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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940784/cognitive-impairment-has-no-impact-on-hospital-associated-dysphagia-in-aspiration-pneumonia-patients
#1
Keisuke Maeda, Hidetaka Wakabayashi, Hiroshi Shamoto, Junji Akagi
AIM: Hospital-associated dysphagia, characterized by deconditioning of swallowing as a result of hospitalization, is sometimes observed in patients with aspiration pneumonia (AP). Cognitive impairment is known as a negative factor in dysphagia rehabilitation. The present study aimed to examine the association between cognitive impairment and hospital-associated dysphagia in patients with AP receiving dysphagia rehabilitation. METHODS: A retrospective observational study was carried out in an acute geriatric hospital...
September 21, 2017: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933948/the-value-and-application-of-the-six-minute-walk-test-in-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#2
A Whitney Brown, Steven D Nathan
The 6 minute walk test (6MWT) is a commonly employed assessment of performance ability in a variety of cardiopulmonary diseases. It provides important functional information that is not captured in standardized pulmonary function testing. The test may be influenced by factors other than the severity of lung disease, including frailty, deconditioning, and musculoskeletal issues. The primary output measure from the six minute walk test is the distance walked, which appears to confer prognostic information in many diverse disease states...
September 21, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925651/exercise-stress-testing-indications-and-common-questions
#3
Kathryn K Garner, William Pomeroy, James J Arnold
Exercise stress testing is a validated diagnostic test for coronary artery disease in symptomatic patients, and is used in the evaluation of patients with known cardiac disease. Testing of asymptomatic patients is generally not indicated. It may be performed in select deconditioned adults before starting a vigorous exercise program, but no studies have compared outcomes from preexercise testing vs. encouraging light exercise with gradual increases in exertion. Preoperative exercise stress testing is helpful for risk stratification in patients undergoing vascular surgery or who have active cardiac symptoms before undergoing nonemergent noncardiac surgery...
September 1, 2017: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894789/impact-of-the-mk-vi-skinsuit-on-skin-microbiota-of-terrestrial-volunteers-and-an-international-space-station-bound-astronaut
#4
Richard A Stabler, Helena Rosado, Ronan Doyle, David Negus, Philip A Carvil, Juan G Kristjánsson, David A Green, Rafael Franco-Cendejas, Cadi Davies, Andreas Mogensen, Jonathan Scott, Peter W Taylor
Microgravity induces physiological deconditioning due to the absence of gravity loading, resulting in bone mineral density loss, atrophy of lower limb skeletal and postural muscles, and lengthening of the spine. SkinSuit is a lightweight compression suit designed to provide head-to-foot (axial) loading to counteract spinal elongation during spaceflight. As synthetic garments may impact negatively on the skin microbiome, we used 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene amplicon procedures to define bacterial skin communities at sebaceous and moist body sites of five healthy male volunteers undergoing SkinSuit evaluation...
2017: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884823/evaluation-of-the-natural-history-of-patients-who-aspirate
#5
Jonathan M Bock, Varun Varadarajan, Mary C Brawley, Joel H Blumin
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The natural clinical progression of aspiration to eventual pulmonary compromise is not well understood. We hypothesized that dietary modification recommendations, Penetration-Aspiration Scale (PAS) score, and dysphagia etiology would be associated with changes in time to first pulmonary event and overall survival for patients with documented aspiration on radiologic testing. This study identified a cohort of patients with detectable unsensed penetration or aspiration on videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS), and followed this cohort over time for development of pulmonary events and death...
September 8, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853641/management-of-the-symptoms-of-multiple-sclerosis-using-functional-electrical-stimulation-and-exercise
#6
Tamsyn Street
Previously, it was believed that exercise-related activity was likely to lead to the symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS) becoming worse. More recently, it has been acknowledged that the consequences of not exercising are detrimental and may exacerbate symptoms of MS. In addition, it has been recognized that some of the disability that occurs after MS is likely to be due to deconditioning from a reduction in physical activity. The current paper will explore the potential role of functional electrical stimulation of the peroneal nerve, for facilitating neurorehabilitation, through increasing mobility and overcoming barriers to accessing exercise...
August 30, 2017: Neurodegenerative Disease Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844537/baroreflex-autonomic-control-in-human-spinal-cord-injury-physiology-measurement-and-potential-alterations
#7
REVIEW
Adina E Draghici, J Andrew Taylor
The arterial baroreflex is a primary regulator of autonomic outflow to effectively regulate acute changes in blood pressure. After a spinal cord injury (SCI), regulation of autonomic function is disrupted, although the damage of the autonomic pathways may not necessarily be related to the severity of injury (i.e. level and completeness). Nonetheless, it can be assumed that there would be greater loss of sympathetic innervation with higher level of injury and that cardiac parasympathetic control would remain intact regardless of injury level...
August 18, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832370/dietary-nitrate-as-modulator-of-physical-performance-and-cardiovascular-health
#8
Conor P Kerley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Early interventional trials reported improvements in cardiac and exercise outcomes with inorganic nitrate ingestion. The current review aims to provide a brief update of recent evidence regarding ergogenic and cardiovascular effects of dietary nitrate and practical recommendations. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent evidence has been inconsistent and questions remain regarding effective dose, duration, and source of nitrate and cohorts likely to benefit...
August 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819361/unilateral-headache-status-after-intra-aortic-balloon-pump-placement
#9
Garret M Weber, Alan L Gass, Shalvi B Parikh
INTRODUCTION: Intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) counterpulsation is a catheter-based treatment for coronary artery disease and decompensated heart failure to increase coronary blood flow and improve cardiac output. IABP is generally well tolerated, and complications are usually related to peripheral vasculature or red blood cell and platelet consumption. The usual insertion site via femoral artery renders the patient bedbound. Recently, axillary artery has been used in patients with atherosclerotic peripheral vascular disease and documented small arteries or in those awaiting transplant to ensure ambulation and prevent deconditioning...
2017: Case Reports in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818141/autonomic-cardiovascular-responses-to-orthostatic-stress-after-a-short-artificial-gravity-exposure
#10
Qingguang Zhang, Joyce M Evans, Michael B Stenger, Fritz B Moore, Charles F Knapp
BACKGROUND: Intermittent artificial gravity (AG) training over days and weeks has been shown to improve the human orthostatic tolerance limit (OTL) and improve cardiovascular regulation in response to orthostatic stress. Effects of a single AG exposure are currently unknown. METHODS: We tested cardiovascular responses to orthostatic stress in 16 hypovolemic subjects (9 men and 7 women), once following a single, short (∼90 min) bout of AG and once following a similar period of head-down bed rest (HDBR)...
September 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812478/nursingstandard-com
#11
(no author information available yet)
1 Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust has launched the #EDFit2Sit campaign, providing seating, rather than trolleys, where appropriate. It is hoped the scheme will encourage patients to stay active and avoid deconditioning. Read more: rcni.com/fit-to-sit.
August 16, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810468/investigating-the-function-spiral-in-later-life-aging-attitudes-physical-activity-and-gait
#12
Brenda R Whitehead
This study tests the Function Spiral Model, which proposes that functional decline often occurs prematurely: negative aging attitudes reduce activity engagement, which then advances functional decline via physical deconditioning. A total of 89 adults aged 61-96 ( M = 77) years completed a questionnaire assessing aging attitudes and physical activity and participated in a follow-up assessment of gait/balance and function. Results supported the process model: physical activity mediated the impact of negative aging attitudes on gait/balance, and gait/balance mediated the impact of physical activity on function...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802475/integrative-pain-management
#13
REVIEW
Robert Alan Bonakdar
Chronic pain is one of the most common conditions seen in the clinic, and it is often one of the most frustrating for both clinicians and patients. This condition stems from common comorbidities, including depression, insomnia, fatigue, and physical deconditioning, which often create barriers to recovery. In addition, chronic pain has had divergent approaches for treatment, including an overemphasis on analgesia and curative treatments while underemphasizing the biopsychosocial needs of those in pain. This article attempts to provide an initial framework for approaching those in pain and initiating patient-centered options to support improvements in pain, function, and self-care...
September 2017: Medical Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797888/the-weighty-issue-of-obesity-in-paediatric-respiratory-medicine
#14
REVIEW
Dominic A Fitzgerald
Some have observed that developed world is fat and getting fatter. This is even extending into the developing world, and it is important to appreciate that the consequences of childhood obesity last into adulthood and are associated with premature death. From the paediatric respiratory perspective, the deposition of excess adipose tissue in the thoraco-abdominal region begins early in life and is believed to alter diaphragm mobility and chest wall expansion, reduce lung compliance, and result in a rapid shallow breathing pattern with an increased work of breathing and reduction in maximum ventilatory capacity...
June 11, 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771085/exercise-predicts-long-term-weight-loss-in-women-with-class-1-and-2-obesity-through-effects-on-emotional-eating-and-its-correlates
#15
James J. Annesi
BACKGROUND: The relationship between exercise and long-term weight loss is definitive. However, in deconditioned individuals, the basis of that relationship beyond minimal energy expenditures is unclear. Effects emanating from exercise's proposed association with changes in emotional eating and its psychosocial correlates were tested. METHODS: Women with Class 1 (n = 67) and Class 2 (n = 53) obesity, participating in a new community-based weight-loss treatment based on tenets of social cognitive theory, were assessed at baseline and Months 3, 6, 12, and 24 on weight and measures of exercise outputs, emotional eating, eating self-regulation, and negative mood...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766150/acute-and-chronic-neuromuscular-adaptations-to-local-vibration-training
#16
REVIEW
Robin Souron, Thibault Besson, Guillaume Y Millet, Thomas Lapole
Vibratory stimuli are thought to have the potential to promote neural and/or muscular (re)conditioning. This has been well described for whole-body vibration (WBV), which is commonly used as a training method to improve strength and/or functional abilities. Yet, this technique may present some limitations, especially in clinical settings where patients are unable to maintain an active position during the vibration exposure. Thus, a local vibration (LV) technique, which consists of applying portable vibrators directly over the tendon or muscle belly without active contribution from the participant, may present an alternative to WBV...
August 1, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704008/-can-mobilization-preserve-the-elderly-hospitalized-from-functional-decline
#17
Marie Méan, Christophe Bula, Gérard Waeber
Up to 65% of older adults who walk independently will lose this capacity during a hospital stay. In older adults, loss of walking independence increases the length of hospital stay, the need for rehabilitation services and for institutionalization, as well as the risk of falls (during hospital stay and after discharge) and the risk of death. Bed rest or limited walking during a hospital stay causes deconditioning and is one of the primary risk factors for loss of independence and adverse outcome in hospitalized older adults...
January 25, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677649/effect-of-oxidative-stress-on-cardiovascular-system-in-response-to-gravity
#18
REVIEW
Ken Takahashi, Hiroki Okumura, Rui Guo, Keiji Naruse
Long-term habitation in space leads to physiological alterations such as bone loss, muscle atrophy, and cardiovascular deconditioning. Two predominant factors-namely space radiation and microgravity-have a crucial impact on oxidative stress in living organisms. Oxidative stress is also involved in the aging process, and plays important roles in the development of cardiovascular diseases including hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy, and myocardial infarction. Here, we discuss the effects of space radiation, microgravity, and a combination of these two factors on oxidative stress...
July 4, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674322/oxidative-stress-is-closely-associated-with-increased-arterial-stiffness-especially-in-aged-male-smokers-without-previous-cardiovascular-events-a-cross-sectional-study
#19
Tomonori Sugiura, Yasuaki Dohi, Hiroyuki Takase, Sumiyo Yamashita, Satoshi Fujii, Nobuyuki Ohte
AIM: Cigarette smoking is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and induces deleterious vascular damage. Oxidative stress is involved in vascular inflammation, the process of atherosclerosis. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the effects of oxidative stress on the arterial wall differ between smokers and non-smokers. METHODS: Male smokers and non-smokers without physical deconditioning who visited Enshu hospital for an annual physical check-up were enrolled in the study...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664811/how-can-i-help-older-people-in-hospital-get-home-sooner-and-prevent-deconditioning
#20
Jo Jennings
Concerns about the complications of prolonged bed rest were raised as far back as 1947 ( Asher 1947 ). Hospital stays are associated with iatrogenic infections, medication errors, increased risk of delirium and side effects of prolonged bed rest ( Inouye and Charpentier 1996 , Covinsky et al 2011 ).
June 30, 2017: Nursing Older People
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