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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905954/measuring-and-tracking-obesity-inequality-in-the-united-states-evidence-from-nhanes-1971-2014
#1
Tae-Young Pak, Susana Ferreira, Gregory Colson
BACKGROUND: Because people care about their weight relative to peers and society, obesity inequality plays a role in explaining obesity incidence and the impacts of being obese on subjective well-being. While the increase in obesity prevalence and mean body mass index (BMI) is well documented, the measurement of distributional changes and corresponding obesity inequality is yet to be fully explored. METHODS: The present study analyzed BMI data for adults aged 20 to 74 from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) I (1971-1974), II (1976-1980), III (1988-1994), and continuous NHANES (1999-2014)...
April 4, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900934/gender-relations-and-women-s-reproductive-health-in-south-sudan
#2
Sumit Kane, Matilda Rial, Anthony Matere, Marjolein Dieleman, Jacqueline E W Broerse, Maryse Kok
BACKGROUND: In South Sudan, women disproportionately bear the burden of morbidity and mortality related to sexual and reproductive health, with a maternal mortality ratio of 789 deaths per 100,000 live births. DESIGN: A qualitative study was conducted to analyze how gendered social relations among the Fertit people affect women's ability to exercise control over their reproductive lives and thereby their sexual and reproductive health. Transcripts of 5 focus group discussions and 44 semi-structured interviews conducted with purposefully selected community members and health personnel were analyzed using Connell's relational theory of gender...
2016: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894342/inequalities-in-the-spiritual-health-of-young-canadians-a-national-cross-sectional-study
#3
Valerie Michaelson, John Freeman, Nathan King, Hannah Ascough, Colleen Davison, Tracy Trothen, Sian Phillips, William Pickett
BACKGROUND: Spiritual health, along with physical, emotional, and social aspects, is one of four domains of health. Assessment in this field of research is challenging methodologically. No contemporary population-based studies have profiled the spiritual health of adolescent Canadians with a focus on health inequalities. In a 2014 nationally representative sample of Canadians aged 11-15 years we therefore: (1) psychometrically evaluated a series of items used to assess the perceived importance of spiritual health and its four potential sub-domains (connections with: self, others, nature and the natural environment, and the transcendent) to adolescents; (2) described potential inequalities in spiritual health within adolescent populations, overall and by spiritual health sub-domain, by key socio-demographic factors...
November 28, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894303/integrated-agriculture-programs-to-address-malnutrition-in-northern-malawi
#4
Rachel Bezner Kerr, Emmanuel Chilanga, Hanson Nyantakyi-Frimpong, Isaac Luginaah, Esther Lupafya
BACKGROUND: In countries where the majority of undernourished people are smallholder farmers, there has been interest in agricultural interventions to improve nutritional outcomes. Addressing gender inequality, however, is a key mechanism by which agriculture can improve nutrition, since women often play a crucial role in farming, food processing and child care, but have limited decision-making and control over agricultural resources. This study examines the approaches by which gender equity in agrarian, resource-poor settings can be improved using a case study in Malawi...
November 28, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887668/meddling-with-middle-modalities-a-decomposition-approach-to-mental-health-inequalities-between-intersectional-gender-and-economic-middle-groups-in-northern-sweden
#5
Per E Gustafsson, Miguel San Sebastián, Paola A Mosquera
BACKGROUND: Intersectionality has received increased interest within population health research in recent years, as a concept and framework to understand entangled dimensions of health inequalities, such as gender and socioeconomic inequalities in health. However, little attention has been paid to the intersectional middle groups, referring to those occupying positions of mixed advantage and disadvantage. OBJECTIVE: This article aimed to 1) examine mental health inequalities between intersectional groups reflecting structural positions of gender and economic affluence and 2) decompose any observed health inequalities, among middle groups, into contributions from experiences and conditions representing processes of privilege and oppression...
2016: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886736/pushed-or-pulled-girls-and-boys-facing-early-school-leaving-risk-in-italy
#6
Camilla Borgna, Emanuela Struffolino
Compared to girls, boys are more at risk of early school leaving. However, it is unclear whether gender differences are driven by push factors, which alienate students from the school system, or pull factors, which attract them out of it. This paper examines gender differences in early school leaving, assessing the role of previous scholastic performance, parental education, and differential employment opportunities. By analyzing two nationally representative datasets, we focus on Italy, a country with high rates of early school leaving and pronounced gender inequalities in the labor market...
January 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883305/understanding-transgender-and-medically-assisted-gender-transition-feminism-as-a-critical-resource
#7
Jamie Lindemann Nelson
Feminism has fought the trivialization of women's experiences, championed women's security, and insisted on respect for women's choices. In so doing, feminism has developed important perspectives on the complicated connections between what gender means as it plays itself in people's lives, and the inequalities of power and authority that structure much of human experience. Here, I put a few of these perspectives into contact with an issue where the interactions of gender and power are squarely in play: medicine's role in assisting gender transitioning generally and, specifically, the enduring controversy between medicine and many transgender people about the pathologization of transgender and the role of clinicians as gatekeepers to gender-transition interventions...
November 1, 2016: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878531/beyond-dichotomies-gender-and-intersecting-inequalities-in-climate-change-studies
#8
Houria Djoudi, Bruno Locatelli, Chloe Vaast, Kiran Asher, Maria Brockhaus, Bimbika Basnett Sijapati
Climate change and related adaptation strategies have gender-differentiated impacts. This paper reviews how gender is framed in 41 papers on climate change adaptation through an intersectionality lens. The main findings show that while intersectional analysis has demonstrated many advantages for a comprehensive study of gender, it has not yet entered the field of climate change and gender. In climate change studies, gender is mostly handled in a men-versus-women dichotomy and little or no attention has been paid to power and social and political relations...
December 2016: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867240/internal-and-international-migration-across-the-urban-hierarchy-in-albania
#9
Mathias Lerch
The interactions between the processes of urbanization and international migration in less developed and transition countries have important repercussions for socioeconomic development, but are not well understood. Based on the retrospective data from the Albanian Living Standards Measurement Survey 2008, we first assess the geography of migration in terms of the rural-urban continuum, the urban hierarchy and the outside world since 1990. We then investigate the spatio-temporal diffusion of rural-to-urban and international movements using survival models...
2016: Population Research and Policy Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856971/the-stratified-legitimacy-of-abortions
#10
Katrina Kimport, Tracy A Weitz, Lori Freedman
Roe v. Wade was heralded as an end to unequal access to abortion care in the United States. However, today, despite being common and safe, abortion is performed only selectively in hospitals and private practices. Drawing on 61 interviews with obstetrician-gynecologists in these settings, we examine how they determine which abortions to perform. We find that they distinguish between more and less legitimate abortions, producing a narrative of stratified legitimacy that privileges abortions for intended pregnancies, when the fetus is unhealthy, and when women perform normative gendered sexuality, including distress about the abortion, guilt about failure to contracept, and desire for motherhood...
December 2016: Journal of Health and Social Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852317/the-relationship-between-the-maria-da-penha-law-and-intimate-partner-violence-in-two-brazilian-states
#11
Mariana V Gattegno, Jasmine D Wilkins, Dabney P Evans
BACKGROUND: Globally, inequality between men and women manifests in a variety of ways. In particular, gender inequality increases the risk of perpetration of violence against women (VAW), especially intimate partner violence (IPV), by males. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 35 % of women have experienced physical, psychological and/or sexual IPV at least once in their lives, making IPV unacceptably common. In 2006, the Maria da Penha Law on Domestic and Family Violence, became the first federal law to regulate VAW and punish perpetrators in Brazil...
November 17, 2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852275/social-inequalities-in-health-behaviors-among-brazilian-adults-national-health-survey-2013
#12
Marilisa Berti de Azevedo Barros, Margareth Guimarães Lima, Lhais de Paula Barbosa Medina, Celia Landman Szwarcwald, Deborah Carvalho Malta
BACKGROUND: Considering the high socioeconomic inequalities prevailing in Brazil and lifestyle as a strong determinant of morbidity and premature mortality, our purpose was to evaluate the degree of socioeconomic disparities in the prevalence of health behaviors among Brazilian adult population using data from the 2013 Brazilian National Health Survey. METHOD: Based on a sample of 49,025 individuals aged 20 to 59 years, we estimated the prevalence of several health behaviors and a score of unhealthy behaviors according to gender, education, race/color and possession of private health insurance...
November 17, 2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852274/educational-inequalities-in-hypertension-complex-patterns-in-intersections-with-gender-and-race-in-brazil
#13
Ronaldo Fernandes Santos Alves, Eduardo Faerstein
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a major public health issue worldwide, but knowledge is scarce about its patterns and its relationship to multiple axes of social disadvantages in Latin American countries. This study describes the educational inequality in the prevalence of hypertension in Brazil, including a joint stratification by gender and race. METHODS: We analyzed interview-based data and blood pressure measurements from 59,402 participants aged 18 years or older at the 2013 Brazilian National Health Survey (PNS)...
November 17, 2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852266/trends-and-determinants-of-inequities-in-childhood-stunting-in-bangladesh-from-1996-7-to-2014
#14
Atonu Rabbani, Akib Khan, Sifat Yusuf, Alayne Adams
BACKGROUND: We explore long-term trends and determinants of socioeconomic inequities in chronic childhood undernutrition measured by stunting among under-five children in Bangladesh. Given that one in three children remain stunted in Bangladesh, the socioeconomic mapping of stunting prevalence may be critical in designing public policies and interventions to eradicate childhood undernutrition. METHODS: Six rounds of Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey data are utilized, spanning the period 1996/97 to 2014...
November 16, 2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849291/revista-de-sa%C3%A3%C2%BAde-p%C3%A3%C2%BAblica-in-scientific-publications-on-violence-and-health-1967-2015
#15
Lilia Blima Schraiber, Claudia Barros, Ana Flávia Pires Lucas d'Oliveira, Maria Fernanda Tourinho Peres
This article retrieved the publications from the Revista de Saúde Pública journal (from 1967 to 2015) on violence and health, on the SciELO and PubMed bases, by searching for the terms "violence", "suicide", "aggression", "bullying", and "external causes", registered in any part of the text. We found 130 articles (the first one published in 1974). We observed: increase of publications over time, with decrease in the last five years; similar production volume in lethal and non-lethal violence; later publication of the latter; few studies in qualitative research; mostly descriptive production; and visualization of the problem more by the acts than by contexts or motivations and aggressors...
November 10, 2016: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843161/adding-interventions-to-mass-measles-vaccinations-in-india
#16
Mira Johri, Stéphane Verguet, Shaun K Morris, Jitendar K Sharma, Usha Ram, Cindy Gauvreau, Edward Jones, Prabhat Jha, Mark Jit
OBJECTIVE: To quantify the impact on mortality of offering a hypothetical set of technically feasible, high-impact interventions for maternal and child survival during India's 2010-2013 measles supplementary immunization activity. METHODS: We developed Lives Saved Tool models for 12 Indian states participating in the supplementary immunization, based on state- and sex-specific data on mortality from India's Million Deaths Study and on health services coverage from Indian household surveys...
October 1, 2016: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837152/combined-effect-of-educational-status-and-cardiovascular-risk-factors-on-the-incidence-of-coronary-heart-disease-and-stroke-in-european-cohorts-implications-for-prevention
#17
Giovanni Veronesi, Hugh Tunstall-Pedoe, Marco M Ferrario, Frank Kee, Kari Kuulasmaa, Lloyd E Chambless, Philippe Amouyel, Dominique Arveiler, Martin Bobak, Jean Ferrieres, Simona Giampaoli, Torben Jørgensen, Annette Peters, Veikko Salomaa, Stefan Soderberg, Abdonas Tamosiunas, Giancarlo Cesana
BACKGROUND: The combined effect of social status and risk factors on the absolute risk of cardiovascular disease has been insufficiently investigated, but results provide guidance on who could benefit most through prevention. METHODS: We followed 77,918 cardiovascular disease-free individuals aged 35-74 years at baseline, from 38 cohorts covering Nordic and Baltic countries, the UK and Central Europe, for a median of 12 years. Using Fine-Gray models in a competing-risks framework we estimated the effect of the interaction of education with smoking, blood pressure and body weight on the cumulative risk of incident acute coronary heart disease and stroke...
November 11, 2016: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833252/the-double-standard-at-sexual-debut-gender-sexual-behavior-and-adolescent-peer-acceptance
#18
Derek A Kreager, Jeremy Staff, Robin Gauthier, Eva S Lefkowitz, Mark E Feinberg
A sexual double standard in adolescence has important implications for sexual development and gender inequality. The present study uses longitudinal social network data (N = 914; 11-16 years of age) to test if gender moderates associations between adolescents' sexual behaviors and peer acceptance. Consistent with a traditional sexual double standard, female adolescents who reported having sex had significant decreases in peer acceptance over time, whereas male adolescents reporting the same behavior had significant increases in peer acceptance...
October 2016: Sex Roles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825400/socioeconomic-inequalities-in-self-reported-health-and-physical-functioning-in-argentina-findings-from-the-national-survey-on-quality-of-life-of-older-adults-2012-encaviam
#19
Santiago Rodríguez López, Sonia E Colantonio, Dora E Celton
This study aimed to evaluate educational and income inequalities in self-reported health (SRH), and physical functioning (limitations in Activities of Daily Living (ADL)/Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL)), among 60-year-old and older adults in Argentina. Using cross-sectional data from the Argentinian National Survey on Quality of Life of Older Adults 2012 (Encuesta Nacional sobre Calidad de Vida de Adultos Mayores, ENCaViAM), gender-specific socioeconomic inequalities in SRH and ADL and IADL limitations were studied in relation to educational level and household per capita income...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818522/manufacturing-gender-inequality-in-the-new-economy-high-school-training-for-work-in-blue-collar-communities
#20
April Sutton, Amanda Bosky, Chandra Muller
Tensions between the demands of the knowledge-based economy and remaining, blue-collar jobs underlie renewed debates about whether schools should emphasize career and technical training or college-preparatory curricula. We add a gendered lens to this issue, given the male-dominated nature of blue-collar jobs and women's greater returns to college. Using the ELS:2002, this study exploits spatial variation in school curricula and jobs to investigate local dynamics that shape gender stratification. Results suggest a link between high school training and jobs in blue-collar communities that structures patterns of gender inequality into early adulthood...
August 2016: American Sociological Review
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