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Gender inequality

Kate O'Reilly, Kath Peters, Nathan Wilson, Cannas Kwok
BACKGROUND: Although more men than women sustain a traumatic brain injury (TBI), approximately one quarter of people with TBIs are women. The experiences of TBI reported in the literature are informed from the masculine perspective and do not adequately represent women's experiences. Pragmatism provides an overarching methodological framework to explore and critique a broader perspective of health, including psychosocial, cultural, spiritual, political and environmental factors, while attempting to address gender inequity...
March 16, 2018: Nurse Researcher
Martha P Romero Mendoza, Héctor Gómez-Dantes, Quetzaliztli Manríquez Montiel, Gabriela J Saldívar Hernández, Julio C Campuzano Rincón, Rafael Lozano, María Elena Medina-Mora Icaza
The increasing burden of interpersonal violence in women in Mexico is a neglected social and health problem that competes with other leading causes of premature death, disability, and health losses in young women. In this article, we focus on revealing the burden of violence in girls and young women and its implications for public policy. This study presents the subnational analysis of Mexico from the Global Burden of Disease study (1990-2015). The global study harmonized information of 195 countries and 79 risk factors...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Pooja Tripathi, Ramachandra Kamath, Rajnarayan Tiwari
Background: Fisherwomen are informal sector workers involved in post-harvest operations and are mostly engaged in peeling, trading, and processing of fish. High degree of wage disparity and gender inequalities results in different socioeconomic status of fisherwomen and fishermen. This study aimed to identify gender issues and their effect on the health status of fisherwomen. Materials and Methods: The present cross-sectional included 171 fishermen and fisherwomen...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Natasha Slater, Simon White, Rebecca Venables, Martin Frisher
OBJECTIVES: While older age and ill health are known to be associated with polypharmacy, this paper aims to identify whether wealth, body mass index (BMI), smoking and alcohol consumption are also associated with polypharmacy (5-9 prescribed medications) and hyperpolypharmacy prevalence (≥10 prescribed medications), among older people living in England. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: The English Longitudinal Study of Ageing Wave 6 (2012-2013)...
March 14, 2018: BMJ Open
Zhijun Tan, Fuyan Shi, Haiyue Zhang, Ning Li, Yongyong Xu, Ying Liang
BACKGROUND: In advanced economies, economic factors have been found to be associated with many health outcomes, including health-related quality of life (HRQL), and people's health is affected more by income inequality than by absolute income. However, few studies have examined the association of income inequality and absolute income with HRQL in transitional economies using individual data. This paper focuses on the effects of county or district income inequality and absolute income on the HRQL measured by EQ-5D and the differences between rural and urban regions in Shaanxi province, China...
March 14, 2018: International Journal for Equity in Health
Chaiane Emilia Dalazen, Rafael Aiello Bomfim, Alessandro Diogo De-Carli
The scope of this study was to identify individual and contextual factors associated with the self-perceived need for dental treatment and for prostheses among elderly Brazilians. An analysis was performed with data from the SB Brazil 2010 epidemiological survey conducted by the Ministry of Health with a sample of 7,619 elderly individuals. Multilevel logistic regression models of mixed random and fixed effects were used to the estimate odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) between the dependent variables and individual and contextual factors...
March 2018: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Stephanie A Grilo, Marina Catallozzi, Craig J Heck, Sanyukta Mathur, Neema Nakyanjo, John S Santelli
Understanding how couples perceive a recent unintended pregnancy in the context of HIV infection and high levels of gender inequality may provide insights for prevention of undesired pregnancy. We used data from 24 in-depth interviews with 8 HIV-serodiscordant and 4 seroconcordant couples living in rural Uganda and interviewed separately; between 15 and 49 years and one or both identified the pregnancy as unintended. A dyadic analysis was performed to understand each partner's perspectives on experiences of a specific pregnancy...
March 14, 2018: Global Public Health
Ann Meier, Benjamin Swartz Hartmann, Ryan Larson
Extracurricular activity participation is linked to positive development, but it is also a setting for inequality. Using a quarter century of data from Monitoring the Future (N = 593,979; 51% female; 65% non-Hispanic white; 13% non-Hispanic black; 12% Hispanic; 4% non-Hispanic Asian/Pacific Islander; 7% other race), this article documents patterns and trends in school-based extracurricular participation by race, social class, gender, and age, and their links to academic and substance use outcomes. Findings reveal differences by race and confirm a division by social class that has worsened over time...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
Karina Araujo Pinto, Rosane Harter Griep, Lucia Rotenberg, Maria da Conceição Chagas Almeida, Rosane Sousa Barreto, Estela M L Aquino
Perceived time constraints have been highlighted in sociological studies as representing a core issue in determining quality of life. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that gender inequalities regarding insufficiency of time play a role in the development of overweight and obesity in adults. The study used baseline data (2008-2010) from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), which monitors a cohort of 15,105 civil servants of 35 to 74 years of age. Insufficient time for personal care and leisure due to professional and domestic duties, as detailed in a structured questionnaire, comprised the main exposure variable...
2018: PloS One
Meagan Tyler, Peter Fairbrother
This paper considers the impact of gendered norms on decision-making for wildfire preparation and response at the household level. Focusing on Australia, it provides a theoretical thematic analysis of data acquired in 107 interviews with residents of nine different localities. It builds on existing research on gender and disaster, as well as on decision-making and wildfires, and analyses the narratives that centre on 'split' households plans (where a male partner plans to stay and a female partner plans to evacuate) and disagreements within heterosexual couples as to an appropriate wildfire safety plan...
March 13, 2018: Disasters
Justyna Stypińska, Laura Romeu Gordo
This paper analyses the interference of three socio-demographic characteristics: gender, age and migration status on the labour market outcomes from the perspective of intersectionality theory. Concretely, we investigate whether gender and migration differences in hourly wages are observable at younger ages and whether these differences increase with age. Further, we analyse whether gender and migration interact in such a way that women with migration background suffer lower wage growth in relation to their counterparts...
March 2018: European Journal of Ageing
Yuji Sano, Roger Antabe, Kilian Nasung Atuoye, Joseph A Braimah, Sylvester Z Galaa, Isaac Luginaah
BACKGROUND: Although use of modern contraception is considered beneficial in lowering maternal and child mortality rates, the prevalence of contraceptive use remains low in the Democratic Republic of Congo. This study examined modern contraceptive use and its linkage to women's autonomy. METHODS: Data were drawn from the 2013-2014 Democratic Republic of Congo Demographic and Health Survey. We selected unsterilized and non-pregnant married women who have given birth in the last three years (N = 6680)...
March 12, 2018: BMC Women's Health
Aleksandra Cislak, Magdalena Formanowicz, Tamar Saguy
The bias against women in academia is a documented phenomenon that has had detrimental consequences, not only for women, but also for the quality of science. First, gender bias in academia affects female scientists, resulting in their underrepresentation in academic institutions, particularly in higher ranks. The second type of gender bias in science relates to some findings applying only to male participants, which produces biased knowledge. Here, we identify a third potentially powerful source of gender bias in academia: the bias against research on gender bias...
2018: Scientometrics
The Lancet Global Health
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 28, 2018: Lancet Global Health
Ricardo Araya, Pedro Zitko, Niina Markkula, Dheeraj Rai, Kelvyn Jones
BACKGROUND: The relative importance of individual and country-level factors influencing access to diagnosis and treatment for depression across the world is fairly unknown. METHODS: We analysed cross-national data from the WHO World Health Surveys. Depression diagnosis and access to health care were ascertained using a structured interview. Logistic Bayesian Multilevel analyses were performed to establish individual and country level factors associated with: (1) receiving a diagnosis and (2) accessing treatment for depression if a diagnosis was ascertained...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Marek Gróf, Tatiana Vagašová, Marián Oltman, Ľubomír Skladaný, Lenka Maličká
AIM: The economy of each state provides a significant amount of money into the health care system with the aim of knowing the health status of its population in the context of socioeconomic characteristics for effective resource allocation. In recent years, there is a growing number of cancer deaths in Slovakia. Therefore, the structure of cancer deaths according to its primary determinants, such as age, sex and education with the aim of effective implementation of prevention programs in Slovakia was examined...
December 2017: Central European Journal of Public Health
Fiona Katherine McCurdie, Joanne Moffatt, Kevin Jones
Kitovu Hospital in Masaka, Uganda, is a leading obstetric fistula repair centre in the country with the highest rates of fistula in the world. In this retrospective case review, the regional incidence and causative factors were studied in patients with vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) who were admitted at Kitovu Hospital. Fistula history included severity (ICIQ score), causes and outcomes of VVF were measured. Women suffered with symptoms of VVF for an average of 4.97 years with an average ICIQ severity score of 7...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Nancy Krieger, Rockli Kim, Justin Feldman, Pamela D Waterman
Background: Metrics that quantify economic and social spatial polarization at multiple geographical levels are not routinely used by health agencies, despite rising inequalities. Methods: We employed the Index of Concentration at the Extremes (ICE), which quantifies how persons in a specified area are concentrated into the top vs bottom of a specified societal distribution, to examine associations with Massachusetts mortality data (2010-14). Our a priori hypotheses were that these associations would: be greater at the local [census tract (CT)] compared with city/town level; vary by race/ethnicity but not gender; and be greatest for our new ICE for racialized economic segregation...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Amanda M Pollitt, Brandon A Robinson, Debra Umberson
Research on gender inequality within different-sex marriages shows that women do more unpaid labor than men, and that the perception of inequality influences perceptions of marital quality. Yet research on same-sex couples suggests the importance of considering how gender is relational. Past studies show that same-sex partners share unpaid labor more equally and perceive greater equity than do different-sex partners, and that lesbian, gay, and bisexual people are less gender conforming than heterosexuals. However, studies have not considered how gender conformity might shape inequalities and marital quality within same- and different-sex unions...
2018: Gender & Society: Official Publication of Sociologists for Women in Society
Erik Lamontagne, Marc d'Elbée, Michael W Ross, Aengus Carroll, André du Plessis, Luiz Loures
Background: Measuring homophobia at country level is important to guide public health policy as reductions in stigma are associated with improved health outcomes among gay men and other men who have sex with men. Methods: We developed a Homophobic Climate Index incorporating institutional and social components of homophobia. Institutional homophobia was based on the level of enforcement of laws that criminalise, protect or recognise same-sex relations. Social homophobia was based on the level of acceptance and justifiability of homosexuality...
March 3, 2018: European Journal of Public Health
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