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Gender inequality

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773121/excess-under-5-female-mortality-across-india-a-spatial-analysis-using-2011-census-data
#1
Christophe Z Guilmoto, Nandita Saikia, Vandana Tamrakar, Jayanta Kumar Bora
BACKGROUND: Excess female mortality causes half of the missing women (estimated deficit of women in countries with suspiciously low proportion of females in their population) today. Globally, most of these avoidable deaths of women occur during childhood in China and India. We aimed to estimate excess female under-5 mortality rate (U5MR) for India's 35 states and union territories and 640 districts. METHODS: Using the summary birth history method (or Brass method), we derived district-level estimates of U5MR by sex from 2011 census data...
June 2018: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769135/health-inequalities-between-employed-and-unemployed-in-northern-sweden-a-decomposition-analysis-of-social-determinants-for-mental-health
#2
Anna Brydsten, Anne Hammarström, Miguel San Sebastian
BACKGROUND: Even though population health is strongly influenced by employment and working conditions, public health research has to a lesser extent explored the social determinants of health inequalities between people in different positions on the labour market, and whether these social determinants vary across the life course. This study analyses mental health inequalities between unemployed and employed in three age groups (youth, adulthood and mid-life), and identifies the extent to which social determinants explain the mental health gap between employed and unemployed in northern Sweden...
May 16, 2018: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767703/gender-inequality-and-the-gender-gap-in-life-expectancy-in-the-european-union
#3
Petra Kolip, Cornelia Lange
The gender gap in life expectancy (GGLE) varies substantially in EU 28 Member States. This paper addresses the question of whether gender inequality affects the GGLE as well as life expectancy (LE) in both genders. We conducted an ecological study and used the gender inequality index (GII) developed by the United Nations as well as the gender difference in LE in 2015. We found a correlation between GGLE and GII (r2=0.180) and between GII and LE of 0.418 (women) and 0.430 (men). Gender equality policies are still necessary and will have an effect on women's as well as men's health...
May 14, 2018: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767281/hiv-risk-among-displaced-adolescent-girls-in-ethiopia-the-role-of-gender-attitudes-and-self-esteem
#4
Laura Gauer Bermudez, Gary Yu, Lily Lu, Kathryn Falb, Jennate Eoomkham, Gizman Abdella, Lindsay Stark
Adolescent girls in sub-Saharan Africa have been deemed one of the most critical populations to address in the campaign for an HIV-free generation. Experiences of intimate partner violence (IPV), harmful gender norms, diminished personal agency, and age-disparate sex have been identified as factors in the increasing rate of new infections among this population. Using baseline data from a cluster-randomized controlled trial in three refugee camps in Benishangul-Gumuz Regional State in Ethiopia, our study quantitatively examined the associations between HIV risk factors, attitudes on gender inequality, IPV acceptability, and self-esteem for female adolescent refugees primarily from Sudan and South Sudan (n = 919)...
May 16, 2018: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762795/addressing-racism-in-medical-education-an-interactive-training-module
#5
Tanya White-Davis, Jennifer Edgoose, Joedrecka S Brown Speights, Kathryn Fraser, Jeffrey M Ring, Jessica Guh, George W Saba
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Education of health care clinicians on racial and ethnic disparities has primarily focused on emphasizing statistics and cultural competency, with minimal attention to racism. Learning about racism and unconscious processes provides skills that reduce bias when interacting with minority patients. This paper describes the responses to a relationship-based workshop and toolkit highlighting issues that medical educators should address when teaching about racism in the context of pernicious health disparities...
May 2018: Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751889/gender-and-geographical-inequalities-in-fatal-drug-overdose-in-iran-a-province-level-study-in-2006-and-2011
#6
Mehran Rostami, Mohammad Karamouzian, Ardeshir Khosravi, Shahab Rezaeian
AIM: We aimed to compare the fatal drug overdose rates in Iran in 2006 and 2011. METHODS: This analysis was performed based on data on fatal drug overdose cases from the Iranian death registration system. The crude and adjusted rates per 100,000 populations for geographical regions stratified by gender and age groups were calculated using the 2006 and 2011 census of Iranian population. Annual percentage change was calculated to examine annual changes of fatal drug overdose rates across different regions...
June 2018: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750241/exploring-privilege-in-the-digital-divide-implications-for-theory-policy-and-practice
#7
Mei Lan Fang, Sarah L Canham, Lupin Battersby, Judith Sixsmith, Mineko Wada, Andrew Sixsmith
Background and Objectives: The digital revolution has resulted in innovative solutions and technologies that can support the well-being, independence, and health of seniors. Yet, the notion of the "digital divide" presents significant inequities in terms of who accesses and benefits from the digital landscape. To better understand the social and structural inequities of the digital divide, a realist synthesis was conducted to inform theoretical understandings of information and communication technologies (ICTs); to understand the practicalities of access and use inequities; to uncover practices that facilitate digital literacy and participation; and to recommend policies to mitigate the digital divide...
May 10, 2018: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748417/natural-experiment-examining-the-longitudinal-association-between-change-in-residential-segregation-and-youth-cardiovascular-health-across-race-ethnicity-and-gender-in-the-usa
#8
REVIEW
Emily M D'Agostino, Hersila H Patel, Zafar Ahmed, Eric Hansen, M Sunil Mathew, Maria I Nardi, Sarah E Messiah
BACKGROUND: Identifying how racial/ethnic residential segregation and mobility may impact health can guide innovative strategies for reducing youth disparities. METHODS: This natural experiment examined the association between change in residential segregation and cardiovascular health outcomes across race/ethnicity and gender for youth (n=2250, mean age 9.1 years, 54% male; 51% Hispanic, 49% non-Hispanic black (NHB); 49% high area poverty) attending a multisite park-based afterschool fitness programme in Florida, USA...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743084/assessing-reported-cases-of-sexual-and-gender-based-violence-causes-and-preventive-strategies-in-european-asylum-reception-facilities
#9
Charlotte Oliveira, Ines Keygnaert, Maria do Rosário Oliveira Martins, Sónia Dias
BACKGROUND: Sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) is a widespread public health problem and a violation of human rights rooted in gender and power inequities. Refugees, asylum-seekers and migrants living in European asylum reception facilities (EARF) are especially vulnerable to SGBV. To contribute to closing the gap on systematic and accurate evidence on SGBV, we aim to explore reported cases of SGBV, causes and preventable measures described by residents and professionals from EARF...
May 9, 2018: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742671/a-call-to-action-to-address-gender-equity-within-our-specialty-time-s-up-on-waiting-for-change
#10
Laura Baecher-Lind, Jodi Abbott, Katharyn Meredith Atkins, J Biba Nijjar, Celeste Royce, Lauren Schiff, Hope A Ricciotti
Although national attention has been focused on sexual harassment and gender inequity in the United States, leaders within the obstetrics and gynecology community have remained relatively silent. Sexual harassment and gender inequity remain pervasive in our specialty. This article serves as a call to action for leadership as well as physicians within obstetrics and gynecology to implement ethical and evidence-based approaches to reduce gender inequity and improve workplace culture within our specialty.
May 7, 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737188/the-color-of-death-race-observed-skin-tone-and-all-cause-mortality-in-the-united-states
#11
Quincy Thomas Stewart, Ryon J Cobb, Verna M Keith
OBJECTIVE: This paper examines how mortality covaries with observed skin tone among blacks and in relation to whites. Additionally, the study analyzes the extent to which social factors such as socioeconomic status affect this relationship. DESIGN: This study uses data from the 1982 General Social Survey (N = 1,689) data linked to the National Death Index until 2008. We use this data to examine the links between race, observed skin tone among blacks, and all-cause mortality...
May 8, 2018: Ethnicity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735204/the-dynamic-nature-of-gender-and-aging-bodies
#12
Toni Calasanti, Neal King
To test a popular belief that men and women become more alike with age, we ask whether and how bodily changes that accompany aging might influence the ways that people do gender. Drawing on theories that view both gender and age as ongoing accomplishments, we use interview data gathered from people aged 42-61 years to ask whether masculinity and femininity become less relevant with age, whether people feel themselves to be less gendered. Our analysis shows, first, that respondents see manhood and womanhood as rooted in the appearances of their bodies...
June 2018: Journal of Aging Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733267/a-gender-analysis-of-a-national-community-health-workers-program-a-case-study-of-afghanistan
#13
Said Ahmad Maisam Najafizada, Ivy Lynn Bourgeault, Ronald Labonté
Gender equity can be a neglected issue in health system reforms. This paper explores the multiple layered gender dynamics of the Afghan Community Health Worker (CHW) Program within broader health system reforms in Afghanistan using a qualitative research design. We interviewed policy makers, health managers, CHWs and community members in 16 sites in 2013 and 2014. We found that gendered societal norms interact and influence the Afghan CHW program in a dynamic way. Gendered social norms around the division of labour tend to privilege women in terms of access to resources at the community level, but it is men who hold leadership positions that ultimately decide how the resources are to be distributed...
May 7, 2018: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733051/the-gender-job-satisfaction-paradox-and-the-dual-earner-society-are-women-still-making-work-family-trade-offs
#14
Anne Grönlund, Ida Öun
BACKGROUND: Despite their disadvantaged labour market position, women consistently report higher levels of job satisfaction than men. Researchers have attributed women's higher job satisfaction to their lower expectations, arguing that gender differences will fade away as women's labour market prospects improve. Others, however, argue that women are more contented than men because their jobs satisfy a need for family adaptions. OBJECTIVE: In this article, we put the hypotheses of transitions and trade-offs to a strong test, by comparing men and women with comparable human capital investments living in a country where women's employment is strongly supported by policies, practices and social norms...
2018: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723331/sociodemographic-inequalities-in-leisure-time-physical-activity-and-active-commuting-to-school-in-brazilian-adolescents-national-school-health-survey-pense-2009-2012-and-2015
#15
Rodrigo Wiltgen Ferreira, Andrea Ramirez Varela, Luciana Zaranza Monteiro, César Augusto Häfele, Simone José Dos Santos, Andrea Wendt, Inácio Crochemore Mohnsam Silva
The objective of this study was to identify inequalities in leisure-time physical activity and active commuting to school in Brazilian adolescents, as well as trends according to gender, type of school, maternal schooling, and geographic region, from 2009 to 2015. This was a descriptive study based on data from the Brazilian National School Health Survey (PeNSE) in 2009, 2012, and 2015. Students were defined as active in their leisure time when they practiced at least 60 minutes of physical activity a day on five or more of the seven days prior to the interview...
2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722864/participatory-investigation-of-the-great-east-japan-disaster-photovoice-from-women-affected-by-the-calamity
#16
Mieko Yoshihama, Tomoko Yunomae
Disasters exacerbate predisaster inequities and intensify the vulnerability of women and other marginalized and disempowered groups. Thus, disaster policies and responses should incorporate the experiences and perspectives of those who are marginalized. The authors sought to conduct a participatory research project to help develop more inclusive, gender-informed disaster responses and policies in Japan. In June 2011, following three months of planning and preparation, they initiated a participatory examination of the impact of the Great East Japan Disaster using PhotoVoice methodology...
May 2, 2018: Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721592/social-inequalities-in-mental-disorders-and-substance-misuse-in-young-adults-a-birth-cohort-study-in-southern-brazil
#17
Fernando C Barros, Alicia Matijasevich, Iná S Santos, Bernardo L Horta, Bruna Gonçalves C da Silva, Tiago N Munhoz, Seena Fazel, Alan Stein, Rebecca M Pearson, Luciana Anselmi, Luis Augusto Rohde
PURPOSE: To investigate the association between mental disorders and substance misuse at 30 years of age with gender, socioeconomic position at birth, and family income trajectories. METHODS: The 1982 Pelotas Birth Cohort was used; all 5914 children born alive at hospital were originally enrolled (99.2% of all city births). In 2012, 3701 subjects were located and interviewed (68% retention rate). Mental disorders and substance misuse were assessed, and their prevalence analysed according to gender, socioeconomic status at birth, and four different income trajectories: always poor, never poor, poor at birth/non-poor at age 30, and non-poor at birth/poor at age 30...
May 2, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720359/diffusion-of-the-digital-health-self-tracking-movement-in-canada-results-of-a-national-survey
#18
Guy Paré, Chad Leaver, Claire Bourget
BACKGROUND: With the ever-increasing availability of mobile apps, consumer wearables, and smart medical devices, more and more individuals are self-tracking and managing their personal health data. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the diffusion of the digital self-tracking movement in Canada. It provides a comprehensive, yet detailed account of this phenomenon. It examines the profile of digital self-trackers, traditional self-trackers, and nontrackers, further investigating the primary motivations for self-tracking and reasons for nontracking; barriers to adoption of connected care technologies; users' appreciation of their self-tracking devices, including what they perceive to be the main benefits; factors that influence people's intention to continue using connected care technologies in the future; and the reasons for usage discontinuance...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718911/mental-distress-and-perceived-wealth-justice-and-freedom-across-eight-countries-the-invisible-power-of-the-macrosystem
#19
Saskia Scholten, Julia Velten, Jürgen Margraf
Health and well-being have been related to macro-level factors such as income, income inequality or socioeconomic status. With regard to the increasing burden of disease due to mental disorders worldwide, the association between the macrosystem and mental distress should be further explored, too. In this context, the subjective evaluation of the macrosystem might play an important role. In the present exploratory study, we assessed symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress as well as perceived wealth, justice and freedom in population-based surveys in Spain, France, Germany, Poland, Russia, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States of America (n ≈ 1000 per country)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710100/achieving-gender-equity-in-physician-compensation-and-career-advancement-a-position-paper-of-the-american-college-of-physicians
#20
Renee Butkus, Joshua Serchen, Darilyn V Moyer, Sue S Bornstein, Susan Thompson Hingle
Women comprise more than one third of the active physician workforce, an estimated 46% of all physicians-in-training, and more than half of all medical students in the United States. Although progress has been made toward gender diversity in the physician workforce, disparities in compensation exist and inequities have contributed to a disproportionately low number of female physicians achieving academic advancement and serving in leadership positions. Women in medicine face other challenges, including a lack of mentors, discrimination, gender bias, cultural environment of the workplace, imposter syndrome, and the need for better work-life integration...
April 17, 2018: Annals of Internal Medicine
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