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Kazuhiko Yoshimatsu, Gakuji Osawa, Hajime Yokomizo, Yuki Yano, Sachiyo Okayama, Akiko Sakuma, Masaya Satake, Yasufumi Yamada, Shinichi Asaka, Takebumi Usui, Kentaro Yamaguchi, Shunichi Shiozawa, Takeshi Shimakawa, Takao Katsube, Yoshihiko Naritaka
A 78-year-old man visited our hospital with a prolapsed hemorrhoid. He was referred to the dermatology unit due to the thickness and redness of the perianal skin. He was diagnosed as having extra mammary Paget's disease by skin biopsy. After a biopsy of the anal polyp was performed to investigate the primary site, he was diagnosed with early anal canal cancer with Pagetoid spread and underwent a radical operation. Abdominoperineal resection with skin(D2 prx D3 lymphadenectomy) was performed with perineal reconstruction using a gracilis muscle graft...
October 2016: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
Yan Wang, Jung-Mao Hsu, Ya'an Kang, Yongkun Wei, Pei-Chih Lee, Shing-Jyh Chang, Yi-Hsin Hsu, Jennifer L Hsu, Hung-Ling Wang, Wei-Chao Chang, Chia-Wei Li, Hsin-Wei Liao, Shih-Shin Chang, Weiya Xia, How-Wen Ko, Chao-Kai Chou, Jason B Fleming, Huamin Wang, Rosa F Hwang, Yue Chen, Jun Qin, Mien-Chie Hung
The oncogenic transcription factor Gli1 is a critical effector in the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway which is necessary for the development and progression of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). While TGF-β and K-Ras are known regulators of Gli1 gene transcription in this setting, it is not understood how Gli1 functional activity is regulated. Here we report the identification of Gli1 as a substrate for the protein arginine N-methyltransferase PRMT1 in PDAC. We found that PRMT1 methylates Gli1 at R597, promoting its transcriptional activity by enhancing the binding of Gli1 to its target gene promoters...
October 6, 2016: Cancer Research
Vanaja Konduri, Dali Li, Matthew M Halpert, Dan Liang, Zhengdong Liang, Yunyu Chen, William E Fisher, Silke Paust, Jonathan M Levitt, Qizhi Cathy Yao, William K Decker
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States, exhibiting a five-year overall survival (OS) of only 7% despite aggressive standard of care. Recent advances in immunotherapy suggest potential application of immune-based treatment approaches to PDAC. To explore this concept further, we treated orthotopically established K-ras(G12D)/p53(-/-) PDAC tumors with gemcitabine and a cell-based vaccine previously shown to generate durable cell-mediated (TH1) immunity...
2016: Oncoimmunology
Xiang-Jun Tang, Kuan-Ming Huang, Hui Gui, Jun-Jie Wang, Jun-Ti Lu, Long-Jun Dai, Li Zhang, Gang Wang
As one of the natural herbal flavonoids, myricetin has attracted much research interest, mainly owing to its remarkable anticancer properties and negligible side effects. It holds great potential to be developed as an ideal anticancer drug through improving its bioavailability. This study was performed to investigate the effects of Pluronic-based micelle encapsulation on myricetin-induced cytotoxicity and the mechanisms underlying its anticancer properties in human glioblastoma cells. Cell viability was assessed using a methylthiazol tetrazolium assay and a real-time cell analyzer...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
J Feliu, I Díez de Corcuera, J L Manzano, M Valladares-Ayerbes, J Alcaide, T García García, R Vera, J Sastre
PURPOSE: In the VELOUR study, aflibercept + FOLFIRI regimen resulted in improved survival in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients who progressed after oxaliplatin. The use of aflibercept outside the clinical trial framework needs to be further assessed in terms of effectiveness and tolerability. METHODS: Early access to aflibercept through a named patient programme (NPP) was provided to mCRC patients receiving FOLFIRI as second-line treatment in Spain...
October 7, 2016: Clinical & Translational Oncology
Marta Vilalta, Nicholas P Hughes, Rie Von Eyben, Amato J Giaccia, Edward E Graves
PURPOSE: Preclinical studies of hypoxia are generally done using ectopic xenograft tumors, which behave differently from human tumors. Our previous findings have shown that subcutaneously implanted lung tumors exhibit more hypoxia than their orthotopic implanted or spontaneous K-ras-induced counterparts. We hypothesize that differences in hypoxia are due to site-specific differences in vascularity and perfusion. PROCEDURES: To compare the presence and functionality of vessels in these tumor models, we studied vascular perfusion in vivo in real time...
October 5, 2016: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
Kwang-Jin Cho, Darren E Casteel, Priyanka Prakash, Lingxiao Tan, Dharini van der Hoeven, Angela A Salim, Choel Kim, Robert J Capon, Ernest Lacey, Shane R Cunha, Alemayehu A Gorfe, John F Hancock
K-Ras must localize to the plasma membrane and be arrayed in nanoclusters for biological activity. We show here that K-Ras is a substrate for cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinases (PKGs). In intact cells activated PKG2 selectively co-localizes with K-Ras on the plasma membrane and phosphorylates K-Ras at Ser181 in the C-terminal polybasic domain. K-Ras phosphorylation by PKG2 is triggered by activation of AMP kinase and requires eNOS and soluble guanylyl-cyclase. Phosphorylated K-Ras re-organizes into distinct nanoclusters that retune signal output...
October 3, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biology
Mengmeng Deng, Junwei Hou, Jun Hu, Shuo Wang, Mi Chen, Lizhao Chen, Ying Ju, Changfei Li, Songdong Meng
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection induces hepatocarcinogenesis and malignant progression, yet global effects of the redundant viral mRNAs produced during infection are unexplored. Here, microRNA (miRNA) target prediction and whole genome expression analysis revealed that HBV pre-C/C mRNA leads to upregulation of multiple let-7a targeted genes. A let-7a complementary region from nt 86 to 108 in the HBV genome was then identified in HBV pre-C/C, pre-S, and S mRNAs. The let-7a sequestration effect by HBV mRNAs was observed under transfection and virus infection, which is dependent on the let-7a response sequence...
September 29, 2016: Cancer Letters
Chi Pan, Shanshan Weng, Yin Duan, Ling Ding, Suzhan Zhang, Jianjin Huang
AIM OF THE STUDY: Many studies have shown that interferon-α (IFN-α) enhances the antiproliferative effect of gefitinib in some solid tumours. We aimed to determine the effect of combining IFN-α with gefitinib in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines (A549, H1299, HCC827) with different EGFR and K-Ras gene statuses. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An MTT assay was used to assess cell proliferation. Apoptosis was detected by an Annexin V/propidium iodide assay using flow cytometry, and western blotting was used to determine the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor/phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/p-EGFR) and signal transducers and activators of transcription 3/phosphorylated signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3/p-STAT3)...
2016: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
Vivek Asati, Debarshi Kar Mahapatra, Sanjay Kumar Bharti
The discovery of genetic, genomic and clinical biomarkers have revolutionized the treatment option in the form of personalized medicine which allows to accurately predict a person's susceptibility/progression of disease, the patient's response to therapy, and maximize the therapeutic outcome in terms of low/no toxicity for a particular patient. Recently, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has realized the contribution of pharmacogenomics in better healthcare and advocated the consideration of pharmacogenomic principles in making safer and more effective drug...
September 16, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Kimiko Shimizu, Yodai Kobayashi, Erika Nakatsuji, Maya Yamazaki, Shigeki Shimba, Kenji Sakimura, Yoshitaka Fukada
Learning and memory depend on the time of day in various organisms, but it is not clear whether and how the circadian clock regulates memory performance. Here we show that consolidation of long-term recognition memory is a circadian-regulated process, which is blunted by disruption of the hippocampal clock. We focused on SCOP, a key molecule regulating hippocampus-dependent long-term memory for objects. The amounts of SCOP and its binding partner K-Ras in the hippocampal membrane rafts exhibit robust circadian changes, and SCOP knockdown in the hippocampal CA1 impairs long-term memory at night...
2016: Nature Communications
Gaia De Sanctis, Michela Spinelli, Marco Vanoni, Elena Sacco
BACKGROUND: Cancer cells have an increased demand for amino acids and require transport even of non-essential amino acids to support their increased proliferation rate. Besides their major role as protein synthesis precursors, the two proteinogenic sulfur-containing amino acids, methionine and cysteine, play specific biological functions. In humans, methionine is essential for cell growth and development and may act as a precursor for cysteine synthesis. Cysteine is a precursor for the biosynthesis of glutathione, the major scavenger for reactive oxygen species...
2016: PloS One
Takahiro Kishikawa, Motoyuki Otsuka, Takeshi Yoshikawa, Motoko Ohno, Hideaki Ijichi, Kazuhiko Koike
Highly repetitive tandem arrays at the centromeric and pericentromeric regions in chromosomes, previously considered silent, are actively transcribed, particularly in cancer. This aberrant expression occurs even in K-ras-mutated pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) tissues, which are precancerous lesions. To examine the biological roles of the satellite RNAs in carcinogenesis, we construct mouse PanIN-derived cells expressing major satellite (MajSAT) RNA and show increased malignant properties. We find an increase in frequency of chromosomal instability and point mutations in both genomic and mitochondrial DNA...
2016: Nature Communications
Michael B Cammarata, Christopher L Schardon, M Rachel Mehaffey, Jake Rosenberg, Jonathan Singleton, Walter Fast, Jennifer S Brodbelt
Single-residue mutations at Gly12 (G12X) in the GTP-ase protein K-Ras can lead to activation of different downstream signaling pathways, depending on the identity of the mutation, through a poorly defined mechanism. Herein, native mass spectrometry combined with top-down ultraviolet photodissociation (UVPD) was employed to investigate the structural changes occurring from G12X mutations of K-Ras. Complexes between K-Ras or the G12X mutants and guanosine 5'-diphosphate (GDP) or GDPnP (a stable GTP analogue) were transferred to the gas phase by nano-electrospray ionization and characterized using UVPD...
October 3, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Tsung-Jen Liao, Chung-Jung Tsai, Hyunbum Jang, David Fushman, Ruth Nussinov
Is RASSF5 a tumor suppressor or activator? RASSF5 links K-Ras and the Hippo pathway. Hippo's signaling promotes YAP1 phosphorylation and degradation. YAP1 overexpression promotes cancer. Most reports point to RASSF5 suppressing cancer; however, some point to its promoting cancer. Our mechanistic view explains how RASSF5 can activate MST1/2 and suppress cancer in vivo; but inhibits MST1/2 in vitro. We propose that both activation and inhibition of MST1/2 can take place via SARAH heterodimerization. Our thesis in vivo, membrane-anchored Ras dimers (or nanoclusters) can promote SARAH domain heterodimerization, Raf-like MST1/2 kinase domain homodimerization and trans-autophosphorylation...
September 16, 2016: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
Chen Liang, Yi Qin, Bo Zhang, Shunrong Ji, Si Shi, Wenyan Xu, Jiang Liu, Jinfeng Xiang, Dingkong Liang, Qiangsheng Hu, Quanxing Ni, Jin Xu, Xianjun Yu
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is one of the most lethal malignant neoplasms. The recognized hallmarks of PDA are regarded to be downstream events of metabolic reprogramming. Because PDA is a heterogeneous disease that is influenced by genetic polymorphisms and changes in the microenvironment, metabolic plasticity is a novel feature of PDA. As intrinsic factors for metabolic plasticity, K-ras activation and mutations in other tumor suppressor genes induce abnormal mitochondrial metabolism and enhance glycolysis, with alterations in glutamine and lipid metabolism...
September 4, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Alexandra Paulo, Ana Paula Francisco
Nucleic acids are prone to structural polymorphism and a number of structures may be formed in addition to the well-known DNA double helix. Among these is a family of nucleic acid four-stranded structures known as G-quadruplexes (G4). These quadruplex structures can be formed by sequences containing repetitive guanine-rich tracks and the analysis of Non-B-DNA database indicated an enrichment of these sequences in genomic regions controlling cellular proliferation, such as for example in the promoter regions of c-MYC, k-RAS, c-KIT, HSP90 and VEGF among others...
August 29, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Neil S Dhawan, Alex P Scopton, Arvin C Dar
Deregulation of the Ras-mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is an early event in many different cancers and a key driver of resistance to targeted therapies. Sustained signalling through this pathway is caused most often by mutations in K-Ras, which biochemically favours the stabilization of active RAF signalling complexes. Kinase suppressor of Ras (KSR) is a MAPK scaffold that is subject to allosteric regulation through dimerization with RAF. Direct targeting of KSR could have important therapeutic implications for cancer; however, testing this hypothesis has been difficult owing to a lack of small-molecule antagonists of KSR function...
August 24, 2016: Nature
G G Jinesh, J R Molina, L Huang, N M Laing, G B Mills, M Bar-Eli, A M Kamat
Apoptosis culminates in secondary necrosis due to lack of ATP. Cancer stem cells form spheres after apoptosis by evoking the blebbishield emergency program. Hence, determining how blebbishields avoid secondary necrosis is crucial. Here we demonstrate that N-Myc and VEGFR2 control transformation from blebbishields, during which oligomers of K-Ras, p27, BAD, Bax, and Bak boost glycolysis to avoid secondary necrosis. Non-apoptotic cancer cells also utilize oligomers to boost glycolysis, which differentiates the glycolytic function of oligomers from their apoptotic action...
2016: Cell Death Discovery
Kyle V Butler, Kelsey Bohn, Christine A Hrycyna, Jian Jin
Activating mutations of human K-Ras proteins are among the most common oncogenic mutations, present in approximately 30% of all human cancers. Posttranslational modifications to K-Ras guide it to the plasma membrane and disruption of this localization inhibits the growth of Ras-driven cancers. The human isoprenylcysteine carboxyl methyltransferase (hIcmt) enzyme catalyzes the final α-carboxyl methylesterification of the C-terminal farnesyl cysteine of K-Ras, which is necessary for its proper localization. Thus, hIcmt inhibition is a regarded as a promising cancer therapy...
May 1, 2016: MedChemComm
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