, Antony Bacic, Kim L Johnson
Approximately 1% of plant proteins are predicted to be post-translationally modified with a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor that tethers the polypeptide to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane. While the synthesis and structure of GPI anchors is largely conserved across eukaryotes, the repertoire of functional domains present in the GPI-anchored proteome has diverged substantially. In plants, this includes a large fraction of the GPI-anchored proteome being further modified with plant-specific arabinogalactan (AG) O-glycans...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667751/suz12-is-a-novel-putative-oncogene-promoting-tumorigenesis-in-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#7
Yaping Wu, Huijun Hu, Wei Zhang, Zhongwu Li, Pengfei Diao, Dongmiao Wang, Wei Zhang, Yanling Wang, Jianrong Yang, Jie Cheng
The suppressor of zest 12 (SUZ12), one of the core polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) components, has increasingly appreciated as a key mediator during human tumorigenesis. However, its expression pattern and oncogenic roles in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) remain largely unexplored yet. Here, we sought to determine its expression pattern, clinicopathological significance and biological roles in HNSCC. Through data mining and interrogation from multiple publicly available databases, our bioinformatics analyses revealed that SUZ12 mRNA was significantly overexpressed in multiple HNSCC patient cohorts...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667689/no-unjamming-transition-in-a-voronoi-model-of-biological-tissue
#8
Daniel M Sussman, Matthias Merkel
Vertex models are a popular approach to simulating the mechanical and dynamical properties of dense biological tissues, describing the tissue as a network of polygons. Recently a class of two-dimensional vertex models was shown to exhibit a disordered rigidity transition controlled by the preferred cellular geometry, which was subsequently echoed by experimental findings. An attractive variant of these models uses a Voronoi tessellation to describe the cells, which reduces the number of degrees of freedom as compared the original vertex model...
April 18, 2018: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667669/structural-characterization-and-antitumor-activity-of-a-novel-se-polysaccharide-from-selenium-enriched-cordyceps-gunnii
#9
Huiqing Sun, Zhenyuan Zhu, Yali Tang, Yuanyuan Ren, Qiaoying Song, Yun Tang, Yongmin Zhang
Selenium (Se) has been recognized as an essential element. Animals and humans absorb and retain more organic Se than inorganic Se. Bio-transformation is a major approach to transform inorganic Se to organic Se. Cordyceps gunnii (C. gunnii), well known as a Chinese edible and medicinal fungus, has a variety of biological functions. C. gunnii and selenium were combined through liquid-fermentation to obtain selenium-enriched C. gunnii. A novel Se-polysaccharide (SeCPS-II) was extracted from selenium-enriched C...
April 18, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667554/establishment-of-novel-reporter-cells-stably-maintaining-transcription-factor-driven-human-secreted-alkaline-phosphatase-expression
#10
Riho Kurata, Asuka Kumagai, Xiaofeng Cui, Masamitsu Harada, Jun Nagai, Yasuhiro Yoshida, Kei-Ichi Ozaki, Yoshimasa Tanaka, Tomo Yonezawa
BACKGROUND: Transcriptional regulation is very important and pivotal function in myriad biological responses. Thus, methods to determine transcriptional activity are required in not only basic medical research but also drug discovery. We established novel reporter constructs using human secreted embryonic alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) and Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen (EBNA) 1, which can maintain constructs synchronized to host cell replication. METHODS: We established nuclear factor-kappa B (NFkB) or interferon regulatory factor (IRF) driven SEAP expression constructs and then, introduced them into culture cells...
April 17, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667552/harvesting-isolation-and-differentiation-of-rat-adipose-derived-stem-cells
#11
Panayiotis D Megaloikonomos, Georgios N Panagopoulos, Myrto Bami, Vasileios G Igoumenou, Leonidas Dimopoulos, Adamantia Milonaki, Maria Kyriakidou, Evanthia Mitsiokapa, Jane Anastassopoulou, Andreas F Mavrogenis
BACKGROUND: Adipose tissue is one of the most attractive source of stem cells because it can be easily harvested and yields a greater stromal cell density. The multi-lineage potential of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) demonstrates their significant impact within the field of tissue engineering, with studies successfully demonstrating the ability to produce a range of tissue types. However, although, a broad spectrum of applications has already been suggested, many important scientific and medical questions remain unanswered before the clinical application of ADSCs in humans...
April 17, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667478/retro-inverso-follicle-stimulating-hormone-peptide-mediated-polyethylenimine-complexes-for-targeted-ovarian-cancer-gene-therapy
#12
Mengyu Zhang, Mingxing Zhang, Jing Wang, Qingqing Cai, Ran Zhao, Yi Yu, Haiyan Tai, Xiaoyan Zhang, Congjian Xu
BACKGROUND: The development of nanoparticle drug delivery systems with targeted ligands has the potential to increase treatment efficiency in ovarian cancer. METHODS: We developed a 21-amino acid peptide, YTRDLVYGDPARPGIQGTGTF (L-FP21) conjugated to polyethylenimine (PEI) and methoxy polyethylene glycol (mPEG) to prepare a nanoparticle drug vehicle to target follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) in ovarian cancer. At the same time, we optimized the ligand of the nanoparticle vehicle using D-peptides, which consist of D-amino acids (D-FP21)...
November 2018: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667410/controlling-cargo-trafficking-in-multicomponent-membranes
#13
Tine Curk, Peter Wirnsberger, Jure Dobnikar, Daan Frenkel, Andela Saric
Biological membranes typically contain a large number of different components dispersed in small concentrations in the main membrane phase, including proteins, sugars, and lipids of varying geometrical properties. Most of these components do not bind the cargo. Here, we show that such `inert' components can be crucial for precise control of cross-membrane trafficking. Using a statistical mechanics model and molecular dynamics simulations, we demonstrate that the presence of inert membrane components of small isotropic curvatures dramatically influences cargo endocytosis, even if the total spontaneous curvature of such a membrane remains unchanged...
April 18, 2018: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667268/a-molecular-network-for-functional-versatility-of-hecate-transcription-factors
#14
Christophe Gaillochet, Suraj Jamge, Froukje van der Wal, Gerco Angenent, Richard Immink, Jan U Lohmann
During the plant life cycle, diverse signalling inputs are continuously integrated and engage specific genetic programs depending on the cellular or developmental context. Consistent with an important role in this process, HECATE (HEC) bHLH transcription factors display diverse functions, from photomorphogenesis to the control of shoot meristem dynamics and gynoecium patterning. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying their functional versatility and the deployment of specific HEC sub-programs still remain elusive...
April 18, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667161/diversity-of-neuropeptide-cell-cell-signaling-molecules-generated-by-proteolytic-processing-revealed-by-neuropeptidomics-mass-spectrometry
#15
Vivian Hook, Christopher B Lietz, Sonia Podvin, Tomas Cajka, Oliver Fiehn
Neuropeptides are short peptides in the range of 3-40 residues that are secreted for cell-cell communication in neuroendocrine systems. In the nervous system, neuropeptides comprise the largest group of neurotransmitters. In the endocrine system, neuropeptides function as peptide hormones to coordinate intercellular signaling among target physiological systems. The diversity of neuropeptide functions is defined by their distinct primary sequences, peptide lengths, proteolytic processing of pro-neuropeptide precursors, and covalent modifications...
April 17, 2018: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667156/how-we-manage-patients-with-plasmacytomas
#16
REVIEW
Despina Fotiou, Meletios A Dimopoulos, Efstathios Kastritis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss the diagnostic approach, treatment options, and future considerations in the management of plasmacytomas, either solitary or in the context of overt multiple myeloma (MM). RECENT FINDINGS: Advanced imaging techniques such as whole-body magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography/computerized tomography are essential for the diagnostic workup of solitary plasmacytomas (SP) to rule out the presence of other disease foci...
April 17, 2018: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667069/the-versatile-role-of-exosomes-in-cancer-progression-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-implications
#17
REVIEW
Vignesh Sundararajan, Fazlul H Sarkar, Thamil Selvee Ramasamy
BACKGROUND: Recent advances in cancer biology have highlighted the relevance of exosomes and nanovesicles as carriers of genetic and biological messages between cancer cells and their immediate and/or distant environments. It has been found that these molecular cues may play significant roles in cancer progression and metastasis. Cancer cells secrete exosomes containing diverse molecules that can be transferred to recipient cells and/or vice versa to induce a plethora of biological processes, including angiogenesis, metastasis formation, therapeutic resistance, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and epigenetic/stemness (re)programming...
April 17, 2018: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667026/mast-cell-interactions-and-crosstalk-in-regulating-allergic-inflammation
#18
REVIEW
Tania E Velez, Paul J Bryce, Kathryn E Hulse
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes recent findings on mast cell biology with a focus on IgE-independent roles of mast cells in regulating allergic responses. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have described novel mast cell-derived molecules, both secreted and membrane-bound, that facilitate cross-talk with a variety of immune effector cells to mediate type 2 inflammatory responses. Mast cells are complex and dynamic cells that are persistent in allergy and are capable of providing signals that lead to the initiation and persistence of allergic mechanisms...
April 17, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666979/amsacta-moorei-entomopoxvirus-encodes-a-functional-heparin-binding-glycosyltransferase-amv248
#19
Cihan Inan, Hacer Muratoglu, Basil M Arif, Zihni Demirbag
Amsacta moorei entomopoxvirus (AMEV) infects certain lepidopteran and orthopteran insects and is the most studied member of the genus Betaentomopoxvirus. It has been considered as a potential vector for gene therapy, a vector to express exogenous proteins and a biological control agent. One of its open reading frames, amv248, encodes a putative glycosyltransferase and is the only known attachment protein conserved in AMEV and chordopoxviruses. The ORF was successfully expressed and the protein was shown to bind soluble heparin, both in silico and in vitro...
April 17, 2018: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666837/cancer-telomeres-and-white-crows
#20
REVIEW
Alan K Meeker
This mini-review article discusses past and present prostate-focused research on telomere and telomerase biology conducted at Johns Hopkins, through the eyes of a Donald S Coffey trainee. Included are past discoveries of abnormalities in telomere biology in the context of prostate cancer and its pre-malignant precursor prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN); the finding that telomerase activity is androgen-regulated in the prostate, and the potential role of telomerase in prostate epithelial stem cells. Also reviewed are more recent results showing that in situ telomere length measurements in patient tissue specimens may have utility in risk assessment and as a prognostic biomarker...
2018: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Urology
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