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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054115/reversible-mono-adp-ribosylation-of-dna-breaks
#1
Deeksha Munnur, Ivan Ahel
ADP-ribosylation is a chemical modification of macromolecules that plays an important role in regulation of quintessential biological processes such as DNA repair, transcription, chromatin remodelling, stress response, apoptosis, bacterial metabolism and many others. ADP-ribosylation is carried out by ADP-ribosyltransferase proteins, such as poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) that transfer either monomer or polymers of ADP-ribose onto the molecular targets by using nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+) ) as a cofactor...
October 20, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053993/orexin-system-in-swine-ovarian-follicles
#2
R Ciccimarra, S Bussolati, F Grasselli, S Grolli, L Ragionieri, F Ravanetti, M Botti, F Gazza, A Cacchioli, R Di Lecce, A M Cantoni, G Basini
Successful reproduction is strictly linked to metabolic cues. The orexins are a family of hypothalamic neurohormones, well known for their key role in the control of food intake and the involvement in several aspects of the reproductive process. The biological actions of both orexins are carried out through binding to the related Orexin 1 (OX1R) and Orexin 2 (OX2R) G-protein-coupled receptors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of orexin system components in the porcine ovaries, to contribute to expand the knowledge about their pleiotropic role...
September 22, 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053961/maturation-of-xenopus-laevis-oocytes-under-cadmium-and-lead-exposures-cell-biology-investigations
#3
Sylvain Slaby, Julie Hanotel, Guillaume Marchand, Arlette Lescuyer, Jean-François Bodart, Alain Leprêtre, Sébastien Lemière, Matthieu Marin
Since amphibians are recognised as good models to assess the quality of environments, only few studies have dealt with the impacts of chemical contaminants on their gametes, while toxic effects at this stage will alter all the next steps of their life cycle. Therefore, we propose to investigate the oocyte maturation of Xenopus laevis in cadmium- and lead-contaminated conditions. The impacts of cadmium and lead ions were explored on events involved in the hormone-dependent process of maturation. In time-course experiments, cadmium, at the highest concentration, delayed and prevented the germinal vesicle breakdown...
October 16, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053950/more-than-one-way-to-skin-a-catalyst
#4
Stephen W Michnick
In this issue of Cell Chemical Biology, Diaz et al. (2017) report a strategy to achieve temporal, spatial, and stoichiometric control over the protein kinase cAbl in living cells. They achieve this by splitting cAbl into two inactive fragments that form an active kinase upon small molecule addition, potentially providing a general way to probe the wiring of signal transduction networks.
October 19, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053949/unpackaging-the-roles-of-streptomyces-natural-products
#5
Christophe Jacob, Kira J Weissman
Streptomyces are the principle source of antibiotics in clinical use, but what the bacteria use these molecules for remains largely a mystery. In this issue of Cell Chemical Biology, Hoefler et al. (2017) demonstrate a direct link between biosynthesis of the polyketide linearmycins and extracellular membrane vesicles.
October 19, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053948/nanoscale-imaging-reveals-big-role-for-iron-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Scott Ayton, Simon A James, Ashley I Bush
In this issue of Cell Chemical Biology, Telling et al. (2017) apply advanced X-ray microscopy techniques to reveal magnetite iron species in plaques from a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. The characterization of abnormal iron chemistry in the disease model highlights the potential for iron to combine with the β-amyloid peptide and accelerate the disease process.
October 19, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053947/a-bitter-tale-of-sweet-synergy
#7
Steven D Munger
Some sweeteners show a synergistic enhancement of perceived sweetness when they are tasted as binary mixtures. In this issue of Cell Chemical Biology, Behrens et al. (2017) find that a surprising explanation for this classic observation may lie in their reciprocal inhibition of bitter taste receptors.
October 19, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053920/turn-on-fluorene-push-pull-probes-with-high-brightness-and-photostability-for-visualizing-lipid-order-in-biomembranes
#8
Janah Shaya, Mayeul Collot, Frédéric Benailly, Najiba Mahmoud, Yves Mély, Benoît Y Michel, Andrey S Klymchenko, Alain Burger
The rational design of environment-sensitive dyes with superior properties is critical for elucidating the fundamental biological processes and understanding the biophysical behavior of cell membranes. In this study, a novel group of fluorene-based push-pull probes was developed for imaging membrane lipids. The design of these fluorogenic conjugates is based on a propioloyl linker to preserve the required spectroscopic features of the core dye. This versatile linker allowed the introduction of a polar deoxyribosyl head, a lipophilic chain, and an amphiphilic/anchoring group to tune the cell membrane binding and internalization...
October 20, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053867/molecular-cloning-and-functional-analysis-of-peafowl-pavo-cristatus-toll-like-receptor-7
#9
H Song, M Zhang, W Gao, L Wu, G Li
In order to clone the peafowl (Pavo cristatus) Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) gene and study its biological function, the peafowl TLR7 coding sequences (CDS) were amplified by PCR of cDNA from the whole spleen of peafowl. The full-length sequence of the peafowl TLR7 gene CDS is 3,141 bp and encodes a 1,046-amino acid protein with a classic TLR composition of 16 leucine-rich repeats (LRR). Insertions of amino acids were found at position 15 of LRR2, LRR5, LRR7, LRR9, LRR11, LRR12, LRR14, and LRR15; and position 10 of LRR11...
October 5, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053741/the-importance-of-propolis-in-alleviating-the-negative-physiological-effects-of-heat-stress-in-quail-chicks
#10
Gamal M K Mehaisen, Rania M Ibrahim, Adel A Desoky, Hosam M Safaa, Osama A El-Sayed, Ahmed O Abass
Heat stress is one of the most detrimental confrontations in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, causing considerable economic losses in poultry production. Propolis, a resinous product of worker honeybees, possesses several biological activities that could be used to alleviate the deleterious effects of high environmental temperature on poultry production. The current study was aimed at evaluating the effects of propolis supplementation to Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) diets on the production performance, intestinal histomorphology, relative physiological and immunological parameters, and selected gene expression under heat stress conditions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053679/measuring-the-effect-of-chemicals-on-the-growth-and-reproduction-of-caenorhabditis-elegans
#11
So Young Lee, Kyungsu Kang
Toxicological evaluation is crucial for understanding the effects of chemicals on living organisms in basic and applied biological science fields. A non-mammalian soil round worm, Caenorhabditis elegans, is a valuable model organism for toxicology studies due to its convenience and lack of animal ethics issues compared with mammalian animal systems. In this protocol, a detailed procedure of toxicological evaluation of chemicals in C. elegans is described. A clinical anticancer drug, etoposide, which targets human topoisomerase II and inhibits DNA replication of human cancer cells, was selected as a model testing chemical...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053672/sample-extraction-and-simultaneous-chromatographic-quantitation-of-doxorubicin-and-mitomycin-c-following-drug-combination-delivery-in-nanoparticles-to-tumor-bearing-mice
#12
Rui Xue Zhang, Tian Zhang, King Chen, Ji Cheng, Paris Lai, Andrew M Rauth, K Sandy Pang, Xiao Yu Wu
Combination chemotherapy is frequently used in the clinic for cancer treatment; however, associated adverse effects to normal tissue may limit its therapeutic benefit. Nanoparticle-based drug combination has been shown to mitigate the problems encountered by free drug combination therapy. Our previous studies have shown that the combination of two anticancer drugs, doxorubicin (DOX) and mitomycin C (MMC), produced a synergistic effect against both murine and human breast cancer cells in vitro. DOX and MMC co-loaded polymer-lipid hybrid nanoparticles (DMPLN) bypassed various efflux transporter pumps that confer multidrug resistance and demonstrated enhanced efficacy in breast tumor models...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053616/valorization-challenges-to-almond-residues-phytochemical-composition-and-functional-application
#13
REVIEW
Iva Prgomet, Berta Gonçalves, Raúl Domínguez-Perles, Núria Pascual-Seva, Ana I R N A Barros
Almond is characterized by its high nutritional value; although information reported so far mainly concerns edible kernel. Even though the nutritional and commercial relevance of the almond is restricted to almond meat; to date; increasing attention has been paid to other parts of this fruit (skin; shell; and hull); considered by-products that are scarcely characterized and exploited regarding their properties as valuable sources of bioactive compounds (mainly represented by phenolic acids and flavonoids). This lack of proper valorization procedures entails the continuation of the application of traditional procedures to almond residues that nowadays are mainly addressed to livestock feed and energy production...
October 20, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053588/yeast-killer-toxin-k28-biology-and-unique-strategy-of-host-cell-intoxication-and-killing
#14
REVIEW
Björn Becker, Manfred J Schmitt
The initial discovery of killer toxin-secreting brewery strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) in the mid-sixties of the last century marked the beginning of intensive research in the yeast virology field. So far, four different S. cerevisiae killer toxins (K28, K1, K2, and Klus), encoded by cytoplasmic inherited double-stranded RNA viruses (dsRNA) of the Totiviridae family, have been identified. Among these, K28 represents the unique example of a yeast viral killer toxin that enters a sensitive cell by receptor-mediated endocytosis to reach its intracellular target(s)...
October 20, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053565/a-synthetic-analogue-of-neopeltolide-8-9-dehydroneopeltolide-is-a-potent-anti-austerity-agent-against-starved-tumor-cells
#15
Haruhiko Fuwa, Mizuho Sato
Neopeltolide, an antiproliferative marine macrolide, is known to specifically inhibit complex III of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (mETC). However, details of the biological mode-of-action(s) remain largely unknown. This work demonstrates potent cytotoxic activity of synthetic neopeltolide analogue, 8,9-dehydroneopeltolide (8,9-DNP), against starved human pancreatic adenocarcinoma PANC-1 cells and human non-small cell lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. 8,9-DNP induced rapid dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential and depletion of intracellular ATP level in nutrient-deprived medium...
October 20, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053277/utilizing-inverse-emulsion-polymerization-to-generate-responsive-nanogels-for-cytosolic-protein-delivery
#16
Kishore Raghupathi, Scott J Eron, Francesca Anson, Jeanne A Hardy, S Thayumanavan
Therapeutic biologics have various advantages over synthetic drugs in terms of selectivity, their catalytic nature and thus, therapeutic efficacy. These properties offer the potential for more effective treatments that may also overcome the undesirable side effects observed due to off-target toxicities of small-molecule drugs. Unfortunately, systemic administration of biologics is challenging due to cellular penetration, renal clearance and enzymatic degradation difficulties. A delivery vehicle that can overcome these challenges and deliver biologics to specific cellular populations has the potential for significant therapeutic impact...
October 20, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053271/discovery-of-7-18-f-fluorotryptophan-as-a-novel-pet-probe-for-the-visualization-of-tryptophan-metabolism-in-vivo
#17
Boris D Zlatopolskiy, Johannes Zischler, Dominique Schäfer, Elizaveta A Urusova, Mehrab Guliyev, Olesia Bannykh, Heike Endepols, Bernd Neumaier
Tryptophan and its metabolites are involved in different physiological and pathophysiological processes. Consequently, PET tracers addressing tryptophan metabolic pathways should allow the detection of different pathologies like neurological disorders and cancer. Herein we report an efficient method for the preparation of fluorotryptophans labeled in different positions with (18)F and their biological evaluation. 4-7-[(18)F]Fluorotryptophans ([(18)F]FTrps) were prepared according to a modified protocol of alcohol-enhanced Cu-mediated radiofluorination in 30-53% radiochemical yields...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053245/generation-and-characterization-of-recombinant-antibody-like-adp-ribose-binding-proteins
#18
Bryan A Gibson, Lesley B Conrad, Dan Huang, W Lee Kraus
ADP-ribosylation is an enzyme-catalyzed post-translational modification of proteins in which the ADP-ribose (ADPR) moiety of NAD+ is transferred to a specific amino acid in a substrate protein. The biological functions of ADP-ribosylation are numerous and diverse, ranging from normal physiology to pathological conditions. Biochemical and cellular studies of the diverse forms and functions of ADPR require immunological reagents that can be used for detection and enrichment. The lack of a complete set of tools that recognize all forms of ADPR [i...
October 20, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053175/distinct-pattern-of-tp53-mutations-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-related-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#19
Frederico O Gleber-Netto, Mei Zhao, Sanchit Trivedi, Jiping Wang, Samar Jasser, Christina McDowell, Humam Kadara, Jiexin Zhang, Jing Wang, William N William, J Jack Lee, Minh Ly Nguyen, Sara I Pai, Heather M Walline, Dong M Shin, Robert L Ferris, Thomas E Carey, Jeffrey N Myers, Curtis R Pickering
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals (HIVIIs) have a higher incidence of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), and clinical and histopathological differences have been observed in their tumors in comparison with those of HNSCC patients without a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The reasons for these differences are not clear, and molecular differences between HIV-related HNSCC and non-HIV-related HNSCC may exist. This study compared the mutational patterns of HIV-related HNSCC and non-HIV-related HNSCC...
October 20, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053105/biological-and-dosimetric-characterisation-of-spatially-fractionated-proton-minibeams
#20
Juergen Meyer, Robert D Stewart, Daniel Smith, James Eagle, Eunsin Lee, Ning Cao, Eric Ford, Reza Hashemian, Jan Schuemann, Jatinder Saini, Steven Marsh, Robert Emery, Eric Dorman, Jeffrey L Schwartz, George A Sandison
The biological effectiveness of proton beams varies with depth, spot size and lateral distance from the beam central axis. The aim of this work is to incorporate proton relative biological effectiveness (RBE) and equivalent uniform dose (EUD) considerations into comparisons of broad beam and highly modulated proton minibeams. A Monte Carlo model of a small animal proton beamline is presented. Dose and variable RBE is calculated on a per-voxel basis for a range of energies (30-109 MeV). For an open beam, the RBE values at the beam entrance ranged from 1...
October 20, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
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