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Cell biology

Ming Chang, Yaw-Jen Chang, Pei Yu Chao, Qing Yu
Cancer cells secrete many exosomes, which facilitate metastasis and the later growth of cancer. For early cancer diagnosis, the detection of exosomes is a crucial step. Exosomes exist in biological fluid, such as blood, which contains various proteins. It is necessary to remove the proteins in the biological fluid to avoid test interference. This paper presented a novel method for exosome isolation using Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), which were synthesized using the chemical co-precipitation method and then coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG)...
2018: PloS One
Enza Fazio, Antonio Speciale, Salvatore Spadaro, Martina Bonsignore, Francesco Cimino, Mariateresa Cristani, Domenico Trombetta, Antonella Saija, Fortunato Neri
Tailored colloids of uniformly sized and engineered molybdenum oxide nanoparticles were produced, for the first time, by pulsed laser ablation in water. This green technique ensures the formation of contaminant-free nanostructures and the absence of by-products, very useful issues in biological applications. A selective tuning of MoO chemical bonding configurations and a suitable control of nanoparticles size distributions were achieved during the ablation processes by varying the water temperature and by applying an external electric field...
June 18, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Yue Yi, Beizhen Xie, Ting Zhao, Hong Liu
Microbial fuel cell based biosensors (MFC-biosensors) utilize anode biofilms as biological recognition elements to monitor biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and biotoxicity. However, the relatively poor sensitivity constrains the application of MFC-biosensors. To address this limitation, this study provided a systematic comparison of sensitivity between the MFC-biosensors constructed with two inocula. Higher biomass density and viability were both observed in the anode biofilm of the mixed culture MFC, which resulted in better sensitivity for BOD assessment...
June 13, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Zhiwen Wang, Yu Huang, Yuan Li, Bei Wang, Yishan Lu, Liqun Xia, Jufen Tang, JiChang Jian
Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is a pivotal economic fish that has been plagued by Streptococcus agalactiae infections for many years. Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is a crucial adaptor molecule of the interleukin-1 receptor/Toll-like receptor (IL-1/TLR) superfamily, which can trigger downstream signaling cascades involved in innate immunity. In this study, the full-length cDNA of TRAF6 was cloned from O. niloticus (named On-TRAF6), which has an open reading frame of 1716 bp, and encode a polypeptide of 571 amino acids...
June 19, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Katsuhide Fujita, Seiji Take, Ryotaro Tani, Junko Maru, Sawae Obara, Shigehisa Endoh
Graphene and related materials (GRMs) have unique optical and thermal characteristics and are expected to be adopted for industrial applications. However, there are concerns with respect to their safety to human health. To conduct cytotoxicity and mutagenicity assessments, exfoliated graphene (EGr) dispersed in Tween-20® was diluted in cell culture medium. Rat alveolar macrophage viability significantly decreased after 24 h exposure to 1 and 10 μg/mL EGr. No significant levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species were detected in the 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescin diacetate assay after 24 h of exposure to EGr...
June 19, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Yang Song, Hong-Yan Zhao, Zhong-Shi Lyu, Xie-Na Cao, Min-Min Shi, Qi- Wen, Fei-Fei Tang, Yu Wang, Lan-Ping Xu, Xiao-Hui Zhang, Xiao-Jun Huang, Yuan Kong
Poor graft function (PGF) is a life-threatening complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) and is characterized by defective hematopoiesis. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown to support hematopoiesis, but little is known about the role of MSCs in the pathogenesis of PGF. In the current prospective case-control study, we evaluated whether the number and function of bone marrow (BM) MSCs in PGF patients differed from those in good graft function (GGF) patients. We found that BM MSCs from PGF patients expanded more slowly and appeared flattened and larger, exhibiting more apoptosis and senescence than MSCs from GGF patients...
June 19, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Payam Mohassel, A Reghan Foley, Carsten G Bönnemann
Skeletal muscle function relies on the myofibrillar apparatus inside myofibers as well as an intact extracellular matrix surrounding each myofiber. Muscle extracellular matrix (ECM) plays several roles including but not limited to force transmission, regulation of growth factors and inflammatory responses, and influencing muscle stem cell (i.e. satellite cell) proliferation and differentiation. In most myopathies, muscle ECM undergoes remodeling and fibrotic changes that may be maladaptive for normal muscle function and recovery...
June 19, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
Jenny Beebe, Jing-Yuan Liu, Jian-Ting Zhang
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) controls many biological processes including differentiation, survival, proliferation, and angiogenesis. In normal healthy cells, STAT3 is tightly regulated to maintain a momentary active state. However, aberrant or constitutively activated STAT3 has been observed in many different cancers and constitutively activated STAT3 has been shown to associate with poor prognosis and tumor progression. For this reason, STAT3 has been studied as a possible target in the treatment of many different types of cancers...
June 19, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Louis Anthony Tony Cox
Sufficiently high and prolonged inhalation exposures to some respirable elongated mineral particles (REMPs), notably including amphibole asbestos fibers, can increase risk of inflammation-mediated diseases including malignant mesothelioma, pleural diseases, fibrosis, and lung cancer. Chronic inflammation involves ongoing activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, which enables immune cells to produce potent proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) (in particular, mitochondrial ROS) contribute to NRLP3 activation via a well-elucidated mechanism involving oxidation of reduced thioredoxin and association of thioredoxin-interacting protein with NLRP3...
June 19, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Michael Bartoschek, Kristian Pietras
The development and progression of a tumor depends on the close interaction of malignant cells and the supportive and suppressive tumor microenvironment. Paracrine signaling enables tumor cells to shape the surrounding tissue in order to decrease recognition by the immune system, attract blood vessels to fuel growth, change metabolic programs and induce wound healing programs. In this study, we investigate the role of the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) family members PDGFA, PDGFB, PDGFC and PDGFD and their cognate tyrosine kinase receptors PDGFRA and PDGFRB, using publicly available data from The Cancer Genome Atlas and the Human Protein Atlas...
June 19, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Juan Ni, Tao Xie, Meifang Xiao, Wei Xiang, Lishen Wang
The anti-cancer activities of amide-linked local anesthetics have been demonstrated in various types of bulky/differentiated cancer cells. However, whether these anesthetics also affect biological functions of cancer stem cells is largely unknown. In this study, we systematically investigated the effects of three commonly used amide-linked local anesthetics (ropivacaine, lidocaine and bupivacaine) on leukemia stem cell (LSC) derived from two different leukemia diseases (acute myeloid leukemia, n = 8 and chronic myeloid leukemia, n = 8) as well as normal hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) derived from cord blood donors (n = 8) as comparison...
June 19, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Joseph J Braymer, Dennis R Winge
In this issue of Cell Chemical Biology, Pandey et al. (2018) identified that mitochondrial cysteine desulfurase provides the sulfur species used for tRNALys , tRNAGlu , and tRNAGln thiouridine modification in the cytoplasm. A low-mass sulfur species is exported by the mitochondrial Atm1 transporter and utilized in the thio-modifications.
June 21, 2018: Cell Chemical Biology
Ehab Billatos, Alen Faiz, Yaron O Gesthalter, Ashley LeClerc, Yuriy Alekseyev, Xiaohui Zhang, Gang Liu, Nick H T Ten Hacken, Irene Heijink, Wim Timens, Corry-Anke Brandsma, Dirkje S Postma, Maarten van den Berge, Avrum Spira, Marc E Lenburg
BACKGROUND: Understanding effects of Acute Smoke Exposure (ASE) on airway epithelial gene expression and their relationship with the effects of Chronic Smoke Exposure (CSE) may provide biological insights into the development of smoking-related respiratory diseases. METHODS: Bronchial airway epithelial cell brushings were collected from 63 individuals without recent cigarette smoke exposure, before and 24-hours after smoking three cigarettes. RNA from these samples was profiled on Affymetrix Human Gene 1...
June 22, 2018: Physiological Genomics
Young Hye Seo, Ju-Hyun Jeon, Miran Jeong, Seung Mok Ryu, Won Kyung Jeon, Dae Sik Jang, Sang Hee Shim, Dongho Lee, Jung-Hye Choi, Jun Lee
Apios americana is an important food crop producing edible tubers with high nutritional and medicinal values and is widely cultivated in many countries. Despite its usefulness, research on its secondary metabolites and biological activities has been limited. In the present study, a new coumaronochromone, (2 R,3 S)-3,7,4'-trihydroxy-5-methoxycoumaronochromone (1), and two new isoflavone glucosides, 7,2',4'-trihydroxy-5-methoxyisoflavone-4'- O-β-d-glucopyranoside (3) and 5,7,4'-trihydroxyisoflavone-7- O-β-d-gentiotrioside (5), were isolated from the tubers of A...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Natural Products
Muhammad Hasan, Alice E R Fayter, Matthew I Gibson
All modern molecular biology and microbiology is underpinned not only by the tools to handle and manipulate microorganisms, but also those to store, bank and transport them. Glycerol is the current gold-standard cryoprotectant but it is intrinsically toxic to most micro-organisms: only a fraction of cells survive freezing and the presence of glycerol can impact down-stream applications and assays. Extremophile organisms survive repeated freeze/thaw cycles by producing antifreeze proteins which are potent ice recrystallization inhibitors...
June 22, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Jan-Erik Hoffmann, Dmytro Dziuba, Frank Stein, Carsten Schultz
Mapping of weak and hence transient interactions between low-abundance interacting molecules is still a major challenge in systems biology and protein biochemistry. Therefore, additional system-wide acting tools are needed to determine protein interactomics. Most important are reagents that can be applied at any kind of protein interface and the possibility to enrich cross-linked fragments with high efficiency. In this study, we report the synthesis of a novel noncanonical amino acid that features a diazirine group for ultraviolet cross-linking as well as an alkyne group for labeling by click chemistry...
June 22, 2018: Biochemistry
Ying Tu, Norlaily Ahmad, Joe Briscoe, De-Wen Zhang, Steffi Krause
Light-addressable potentiometric sensors (LAPS) are of great interest in bioimaging applications such as the monitoring of concentrations in microfluidic channels or the investigation of metabolic and signaling events in living cells. By measuring the photocurrents at electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor (EIS) and electrolyte-semiconductor structures, LAPS can produce spatiotemporal images of chemical or biological analytes, electrical potentials and impedance. However, its commercial applications are often restricted by their limited AC photocurrents and resolution of LAPS images...
June 22, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Anu Paul, Vered Padler-Karavani
All living cells are covered with a dense "sugar-coat" of carbohydrate chains (glycans) conjugated to proteins and lipids. The cell surface glycome is determined by a non-template driven process related to the collection of enzymes that assemble glycans in a sequential manner. In mammals, many of these glycans are topped with sialic acids (Sia), a large family of acidic sugars. The "Sialome" is highly diverse owing to various Sia types, linkage to underlying glycans, range of carriers, and complex spatial organization...
June 22, 2018: Xenotransplantation
Biljana Pokimica, María-Teresa García-Conesa
Pre-clinical cell and animal nutrigenomic studies have long suggested the modulation of the transcription of multiple gene targets in cells and tissues as a potential molecular mechanism of action underlying the beneficial effects attributed to plant-derived bioactive compounds. To try to demonstrate these molecular effects in humans, a considerable number of clinical trials have now explored the changes in the expression levels of selected genes in various human cell and tissue samples following intervention with different dietary sources of bioactive compounds...
June 22, 2018: Nutrients
Freda Passam, Joyce Chiu, Lining Ju, Aster Pijning, Zeenat Jahan, Ronit Mor-Cohen, Adva Yeheskel, Katra Kolšek, Lena Thärichen, Camilo Aponte-Santamaría, Frauke Gräter, Philip J Hogg
How proteins harness mechanical force to control function is a significant biological question. Here we describe a human cell surface receptor that couples ligand binding and force to trigger a chemical event which controls the adhesive properties of the receptor. Our studies of the secreted platelet oxidoreductase, ERp5, have revealed that it mediates release of fibrinogen from activated platelet αIIbβ3 integrin. Protein chemical studies show that ligand binding to extended αIIbβ3 integrin renders the βI-domain Cys177-Cys184 disulfide bond cleavable by ERp5...
June 22, 2018: ELife
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