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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647952/children-with-short-stature-and-growth-failure-heightism-gender-and-racial-disparities
#1
Terri H Lipman, Ian J McCurry
Growth is the single most important indication of the health of a child. Identification of growth disorders in all children is crucial as growth failure can be the first sign of a number of acute and chronic conditions. However, gender and racial biases have resulted in inequities in the identification, referral and treatment of children with growth disorders. In addition, short children have been impacted by a number of psychosocial issues. Heightism is prejudice or discrimination against individuals based on height, and refers to discrimination against individuals whose height is not within the normal acceptable range...
June 2017: Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews: PER
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643269/-doing-difference-and-fast-food-consumption-patterns-among-a-sample-of-white-and-african-american-emerging-adults
#2
Jeannette M Wade
Previous research has demonstrated that frequent consumption of fast food is linked to obesity and that trends in both are disparate across race and sex categories. Contextualizing race- and sex-related factors that structure fast food consumption in emerging adulthood is a much-needed contribution to social research. Specifically, this study uses the "doing difference" framework, to examine the frequency of fast food consumption in a sample of White and African American (18-25 years old). According to the framework, social inequalities are reproduced through dramaturgical performances of race, class, and gender...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640664/%C3%A2-somos-iguales-using-a-structural-violence-framework-to-understand-gender-and-health-inequities-from-an-intersectional-perspective-in-the-peruvian-amazon
#3
Geordan D Shannon, Angelica Motta, Carlos F Cáceres, Jolene Skordis-Worrall, Diana Bowie, Audrey Prost
BACKGROUND: In the Peruvian Amazon, historical events of colonization and political marginalization intersect with identities of ethnicity, class and geography in the construction of gender and health inequities. Gender-based inequalities can manifest in poor health outcomes via discriminatory practices, healthcare system imbalances, inequities in health research, and differential exposures and vulnerabilities to diseases. Structural violence is a comprehensive framework to explain the mechanisms by which social forces such as poverty, racism and gender inequity become embodied as individual experiences and health outcomes, and thus may be a useful tool in structuring an intersectional analysis of gender and health inequities in Amazonian Peru...
January 2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635505/social-inequalities-in-pure-tone-hearing-assessed-using-occupational-stratification-schemes
#4
Petra von Gablenz, Inga Holube
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to analyse the performance of two occupational stratification approaches and the impact of social position on adult hearing. DESIGN: The prevalence of hearing impairment, pure-tone averages (PTA) and prevalence ratios (PR) for relative hearing loss, which focuses on the position of one's PTA in the age- and gender-specific distribution, were compared in groups defined by ISCO Skill Level and the International Socio-Economic Index (ISEI)...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633511/cardiovascular-risk-at-health-checks-performed-opportunistically-or-following-an-invitation-letter-cohort-study
#5
Martin C Gulliford, Bernadette Khoshaba, Lisa McDermott, Victoria Cornelius, Mark Ashworth, Frances Fuller, Jane Miller, Hiten Dodhia, Alison J Wright
Background: A population-based programme of health checks has been established in England. Participants receive postal invitations through a population-based call-recall system but health check providers may also offer health checks opportunistically. We compared cardiovascular risk scores for 'invited' and 'opportunistic' health checks. Methods: Cohort study of all health checks completed at 18 general practices from July 2013 to June 2015. For each general practice, cardiovascular (CVD) risk scores were compared by source of check and pooled using meta-analysis...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630557/international-guidelines-on-human-rights-and-drug-control-a-tool-for-securing-women-s-rights-in-drug-control-policy
#6
Rebecca Schleifer, Luciana Pol
Discrimination and inequality shape women's experiences of drug use and in the drug trade and the impact of drug control efforts on them, with disproportionate burdens faced by poor and otherwise marginalized women. In recent years, UN member states and UN drug control and human rights entities have recognized this issue and made commitments to integrate a 'gender perspective' into drug control policies, with 'gender' limited to those conventionally deemed women. But the concept of gender in international law is broader, rooted in socially constructed and culturally determined norms and expectations around gender roles, sex, and sexuality...
June 2017: Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619069/social-determinants-of-depression-and-suicidal-behaviour-in-the-caribbean-a-systematic-review
#7
Catherine R Brown, Ian R Hambleton, Natasha Sobers-Grannum, Shawn M Hercules, Nigel Unwin, E Nigel Harris, Rainford Wilks, Marlene MacLeish, Louis Sullivan, Madhuvanti M Murphy
BACKGROUND: Depressive disorder is the largest contributor to years lived with disability in the Caribbean, adding 948 per 100,000 in 2013. Depression is also a major risk factor for suicidal behaviour. Social inequalities influence the occurrence of depression, yet little is known about the social inequalities of this condition in the Caribbean. In support of the 2011 Rio Political Declaration on addressing health inequities, this article presents a systematic review of the role of social determinants on depression and its suicidal behaviours in the Caribbean...
June 15, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612099/sexual-violence-as-a-risk-factor-for-family-planning-related-outcomes-among-young-burundian-women
#8
Yajna Elouard, Carine Weiss, Adriane Martin-Hilber, Sonja Merten
OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to examine associations between experience of sexual violence and family planning-related outcomes. METHODS: A multi-stage cluster survey was conducted among a representative sample of 744 young women aged 15-24 in eight provinces in Burundi. RESULTS: The prevalence of young women who reported having ever been physically forced to have sexual intercourse was 26.1%. Young women who had experienced sexual violence (ever) were 2...
June 13, 2017: International Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607674/gender-bias-in-careseeking-practices-in-57-low-and-middle-income-countries
#9
Janaína Calu Costa, Fernando C Wehrmeister, Aluísio Jd Barros, Cesar G Victora
BACKGROUND: Preventive and curative medical interventions can reduce child mortality. It is important to assess whether there is gender bias in access to these interventions, which can lead to preferential treatment of children of a given sex. METHODS: Data from Demographic and Health Surveys carried out in 57 low- and middle-income countries were used. The outcome variable was a composite careseeking indicator, which represents the proportion of children with common childhood symptoms or illnesses (diarrhea, fever, or suspected pneumonia) who were taken to an appropriate provider...
June 2017: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606147/the-variation-in-the-health-status-of-immigrants-and-italians-during-the-global-crisis-and-the-role-of-socioeconomic-factors
#10
Alessio Petrelli, Anteo Di Napoli, Alessandra Rossi, Gianfranco Costanzo, Concetta Mirisola, Lidia Gargiulo
BACKGROUND: The effects of the recent global economic and financial crisis especially affected the most vulnerable social groups. Objective of the study was to investigate variation of self-perceived health status in Italians and immigrants during the economic global crisis, focusing on demographic and socioeconomic factors. METHODS: Through a cross-sectional design we analyzed the national sample of multipurpose surveys "Health conditions and use of health services" (2005 and 2013) conducted by the Italian National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT)...
June 12, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603005/neighbourhood-socioeconomic-inequality-and-gender-differences-in-body-mass-index-the-role-of-unhealthy-behaviours
#11
Xiaoqi Feng, Andrew Wilson
Reported differences in the severity of the social gradient in body mass index (BMI) by gender may be attributable to differences in behaviour. Self-reported height, weight, socioeconomic and behavioural data were obtained for a sample of 10,281 Australians aged ≥15years in 2009. Multilevel regressions were fitted with BMI as the outcome variable. Two-way interactions between gender and neighbourhood disadvantage were fitted, adjusted for confounders. Models were then adjusted for four behavioural factors ("chips, snacks and confectionary", "smoking, little fruit or veg", "time poor and less physically active" and "alcohol consumption")...
June 8, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602582/examining-the-gap-compensation-disparities-between-male-and-female-physician-assistants
#12
Noël Smith, James F Cawley, Timothy C McCall
BACKGROUND: Compensation disparities between men and women have been problematic for decades, and there is considerable evidence that the gap cannot be entirely explained by nongender factors. The current study examined the compensation gap in the physician assistant (PA) profession. METHODS: Compensation data from 2014 was collected by the American Academy of PAs in 2015. Practice variables, including experience, specialty, and hours worked, were controlled for in an ordinary least-squares sequential regression model to examine whether there remained a disparity in total compensation...
June 9, 2017: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599783/marketization-occupational-segregation-and-gender-earnings-inequality-in-urban-china
#13
Guangye He, Xiaogang Wu
This article analyzes a large sample of the 2005 population mini-census data and prefecture-level statistics of China to investigate gender earnings inequality in the context of economic marketization, paying special attention to the changing role of occupational segregation in the process. We approximate marketization by employment sectors and also construct an index of marketization at the prefecture level. Results show that, despite the tremendous economic growth, marketization has exacerbated gender earnings inequality in urban China's labor markets...
July 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598380/the-magnitude-of-occupational-class-differences-in-sickness-absence-15-year-trends-among-young-and-middle-aged-municipal-employees
#14
Hilla Sumanen, Eero Lahelma, Olli Pietiläinen, Ossi Rahkonen
Background: Our aim was to examine the magnitude of relative occupational class differences in sickness absence (SA) days over a 15-year period among female and male municipal employees in two age-groups. Methods: 18-34 and 35-59-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki from 2002 to 2016 were included in our data (n = ~37,500 per year). Occupational class was classified into four groups. The magnitude of relative occupational class differences in SA was studied using the relative index of inequality (RII)...
June 9, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594842/-if-my-husband-leaves-me-i-will-go-home-and-suffer-so-better-cling-to-him-and-hide-this-thing-the-influence-of-gender-on-option-b-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-participation-in-malawi-and-uganda
#15
Valerie L Flax, Jennifer Yourkavitch, Elialilia S Okello, John Kadzandira, Anne Ruhweza Katahoire, Alister C Munthali
The role of gender in prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) participation under Option B+ has not been adequately studied, but it is critical for reducing losses to follow-up. This study used qualitative methods to examine the interplay of gender and individual, interpersonal, health system, and community factors that contribute to PMTCT participation in Malawi and Uganda. We conducted in-depth interviews with women in PMTCT, women lost to follow-up, government health workers, and stakeholders at organizations supporting PMTCT as well as focus group discussions with men...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589002/randomised-controlled-trial-of-a-livestock-productive-asset-transfer-programme-to-improve-economic-and-health-outcomes-and-reduce-intimate-partner-violence-in-a-postconflict-setting
#16
Nancy Glass, Nancy A Perrin, Anjalee Kohli, Jacquelyn Campbell, Mitima Mpanano Remy
BACKGROUND: Diverse economic empowerment programmes (eg, microcredit, village-led savings and loan, cash and productive asset transfers) for the poor have demonstrated mixed results as vehicles for improved economic stability, health and women's empowerment. However, limited rigorous evaluations exist on the impact of financial and non-financial outcomes of these programmes, especially in conflict-affected areas. METHODS: The team evaluated the effectiveness of an innovative livestock productive asset transfer intervention-Pigs for Peace (PFP)-on economic, health and women's empowerment outcomes with participants in households in 10 villages in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo...
January 2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586273/food-insecurity-sexual-risk-behavior-and-adherence-to-antiretroviral-therapy-among-women-living-with-hiv-a-systematic-review
#17
Elisabeth Chop, Avani Duggaraju, Angela Flignor, Virginia Burke, Stephanie Caldas, Ping Teresa Yeh, Manjulaa Narasimhan, Avni Amin, Caitlin E Kennedy
Gender inequalities shape the experience of food insecurity among women living with HIV (WLHIV). We systematically reviewed the impact of food insecurity on sexual risk behaviors and antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence among WLHIV. We included qualitative or quantitative peer-reviewed articles, extracted data in duplicate, and assessed rigor. Seven studies, from sub-Saharan Africa, North America and Europe, met inclusion criteria. Food insecurity was associated with increased sexual risk through transactional sex and inability to negotiate safer sex...
June 6, 2017: Health Care for Women International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585156/sex-work-criminalization-is-barking-up-the-wrong-tree
#18
Ine Vanwesenbeeck
There is a notable shift toward more repression and criminalization in sex work policies, in Europe and elsewhere. So-called neo-abolitionism reduces sex work to trafficking, with increased policing and persecution as a result. Punitive "demand reduction" strategies are progressively more popular. These developments call for a review of what we know about the effects of punishing and repressive regimes vis-à-vis sex work. From the evidence presented, sex work repression and criminalization are branded as "waterbed politics" that push and shove sex workers around with an overload of controls and regulations that in the end only make things worse...
June 5, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584775/evaluation-of-periodontal-status-and-treatment-needs-of-institutionalized-intellectually-disabled-individuals-in-lebanon
#19
Hicham A Diab, Ghassan N Hamadeh, Fouad Ayoub
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: No reported data is available on the periodontal health and treatment needs of the intellectually disabled in Lebanon. To evaluate the periodontal condition and treatment needs of institutionalized intellectually disabled individuals in Lebanon. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 272 individuals (141 males and 131 females) aged 15 years and 35-44 years were examined. Periodontal health was recorded following the community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITN), and treatment need was assigned accordingly...
May 2017: Journal of International Society of Preventive & Community Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583125/considerations-and-guidance-in-designing-equity-relevant-clinical-trials
#20
EDITORIAL
Lawrence Mbuagbaw, Theresa Aves, Beverley Shea, Janet Jull, Vivian Welch, Monica Taljaard, Manosila Yoganathan, Regina Greer-Smith, George Wells, Peter Tugwell
Health research has documented disparities in health and health outcomes within and between populations. When these disparities are unfair and avoidable they may be referred to as health inequities. Few trials attend to factors related to health inequities, and there is limited understanding about how to build consideration of health inequities into trials. Due consideration of health inequities is important to inform the design, conduct and reporting of trials so that research can build evidence to more effectively address health inequities and importantly, ensure that inequities are not aggravated...
June 5, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
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