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Gender inequality

Yusuf Ransome, Ichiro Kawachi, Sarah Braunstein, Denis Nash
In the United States, research is limited on the mechanisms that link socioeconomic and structural factors to HIV diagnosis outcomes. We tested whether neighborhood income inequality, socioeconomic deprivation, and black racial concentration were associated with gender-specific rates of HIV in the advanced stages of AIDS (i.e., late HIV diagnosis). We then examined whether HIV testing prevalence and accessibility mediated any of the associations above. Neighborhoods with highest (relative to lowest) black racial concentration had higher relative risk of late HIV diagnosis among men (RR=1...
October 19, 2016: Health & Place
Andrew C Patterson, Gerry Veenstra
OBJECTIVES: Intersectionality theory proposes that each combination of social categories derived from gender, race and nationality, such as immigrant White man or native-born Black woman, is associated with unique social experiences. We tested the potential of intersectionality theory for explicating racial inequalities in Canada by investigating whether Black-White health inequalities are conditioned by gender and immigrant status in a synergistic way. METHODS: Our dataset comprised 10 cycles (2001-2013) of the Canadian Community Health Survey...
October 20, 2016: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
Samuel Pehrson, Héctor Carvacho, Chris G Sibley
Social dominance orientation (SDO) is conceived as an individual's level of support for group-based hierarchy in general that causes support for more specific group hierarchies. According to social dominance theory, group differences in SDO underpin ideological and behavioural group differences related to specific group hierarchies. Using representative 5-year longitudinal panel data from New Zealand (N = 3,384), we test whether SDO mediates effects of sex and ethnicity on legitimizing myths (LMs) relating to gender and ethnic hierarchy over time...
October 20, 2016: British Journal of Social Psychology
Yan-Ning Li, Dong-Xiao Nong, Bo Wei, Qi-Ming Feng, Hong-Ye Luo
BACKGROUND: Healthcare in China has significantly improved, meanwhile many  socio-economic risk factors and health conditions factors affect accessibility and utilization of health services in rural areas. Inequity of health service in China needs to  be estimated and reduced. Andersen behavioral model is useful to assess the association of health service utilization with predisposing, enabling, and need factors. METHODS: A survey was conducted among 4634 residents of 897 households in 2012...
October 19, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Leidy Johanna Ocampo Arroyave, María Clara Restrepo-Méndez, Bernardo Lessa Horta, Ana Maria Baptista Menezes, Denise Petrucci Gigante, Helen Gonçalves
This study focuses on trends and inequalities in health risk behaviors among adolescents. A cross-sectional study compared two birth cohorts in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The sample included 1,281 adolescents from the 1982 cohort and 4,106 from the 1993 cohort, followed in 2001 and 2011, respectively. The study recorded alcohol intake, illegal drug use, smoking, sexual initiation < 16 years, lack of condom use, and multiple sex partners. Total prevalence rates were calculated for each cohort, stratified by gender and per capita income, besides absolute and relative measures of inequality...
October 10, 2016: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Laura Wells, Magnus Nermo, Viveca Östberg
As physical inactivity may track from adolescence to adulthood, it is important to identify social determinants of physical inactivity in early life. However, most studies have measured socioeconomic position as one dimension. We examine whether multiple dimensions of socioeconomic position, in addition to other dimensions of inequality (i.e., gender, immigrant background), associate with physical inactivity at two time points in youth. Longitudinal data were drawn from the Swedish Level of Living Survey (N = 765) and analysed by gender-stratified logistic regression...
October 5, 2016: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
Jani P Vaara, Jarmo Viskari, Heikki Kyröläinen, Matti Santtila
No previous studies have investigated attitudes of the female soldiers toward physical fitness tests and physical performance requirements. The purpose of the present study was to investigate how military personnel group, age, physical fitness, and body composition are associated with female soldiers' attitudes toward fitness tests and requirements. A survey was conducted for 362 voluntary female soldiers. 76 % of them answered that the current fitness requirements are not too demanding, and 56 to 76% thought that the minimum requirements are at appropriate level for females...
October 2016: Military Medicine
Catrinel Craciun, Uwe Flick
The present study explores views on aging and how these differ according to gender and precariousness status. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 10 men and 10 women with secure and insecure pensions. Themes like fear of illness and health decline were more present in men, while fear of losing their attractiveness in old age more present among women. For all participants, loss of autonomy and social roles represented a negative view of old age, while activity in the form of work, volunteering, or leisure represented positive views...
2016: Journal of Women & Aging
Bruno Luciano Carneiro Alves de Oliveira, Ronir Raggio Luiz
OBJECTIVE: The skin color/race and urbanity are structural determinants of health. The relationship between these variables produces structure of social stratification that defines inequalities in the experiences of life and death. Thus, this study describes the characteristics of the mortality indicators by skin color/race according level of urbanity and aggregation to the metropolitan region (MR) of 5565 cities in Brazil, controlling for gender and age. DESIGN: Descriptive study which included the calculation of measures relating to 1,050,546 deaths in the year survey of 2010 by skin color/race White, Black, and Brown according to both sexes, for five age groups and three levels of urbanity of cities in Brazil that were aggregated or not to the MR in the year of study...
October 17, 2016: Ethnicity & Health
Sheena Asthana, Graham Moon, Alex Gibson, Trevor Bailey, Paul Hewson, Chris Dibben
There is a general understanding that socioeconomically disadvantaged people are also disadvantaged with respect to their access to NHS care. Insofar as considerable NHS funding has been targeted at deprived areas, it is important to better understand whether and why socioeconomic variations in access and utilisation exist. Exploring this question with reference to cardiovascular care, our aims were to synthesise and evaluate evidence relating to access to and/or use of English NHS services around (i) different points on the care pathway (i...
October 16, 2016: Health & Social Care in the Community
Paola A Mosquera, Miguel San Sebastian, Anneli Ivarsson, Lars Weinehall, Per E Gustafsson
BACKGROUND: Early life is thought of as a foundation for health inequalities in adulthood. However, research directly examining the contribution of childhood circumstances to the integrated phenomenon of adult social inequalities in health is absent. The present study aimed to examine whether, and to what degree, social conditions during childhood explain income inequalities in metabolic syndrome in mid-adulthood. METHODS: The sample (N = 12 481) comprised all 40- and 50-year-old participants in the Västerbotten Intervention Program in Northern Sweden 2008, 2009 and 2010...
October 15, 2016: European Journal of Public Health
Ethel M Brinda, Anto P Rajkumar, Jǿrn Attermann, Ulf G Gerdtham, Ulrika Enemark, Kuruthukulangara S Jacob
OBJECTIVE: Although depression among older people is an important public health problem worldwide, systematic studies evaluating its prevalence and determinants in low and middle income countries (LMICs) are sparse. The biopsychosocial model of depression and prevailing socioeconomic hardships for older people in LMICs have provided the impetus to determine the prevalence of geriatric depression; to study its associations with health, social, and economic variables; and to investigate socioeconomic inequalities in depression prevalence in LMICs...
July 25, 2016: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Marios K Georgakis, Maria A Karalexi, Eleni I Kalogirou, Anton Ryzhov, Anna Zborovskaya, Nadya Dimitrova, Sultan Eser, Luis Antunes, Mario Sekerija, Tina Zagar, Joana Bastos, Domenic Agius, Margareta Florea, Daniela Coza, Evdoxia Bouka, Charis Bourgioti, Helen Dana, Emmanuel Hatzipantelis, Maria Moschovi, Savvas Papadopoulos, Georgios Sfakianos, Evgenia Papakonstantinou, Sophia Polychronopoulou, Spyros Sgouros, Kalliopi Stefanaki, Eftichia Stiakaki, Katerina Strantzia, Basilios Zountsas, Apostolos Pourtsidis, Eustratios Patsouris, Eleni Th Petridou
Pilocytic astrocytomas (PA) comprise the most common childhood central nervous system (CNS) tumor. Exploiting registry-based data from Southern and Eastern Europe (SEE) and SEER, US, we opted to examine incidence, time trends, survival and tentative outcome disparities of childhood PA by sociodemographic and clinical features. Childhood PA were retrieved from 12 SEE registries (N = 552; 1983-2014) and SEER (N = 2723; 1973-2012). Age-standardized incidence rates (ASR) were estimated and survival was examined via Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analysis...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Thandeka T T Dlamini-Simelane, Eileen Moyer
Through various campaigns and strategies, more women are being tested for HIV in countries with a high prevalence of the virus. Despite the ready availability of treatment at government clinics in sub-Saharan African countries like Swaziland, women consistently report difficulty in maintaining access to treatment. Drawing on two individual case studies selected from a larger study of the so-called leaky cascade in Swaziland, we illustrate the protracted journeys married women undertake to initiate treatment...
October 13, 2016: Health Policy and Planning
Raj Chetty, David Cutler, Michael Stepner
Earlier this year, the three of us, along with several colleagues, published new research on the relationship between income and life expectancy in the United States, drawing on population-level data drawn from tax and Social Security records.(1) As part of that research, we created new, publicly available data sets with estimates of (1) life expectancy at age 40 years by gender, area (county and commuting zone), income level, and year (2001-2014); and (2) estimates of mortality rates by age (≥ 40 years), gender, area, income level, and year...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Public Health
Leoandra Onnie Rogers, Andrew N Meltzoff
Objectives: Social categories shape children's lives in subtle and powerful ways. Although research has assessed children's knowledge of social groups, most prominently race and gender, few studies have examined children's understanding of their own multiple social identities and how they intersect. This paper explores how children evaluate the importance and meaning of their racial and gender identities, and variation in these evaluations based on the child's own age, gender, and race. Method: Participants were 222 Black, White, and Mixed-Race children (girls: n = 136; Mage = 9...
October 13, 2016: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
Fumiaki Taka, Kyoko Nomura, Saki Horie, Keisuke Takemoto, Masumi Takeuchi, Shinichi Takenoshita, Aya Murakami, Haruko Hiraike, Hiroko Okinaga, Derek R Smith
We investigated relationships between the perception of organizational climate with gender equity and psychological health among 94 women and 211 men in a Japanese private university in 2015 using the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (i.e., personal, work-related and student-related burnout). Perceptions of organizational climate with respect to gender equity were measured with two scales including organizational engagement with a gender equal society in the workplace (consisting of three domains of 'Women utilization', 'Organizational promotion of gender equal society' and 'Consultation service'); and a gender inequality in academia scale that had been previously developed...
October 1, 2016: Industrial Health
Ian Bates, Christopher John, Andreia Bruno, Pamela Fu, Shirin Aliabadi
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that there is a global healthcare workforce shortage of 7.2 million, which is predicted to grow to 12.9 million by 2035. Globally, people are living longer with multiple co-morbidities and require increased access and use of medicines. Pharmacists are a key component of the healthcare workforce, and in many countries, pharmacists are the most accessible healthcare profession. This paper identifies key issues and current trends affecting the global pharmacy workforce, in particular workforce distribution, country economic status, capacity, and workforce gender balance...
October 10, 2016: Human Resources for Health
Nandita Bhan, Krishna Dipankar Rao, Shivani Kachwaha
BACKGROUND: Research on health inequalities can be instrumental in drawing attention to the health of socioeconomically vulnerable groups in India in the context of rapid economic growth. It can shape the dialogue for public health action, emphasizing the need for greater investments in health, and monitor effectiveness of health programs. Our objective was to examine trends in studies on health inequalities in the last 25 years. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature review of studies on health inequalities published from 1990...
October 6, 2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
Trish Hafford-Letchfield, Nicky Lambert, Ellouise Long, Dominique Brady
Greater longevity in the UK population has led to the increasing diversity of women experiencing aging in a multitude of ways. Internationally, gender inequalities in aging are still relatively invisible within both government policy and everyday life for particular groups of women. This article explores the concept of women growing older "solo"-by which we mean women who find themselves nonpartnered and aging without children as they move into later life. We report on the findings from a mixed-methods survey of 76 solo women in the UK aged 50 years and over, used to provide a broader overview of the issues and challenges they face as they move into later life...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Women & Aging
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