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Gender roles

Kelly R Moran, Sara Y Del Valle
Respiratory infectious disease epidemics and pandemics are recurring events that levy a high cost on individuals and society. The health-protective behavioral response of the public plays an important role in limiting respiratory infectious disease spread. Health-protective behaviors take several forms. Behaviors can be categorized as pharmaceutical (e.g., vaccination uptake, antiviral use) or non-pharmaceutical (e.g., hand washing, face mask use, avoidance of public transport). Due to the limitations of pharmaceutical interventions during respiratory epidemics and pandemics, public health campaigns aimed at limiting disease spread often emphasize both non-pharmaceutical and pharmaceutical behavioral interventions...
2016: PloS One
Kirsten Lerum Indrebø, Gerd Karin Natvig, John Roger Andersen
Ostomy-specific adjustment may or may not predict health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and/or overall quality of life (QoL). A cross-sectional study was conducted among patients recruited from the customer registers of 8 surgical suppliers and pharmacies across Norway between November 2010 and March 2011 to determine which of the 34 items of the Ostomy Adjustment Scale (OAS) are the strongest predictors for HRQoL and overall QoL and to determine the HRQoL and overall QoL of individuals with an ostomy compared to a control group representing the general population...
October 2016: Ostomy/wound Management
Jay S Mishra, Gary D Hankins, Sathish Kumar
INTRODUCTION: Blood pressure is lower in females than males. Angiotensin II type-2 receptor (AT2R) induces vasodilation. This study determined whether sex differences in vascular AT2R expression occur and if androgens exert control on AT2R expression in the vasculature. METHODS: AT2Rs in the aorta of male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were examined following alteration in androgen levels by gonadectomy or hormone supplementation. RESULTS: AT2R mRNA and protein expression levels were lower in the aortas of males than females...
October 2016: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
Nicholas Clarke, Deirdre McNamara, Patricia M Kearney, Colm A O'Morain, Nikki Shearer, Linda Sharp
This study aimed to investigate the effects of sex and deprivation on participation in a population-based faecal immunochemical test (FIT) colorectal cancer screening programme. The study population included 9785 individuals invited to participate in two rounds of a population-based biennial FIT-based screening programme, in a relatively deprived area of Dublin, Ireland. Explanatory variables included in the analysis were sex, deprivation category of area of residence and age (at end of screening). The primary outcome variable modelled was participation status in both rounds combined (with "participation" defined as having taken part in either or both rounds of screening)...
October 17, 2016: Preventive Medicine
Viola Bulgari, Laura Iozzino, Clarissa Ferrari, Marco Picchioni, Valentina Candini, Alessandra De Francesco, Paolo Maggi, Beatrice Segalini, Giovanni de Girolamo
The increased risk of violence in schizophrenia has been linked to several environmental, clinical and neuropsychological factors, including executive dysfunction. However, data about the nature of these effects are mixed and controversial. The main aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between clinical and neuropsychological factors with violence risk in patients with schizophrenia, taking into account current psychopathology and lifetime alcohol use. We compared a sample of patients living in Residential Facilities (RFs) with schizophrenia and a past history of interpersonal violence (vSZ, N=50) to patients with schizophrenia matched on age, gender and alcohol abuse/dependence but with no violence history (nvSZ, N=37)...
October 17, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
Montse Rigat, Airy Gras, Ugo D'Ambrosio, Teresa Garnatje, Montse Parada, Joan Vallès
BACKGROUND: Wild food plants (WFP) have always been consumed by humans, first as the main basis of their food and, since the origins of agriculture, as ingredients of normal diets or as an alternative during situations of scarcity. In contemporary industrialized societies their use is for the most part being abandoned, but they may still play an important role. With the purpose of advancing in the ethnobotanical knowledge of one region of the Catalan Pyrenees, the present study reports the findings of a research project conducted in the Ripollès district (Catalonia, Iberian Peninsula), concerning ethnobotanical knowledge and use of wild and semi-wild vascular plants as foods, along with minor crops...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
Wan-Chun Lu, Nian-Sheng Tzeng, Yu-Chen Kao, Chin-Bin Yeh, Terry B J Kuo, Chuan-Chia Chang, Hsin-An Chang
BACKGROUND: Reduced health-related quality of life in the physical domain (HRQOLphysical) has been reported to increase risks for cardiovascular disease (CVD); however, the mechanism underlying this phenomenon is still unclear. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) that connects the body and mind is a biologically plausible candidate to investigate this mechanism. The aim of our study is to examine whether the HRQOLphysical independently contributes to heart rate variability (HRV), which reflects ANS activity...
October 21, 2016: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
Nan Sook Park, Yuri Jang, David A Chiriboga
OBJECTIVES: Despite a high prevalence of mental health problems, racial/ethnic minorities are often reluctant to seek mental health services. Their reluctance may be shaped by cultural beliefs and stigma about mental health. The present study examined how beliefs and stigma about depression (e.g. disbelief in depression as a health-related condition, perception of depression as a normal part of aging, and/or depression as a sign of personal weakness/family shame) pose barriers to older Korean Americans' willingness to use mental health counseling and antidepressants...
October 21, 2016: Ethnicity & Health
Petros Petrikis, Vassiliki A Boumba, Alexandros T Tzallas, Paraskevi V Voulgari, Dimitra T Archimandriti, Petros Skapinakis, Venetsanos Mavreas
Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) plays an important role in neurogenesis and synaptogenesis and may be implicated in schizophrenia, although data so far have been inconclusive. The aim of our study was to compare levels of IGF-1 in drug-naïve patients with a first episode of schizophrenia and related disorders with matched healthy controls. Forty drug naïve first-episode patients with schizophrenia and related disorders and forty healthy subjects matched for age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and smoking status were enrolled in the study...
September 28, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Ruth S Weinstock, Ingrid Schütz-Fuhrmann, Crystal G Connor, Julia M Hermann, David M Maahs, Morten Schütt, Shivani Agarwal, Sabine E Hofer, Roy W Beck, Reinhard W Holl
AIMS: Compare characteristics, therapies and clinical outcomes in older adults with type 1 diabetes in the United States T1D Exchange (T1DX) and German/Austrian Diabetes Patienten Verlaufsdokumentation (DPV) registries. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of adults ≥60years old with type 1 diabetes seen in 2011-2012 in the T1DX (n=1283) and DPV (n=2014) registries. Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used for continuous variables and chi-square test for categorical variables...
October 4, 2016: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Wei G Xu, Yun F Qian, Jun Wu
BACKGROUND: Some studies suggested an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk in subjects with prediabetes, whereas other studies have reported negative results. Therefore, we did this meta-analysis to assess the role of prediabetes on HCC risk. METHODS: We searched studies from PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases. The strength of association between prediabetes and HCC risk was assessed by calculating hazard ratio (HR) with 95% CI. RESULTS: A total of 8 cohort studies and 1 case-control study with 1384594 individuals were included...
October 20, 2016: Minerva Medica
Parham Parto, Carl J Lavie, Ross Arena, Samantha Bond, Dejana Popovic, Hector O Ventura
The prevalence of obesity among adults and children worldwide has reached epic proportions and has become a major independent risk factor for the development of heart failure (HF), in addition to a contributor of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. The implications of obesity in the development of HF involve adverse effects on cardiac structure and function. Despite all of this, in the setting of chronic HF, excess body mass is associated with improved clinical outcomes, demonstrating the presence of an obesity paradox...
October 20, 2016: Future Cardiology
Samuel Pehrson, Héctor Carvacho, Chris G Sibley
Social dominance orientation (SDO) is conceived as an individual's level of support for group-based hierarchy in general that causes support for more specific group hierarchies. According to social dominance theory, group differences in SDO underpin ideological and behavioural group differences related to specific group hierarchies. Using representative 5-year longitudinal panel data from New Zealand (N = 3,384), we test whether SDO mediates effects of sex and ethnicity on legitimizing myths (LMs) relating to gender and ethnic hierarchy over time...
October 20, 2016: British Journal of Social Psychology
Silvia Abad-Merino, John F Dovidio, Carmen Tabernero, Ignacio González
The present research, drawing on the Intergroup Helping as Power Relations Model (Nadler, 2002), investigated the ways in which different forms of helping behavior can strategically affect responses to women and men who display socially valued or devalued characteristics. Participants read scenarios about concrete problems faced by a woman or man in need, who displayed positive (i.e., prosocial) or negative (i.e., antisocial) characteristics, and indicated the extent to which they would be willing to support small tax increases if that money were used to help address the target's issues...
October 20, 2016: Spanish Journal of Psychology
Prerna K Chawla, Zarir F Udwadia, Rajeev Soman, Ashok A Mahashur, Rohit A Amale, Alpa J Dherai, Rohan V Lokhande, Prasad R Naik, Tester F Ashavaid
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) is a routinely practised clinical laboratory technique which aids the clinicians with a clear clinical judgement of the drug therapy and optimize the doses if necessary. Rifampicin is the most important and potent component of first line therapy of tuberculosis (TB). Several factors like age, weight, gender, doses and formulations, gastro-intestinal disorders, ethnicity etc alter the absorption and bioavailability of rifampicin thus altering the drug levels. Low plasma levels of rifampicin may play a plausible role in slow response to therapy, treatment failure or relapse or acquired drug resistance...
August 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Wang I Wong
Spatial abilities are pertinent to mathematical competence, but evidence of the space-math link has largely been confined to older samples and intrinsic spatial abilities (e.g., mental transformation). The roles of gender and affective factors are also unclear. This study examined the correlations between counting ability, mental transformation, and targeting accuracy in 182 Hong Kong preschoolers, and whether these relationships were weaker at higher spatial anxiety levels. Both spatial abilities related with counting similarly for boys and girls...
October 20, 2016: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Vittorio Govoni, Elena Della Coletta, Edward Cesnik, Ilaria Casetta, Enrico Granieri
Pathogenesis could play an important role in the mid- to late-life onset of symptoms in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). An analysis of the age at onset of ALS among the incident cases occurring in the population in the Health District of Ferrara, Italy, in the period 1064-2009 was carried out. Two subsequent 23-year time intervals (1964-1986 and 1987-2009) were considered. The mean age at onset (MAAO) was estimated in relation to gender, onset type and area of residence (urban or extra-urban) at disease onset among the incident cases which occurred in the two subsequent time intervals...
October 19, 2016: Acta Neurologica Belgica
Priyamvada Gupta, Durga Jethava, Ruchika Choudhary, Dharam Das Jethava
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation are considered as potent stimuli which lead to an increase in heart rate and blood pressure. Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) has been studied for pre-operative anxiolysis and sedation in Intensive Care Unit. We made a hypothesis that melatonin can provide haemodynamic stability during laryngoscopy and intubation when given 120 min before the procedure. METHODS: Sixty American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status Grade I and II patients of either gender, 20-45 years old, 40-65 kg body weight, scheduled to undergo elective surgical procedures under general anaesthesia were assigned into two equal groups - Group C (control) and Group M (melatonin)...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
Jae M Sevelius, Madeline B Deutsch, Robert Grant
INTRODUCTION: Globally, transgender ("trans") women are one of the key populations most disproportionately impacted by HIV. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is the newest and most promising biomedical HIV prevention intervention to date. This paper reviews relevant literature to describe the current state of the science and describes the potential role of PrEP among trans women, including a discussion of unique considerations for maximizing the impact of PrEP for this vulnerable population...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Zoltán Mátrai, Hajnalka Andrikovics, Anikó Szilvási, András Bors, András Kozma, Emma Ádám, Gabriella Halm, Éva Karászi, Attila Tordai, Tamás Masszi
The marked clinical heterogeneity of CLL makes early prognosis assessment important. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) has been shown to confer adverse prognosis in CLL, recent data indicating it might also contribute to CLL cell survival and metabolism. We determined LPL mRNA expression in unselected peripheral blood of 84 CLL patients by RT PCR. Results were correlated with other prognostic markers and outcome. 30/84 (40 %) of cases were LPL positive based on the cutoff established by ROC analysis. In LPL positive patients significantly shorter median survival (136 vs 258 months, p < 0...
October 18, 2016: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
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