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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913273/the-endocrine-vitamin-d-system-in-the-gut
#1
Antonio Barbáchano, Asunción Fernández-Barral, Gemma Ferrer-Mayorga, Alba Costales-Carrera, María Jesús Larriba, Alberto Muñoz
The active vitamin D metabolite 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) has important regulatory actions in the gut through endocrine and probably also intracrine, autocrine and paracrine mechanisms. By activating the vitamin D receptor (VDR), which is expressed at a high level in the small intestine and colon, 1,25(OH)2D3 regulates numerous genes that control gut physiology and homeostasis. 1,25(OH)2D3 is a major responsible for epithelial barrier function and calcium and phosphate absorption, and the host's defense against pathogens and the inflammatory response by several types of secretory and immune cells...
November 29, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912872/anti-allergic-potential-of-typhonium-blumei-inhibition-of-degranulation-via-suppression-of-pi3k-plc%C3%AE-2-phosphorylation-and-calcium-influx
#2
Michal Korinek, Kuan-Ming Chen, Yu-Han Jiang, Mohamed El-Shazly, Joel Stocker, Chon-Kit Chou, Tsong-Long Hwang, Yang-Chang Wu, Bing-Hung Chen, Fang-Rong Chang
BACKGROUND: Typhonium blumei Nicolson & Sivadasan (Araceae) is a traditional Chinese medicinal herb possessing detumescent, detoxifying, and anti-inflammatory activities. It is used in Taiwan as a folk medicine to treat cancer and inflammatory diseases. Typhonium blumei is usually not distinguished from Typhonium roxburghii Schott and they are commonly used interchangeably. PURPOSE: To evaluate and compare the anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory properties of T...
December 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911858/the-antidepressant-fluoxetine-induces-necrosis-by-energy-depletion-and-mitochondrial-calcium-overload
#3
Emilie Charles, Mehdi Hammadi, Philippe Kischel, Vanessa Delcroix, Nicolas Demaurex, Cyril Castelbout, Anne-Marie Vacher, Anne Devin, Thomas Ducret, Paula Nunes, Pierre Vacher
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor antidepressants, such as fluoxetine (Prozac), have been shown to induce cell death in cancer cells, paving the way for their potential use as cancer therapy. These compounds are able to increase cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]cyt), but the involved mechanisms and their physiological consequences are still not well understood. Here, we show that fluoxetine induces an increase in [Ca2+]cyt by emptying the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) through the translocon, an ER Ca2+ leakage structure...
November 29, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910855/l-type-calcium-channels-regulate-filopodia-stability-and-cancer-cell-invasion-downstream-of-integrin-signalling
#4
Guillaume Jacquemet, Habib Baghirov, Maria Georgiadou, Harri Sihto, Emilia Peuhu, Pierre Cettour-Janet, Tao He, Merja Perälä, Pauliina Kronqvist, Heikki Joensuu, Johanna Ivaska
Mounting in vitro, in vivo and clinical evidence suggest an important role for filopodia in driving cancer cell invasion. Using a high-throughput microscopic-based drug screen, we identify FDA-approved calcium channel blockers (CCBs) as potent inhibitors of filopodia formation in cancer cells. Unexpectedly, we discover that L-type calcium channels are functional and frequently expressed in cancer cells suggesting a previously unappreciated role for these channels during tumorigenesis. We further demonstrate that, at filopodia, L-type calcium channels are activated by integrin inside-out signalling, integrin activation and Src...
December 2, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896546/jmv2894-a-novel-growth-hormone-secretagogue-accelerates-body-mass-recovery-in-an-experimental-model-of-cachexia
#5
Elena Bresciani, Laura Rizzi, Laura Molteni, Monica Ravelli, Antonella Liantonio, Khoubaib Ben Haj Salah, Jean-Alain Fehrentz, Jean Martinez, Robert J Omeljaniuk, Giuseppe Biagini, Vittorio Locatelli, Antonio Torsello
Oncologic patients subjected to chemotherapy frequently present aphagia, malnutrition, and cachexia. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether selected growth hormone secretagogues including hexarelin, JMV2894 and JMV2951 could antagonize body weight loss and wasting induced by cisplatin administration in rats. The three growth hormone secretagogues behaved as full agonists of the growth hormone secretagogues receptor both in terms of ability to stimulate calcium mobilization in Chinese hamster ovary cells and stimulation of growth hormone release in neonatal rats...
November 28, 2016: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895802/vitamin-c-induces-apoptosis-in-ags-cells-via-production-of-ros-of-mitochondria
#6
Jae Young Lim, Donghyun Kim, Bok Ran Kim, Jin Su Jun, Jung Sook Yeom, Ji Sook Park, Ji-Hyun Seo, Chan Hoo Park, Hyang Ok Woo, Hee-Shang Youn, Seung-Chul Baik, Woo-Kon Lee, Myung-Je Cho, Kwang-Ho Rhee
It has been demonstrated that vitamin C exhibits anti-cancer activity in various tumor cell lines; however, its specific mechanism of action remains unknown. Although the diagnosis and therapy of cancer patients have markedly improved in recent years, safer and more cost-effective treatments are still required. Therefore, the present study examined the effect of vitamin C on the induction of cell death in gastric cancer and its underlying mechanism of action. It was observed that the cytotoxicity of vitamin C on the human gastric cancer cell line AGS is dependent on the apoptotic pathway, including caspase cascades, but not on the necroptotic pathway...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894594/alterations-of-golgi-organization-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-cause-or-a-consequence
#7
REVIEW
Inmaculada Ayala, Antonino Colanzi
The Golgi apparatus is a central organelle of the secretory pathway involved in the post-translational modification and sorting of lipids and proteins. In mammalian cells, the Golgi apparatus is composed of stacks of cisternae organized in polarized manner, which are interconnected by membrane tubules to constitute the Golgi ribbon, located in the proximity of the centrosome. Besides the processing and transport of cargo, the Golgi complex is actively involved in the regulation of mitotic entry, cytoskeleton organization and dynamics, calcium homeostasis, and apoptosis, representing a signalling platform for the control of several cellular functions, including signalling initiated by receptors located at the plasma membrane...
November 19, 2016: Tissue & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891582/versatile-roles-of-intracellularly-located-trpv1-channel
#8
REVIEW
Rui Zhao, Suk Ying Tsang
The ubiquitous expression in many organs throughout the body and the ability to respond to a wide variety of physical and chemical stimuli have brought transient receptor potential (TRP) channels to the vanguards of our sensory systems. TRP vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) is the founding member of the TRPV subfamily. TRPV1 can be activated by noxious heat, protons and vanilloids. Previous studies have shown that TRPV1 is located on the plasma membrane, serving to non-selectively permeate calcium ion from the extracellular region to the cytoplasm...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889618/cell-death-mechanistic-study-of-photodynamic-therapy-against-breast-cancer-cells-utilizing-liposomal-delivery-of-5-10-15-20-tetrakis-benzo-b-thiophene-porphyrin
#9
Geewoo Nam, Sabarinathan Rangasamy, Hee Ju, Annie Agnes Suganya Samson, Joon Myong Song
5,10,15,20-Tetrakis(benzo[b]thiophene) porphyrin (BTP) is a newly synthesized hydrophobic photosensitizer with fluorescence quantum yield in toluene: ΦF=0.062. Previously, its limitations in solubility had hindered scientific experimentation regarding its photodynamic effects on cancer cells. By utilizing various compositions of liposomes in order to alter the solubility of BTP, the photocytotoxicity, reactive oxygen species generation, and subcellular localization of the liposomal BTP were identified in this work...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887884/calcium-phosphate-nanoparticles-functionalized-with-alendronate-conjugated-polyethylene-glycol-peg-for-the-treatment-of-bone-metastasis
#10
Weijing Chu, Yanjuan Huang, Chanzhen Yang, Yunhui Liao, Xuefei Zhang, Mina Yan, Shengmiao Cui, Chunshun Zhao
Because of the peculiarity of the bone microstructure, the uptake of chemotherapeutics often happens at non-targeted sites, which induces side effects. In order to solve this problem, we designed a bone-targeting drug delivery system that can release drug exclusively in the nidus of the bone. Alendronate (ALN), which has a high ability to target to hydroxyapatite, was used to fabricate double ALN-conjugated poly (ethylene glycol) 2000 material (ALN-PEG2k-ALN). The ALN-PEG2k-ALN was characterized using (1)H NMR and (31)P NMR and FTIR...
November 22, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887750/chronic-kidney-disease
#11
REVIEW
Angela C Webster, Evi V Nagler, Rachael L Morton, Philip Masson
The definition and classification of chronic kidney disease (CKD) have evolved over time, but current international guidelines define this condition as decreased kidney function shown by glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of less than 60 mL/min per 1·73 m(2), or markers of kidney damage, or both, of at least 3 months duration, regardless of the underlying cause. Diabetes and hypertension are the main causes of CKD in all high-income and middle-income countries, and also in many low-income countries. Incidence, prevalence, and progression of CKD also vary within countries by ethnicity and social determinants of health, possibly through epigenetic influence...
November 22, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884729/rationale-and-design-of-the-coronary-artery-calcium-consortium-a-multicenter-cohort-study
#12
Michael J Blaha, Seamus P Whelton, Mahmoud Al Rifai, Zeina A Dardari, Leslee J Shaw, Mouaz H Al-Mallah, Kuni Matsushita, John A Rumberger, Daniel S Berman, Matthew J Budoff, Michael D Miedema, Khurram Nasir
BACKGROUND: Although coronary artery calcium (CAC) has been investigated for over two decades, there is very limited data on the association of CAC with cause of death. The CAC Consortium is a large ongoing multi-center observational cohort of individuals who underwent non-contrast cardiac-gated CAC testing and systematic, prospective, long-term follow-up for mortality with ascertainment of cause of death. METHODS: Four participating institutions from three states within the US (California, Minnesota, and Ohio) have contributed individual-level patient data to the CAC Consortium (spanning years 1991-2010)...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882862/milk-and-dairy-products-good-or-bad-for-human-health-an-assessment-of-the-totality-of-scientific-evidence
#13
REVIEW
Tanja Kongerslev Thorning, Anne Raben, Tine Tholstrup, Sabita S Soedamah-Muthu, Ian Givens, Arne Astrup
BACKGROUND: There is scepticism about health effects of dairy products in the public, which is reflected in an increasing intake of plant-based drinks, for example, from soy, rice, almond, or oat. OBJECTIVE: This review aimed to assess the scientific evidence mainly from meta-analyses of observational studies and randomised controlled trials, on dairy intake and risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, cancer, and all-cause mortality...
2016: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880919/activation-of-g-protein-coupled-receptor-30-by-thiodiphenol-promotes-proliferation-of-estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-positive-breast-cancer-cells
#14
Bingli Lei, Wei Peng, Gang Xu, Minghong Wu, Yu Wen, Jie Xu, Zhiqiang Yu, Yipei Wang
Many studies have been shown that environmental estrogen bisphenol A (BPA) can activate nuclear receptor (estrogen receptor alpha, ERα) or membrane receptor (G-protein-coupled receptor, GPR30) in breast cancer cells and exerts genomic or nongenomic actions inducing cell proliferation. 4,4'-thiodiphenol (TDP) as one of BPA derivatives exhibits more potent estrogenic activity than BPA does. However, comparatively little is known about the ways in which TDP interferes with these signaling pathways and produces cell biological changes...
November 20, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879288/multi-omics-analysis-of-serum-samples-demonstrates-reprogramming-of-organ-functions-via-systemic-calcium-mobilization-and-platelet-activation-in-metastatic-melanoma
#15
Besnik Muqaku, Martin Eisninger, Samuel M Meier, Ammar Tahir, Tobias Prokop, Sebastian Haferkamp, Astrid Slany, Albrecht Reichle, Christopher Gerner
Pathophysiologies of cancer-associated syndroms such as cachexia are poorly understood and no routine biomarkers have been established, yet. Using shotgun proteomics, known marker molecules including PMEL, CRP, SAA and CSPG4 were found deregulated in patients with metastatic melanoma. Targeted analysis of 58 selected proteins with multiple reaction monitoring was applied for independent data verification. In three patients, two of which suffered from cachexia, a tissue damage signature was determined, consisting of nine proteins, PLTP, CD14, TIMP1, S10A8, S10A9, GP1BA, PTPRJ, CD44 and C4A, as well as increased levels of glycine and asparagine, and decreased levels of polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholine concentrations, as determined by targeted metabolomics...
November 22, 2016: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879271/vitamin-d3-prevents-calcium-induced-progression-of-early-stage-prostate-tumors-by-counteracting-trpc6-and-calcium-sensing-receptor-upregulation
#16
Sophie Bernichtein, Natascha Pigat, Nicolas Barry Delongchamps, Florence Boutillon, Virginie Verkarre, Philippe Camparo, Edouard Reyes-Gomez, Arnaud Méjean, Stephane Marie Oudard, Eve M Lepicard, Melanie Viltard, Jean-Claude Souberbielle, Gerard Friedlander, Thierry Capiod, Vincent Goffin
Active surveillance has emerged as an alternative to immediate treatment for men with low-risk prostate cancer. Accordingly, identification of environmental factors that faciliate progression to more aggressive stages is critical for disease prevention. Although calcium-enriched diets have been speculated to increase prostate cancer risk, their impact on early-stage tumors remains unexplored. In this study, we addressed this issue with a large interventional animal study. Mouse models of fully penetrant and slowly-evolving prostate tumorigenesis showed that a high calcium diet dramatically accelerated the progression of prostate intraepithelial neoplasia, by promoting cell proliferation, micro-invasion, tissue inflammation and expression of acknowledged prostate cancer markers...
November 22, 2016: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877077/amelioration-of-estrogen-deficiency-induced-obesity-by-collagen-hydrolysate
#17
Tsay-I Chiang, I-Chang Chang, Hsueh-Hui Lee, Kuang Hui Hsieh, Yung-Wei Chiu, Te-Jen Lai, Jer-Yuh Liu, Li-Sung Hsu, Shao-Hsuan Kao
Objectives: Menopausal transition with declining estrogen levels significantly affects the physiological properties of women and consequently contributes to a series of medical conditions, including obesity. Obesity is a crucial risk factor associated with cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, and breast cancer. Increasing dietary protein content improves satiety and energy expenditure. Thus, we hypothesize that supplementing with collagen, a common dietary protein, may alleviate menopause-induced obesity...
2016: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876462/expression-and-clinicopathological-significance-of-s100-calcium-binding-protein-a2-in-lung-cancer-patients-of-chinese-han-ethnicity
#18
Ting Wang, Yiqian Liang, Asmitananda Thakur, Shuo Zhang, Feng Liu, Hamadhaider Khan, Puyu Shi, Ning Wang, Mingwei Chen, Hui Ren
BACKGROUND: S100 family of calcium-binding proteins plays a significant role in the process of many kinds of tumors, including lung cancer. As an important member of this family, S100 calcium binding protein A2 (S100A2) has been confirmed to be associated with many biological processes, and has an abnormal expression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the S100A2 status in lung cancer is still controversial and undefined. METHODS: We evaluated the pattern and distribution of S100A2 in 109 cases of lung cancer, including five histological types (47 adenocarcinoma, 46 squamous cell carcinoma, 7 small cell carcinoma, 3 large cell carcinoma, and 6 atypical carcinoid), and 30 cases of paired adjacent normal lung tissues by means of immunohistochemistry...
November 19, 2016: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875557/socioeconomic-status-and-poor-health-outcome-at-10-years-of-follow-up-in-the-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis
#19
Steven Shea, Joao Lima, Ana Diez-Roux, Neal W Jorgensen, Robyn L McClelland
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Predictors of healthy aging have not been well-studied using longitudinal data with demographic, clinical, subclinical, and genetic information. The objective was to identify predictors of poor health outcome at 10 years of follow-up in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Population-based sample from 6 U.S. communities. PARTICIPANTS: 4,355 participants In the MESA Study...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873072/cinacalcet-hydrochloride-relieves-hypercalcemia-in-japanese-patients-with-parathyroid-cancer-and-intractable-primary-hyperparathyroidism
#20
Yasuhiro Takeuchi, Shunsuke Takahashi, Daishu Miura, Makoto Katagiri, Noriaki Nakashima, Hiroko Ohishi, Ryutaro Shimazaki, Yoshihiro Tominaga
Pharmacological treatment of hypercalcemia is essential for patients with parathyroid carcinoma and intractable primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). Use of the calcimimetic cinacalcet hydrochloride (cinacalcet) is an option to treat such patients. We investigated the efficacy and safety of cinacalcet in Japanese patients with parathyroid carcinoma and intractable PHPT. Five Japanese patients with parathyroid carcinoma and two with intractable PHPT were enrolled in an open-label, single-arm study consisting of titration and maintenance phases...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
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