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Yi Zhang, Yan Zhang, Guan Wang, Wujuan Chen, Pingang He, Qingjiang Wang
A capillary column was prepared by continuously packing ostadecylsilane (ODS) and taurine derivatized silica (TDS) in one column without interface. This continuously packing chromatography (CPC) column is easy to operate, has good stability and shows simultaneously separation of both polar and non-polar compounds. The simultaneous separation of a series of complex samples with highly hydrophobic components (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and PAHs) and highly hydrophilic components (biogenic amines, bases and nucleosides) using this CPC method was investigated...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Ning Jia, Qinru Sun, Qian Su, Shaokang Dang, Guomin Chen
Substantial evidence has shown that the oxidative damage to hippocampal neurons is associated with the cognitive impairment induced by adverse stimuli during gestation named prenatal stress (PS). Taurine, a conditionally essential amino acid, possesses multiple roles in the brain as a neuromodulator or antioxidant. In this study, to explore the roles of taurine in PS-induced learning and memory impairment, prenatal restraint stress was set up and Morris water maze (MWM) was employed for testing the cognitive function in the one-month-old rat offspring...
October 13, 2016: Redox Biology
Aditi Sharma, Seung-Hwan Lee, Dajeong Lim, Han-Ha Chai, Bong-Hwan Choi, Yongmin Cho
BACKGROUND: The native cattle breeds are an important genetic resource for meat and milk production throughout Asia. In Asia cattle were domesticated around 10,000 years ago and in Korea cattle are being raised since 2000 B.C. There are three native breeds of cattle in Korea viz. Brown Hanwoo, Brindle Hanwoo and Jeju Black. While one of these breeds, Brown Hanwoo, is a part of a Food and Agricultural Organization and national genetic evaluation plans, others get little attention. This study is an effort to understand and provide a detailed insight into the population structure and genetic variability of the Korean cattle breeds along with other Asian breeds using various methods...
October 20, 2016: BMC Genetics
Kara R Vogel, Erland Arning, Teodoro Bottiglieri, K Michael Gibson
BACKGROUND: The mainstay of therapy for phenylketonuria (PKU) remains dietary protein restriction. Developmental and neurocognitive outcomes for patients, however, remain suboptimal. We tested the hypothesis that mice with PKU receiving protein-restricted diets would reveal disruptions of brain amino acids that shed light on these neurocognitive deficits. METHOD: Phenylalanine hydroxylase-deficient (PKU) mice and parallel controls (both wild-type and heterozygous) were fed custom diets containing 18, 6, and 4 % protein for 3 weeks, after which tissues (brain, liver, sera) were collected for amino acid analysis profiling...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
Jie Zhang, Jiao Peng, Xiaoyong Chen, Yajun Gong, Lesheng Wan, Fei Gao, Suran Gan, Feng Wei, Shuangcheng Ma, Jiachun Chen, Jing Nie
Snake bile, a precious traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), was used as the major ingredient of some Chinese patent drugs, such as Shedan Chuanbei powder and Shedan Chenpi powder for hundred years. However, there is still requirement for the comprehensive and definite composition of bile acids in snake bile. In order to rapidly identify the bile acids constituents in snake bile to avoid the adulteration, ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-QTOF-MS/MS) has been applied to conduct a qualitative analysis on snake bile acids...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Jianyin Long, Shawn S Badal, Zengchun Ye, Yin Wang, Bernard A Ayanga, Daniel L Galvan, Nathanael H Green, Benny H Chang, Paul A Overbeek, Farhad R Danesh
The regulatory roles of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in transcriptional coactivators are still largely unknown. Here, we have shown that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) coactivator α (PGC-1α, encoded by Ppargc1a) is functionally regulated by the lncRNA taurine-upregulated gene 1 (Tug1). Further, we have described a role for Tug1 in the regulation of mitochondrial function in podocytes. Using a murine model of diabetic nephropathy (DN), we performed an unbiased RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis of kidney glomeruli and identified Tug1 as a differentially expressed lncRNA in the diabetic milieu...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Szu Yuan Li, Katalin Susztak
An increasing amount of evidence suggests that metabolic alterations play a key role in chronic kidney disease (CKD) pathogenesis. In this issue of the JCI, Long et al. report that the long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) taurine-upregulated 1 (Tug1) contributes to CKD development. The authors show that Tug1 regulates mitochondrial function in podocytes by epigenetic targeting of expression of the transcription factor PPARγ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α, encoded by Ppargc1a). Transgenic overexpression of Tug1 specifically in podocytes ameliorated diabetes-induced CKD in mice...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Laura Bouché, Maria Panico, Paul Hitchen, Daniel Binet, Federico Sastre, Alexandra Faulds-Pain, Esmeralda Valiente, Evgeny Vinogradov, Annie Aubry, Kelly Fulton, Susan Twine, Susan M Logan, Brendan W Wren, Anne Dell, Howard R Morris
Glycosylation of flagellins is a well recognized property of many bacterial species. In this study we describe the structural characterization of novel flagellar glycans from a number of hypervirulent strains of C. difficile. We used mass spectrometry (nano LC- MS and MS/MS analysis) to identify a number of putative glycopeptides which carried a variety of glycoform substitutions each of which was linked through an initial HexNAc residue to Ser or Thr. Detailed analysis of a LLDGSSTEIR glycopeptide released by tryptic digestion, which carried two variant structures, revealed that the glycopeptide contained, in addition to carbohydrate moieties, a novel structural entity...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Diego B Souza, Juan Del Coso, Juliano Casonatto, Marcos D Polito
PURPOSE: Caffeine-containing energy drinks (EDs) are currently used as ergogenic aids to improve physical performance in a wide variety of sport disciplines. However, the outcomes of previous investigations on this topic are inconclusive due to methodological differences, especially, in the dosage of the active ingredients and the test used to assess performance. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies to evaluate the effects of acute ED intake on physical performance...
October 18, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
Seu Ping Guiraud, Ivan Montoliu, Laeticia Da Silva, Loïc Dayon, Antonio Núñez Galindo, John Corthésy, Martin Kussmann, Francois-Pierre Martin
The methionine cycle is a key pathway contributing to the regulation of human health, with well-established involvement in cardiovascular diseases and cognitive function. Changes in one-carbon cycle metabolites have also been associated with mild cognitive decline, vascular dementia, and Alzheimer's disease. Today, there is no single analytical method to monitor both metabolites and co-factors of the methionine cycle. To address this limitation, we here report for the first time a new method for the simultaneous quantitation of 17 metabolites in the methionine cycle, which are homocysteic acid, taurine, serine, cysteine, glycine, homocysteine, riboflavin, methionine, pyridoxine, cystathionine, pyridoxamine, S-adenosylhomocysteine, S-adenosylmethionine, betaine, choline, dimethylglycine, and 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid...
October 18, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Bin Wang, Qianqian Sun, Yingsha Li, Peng Li, Weijie Xia, Daoyan Liu, Zhiming Zhu
OBJECTIVE: Taurine, the most abundant, semiessential, sulfur-containing amino acid, is well known to improve metabolic status in animal models. However, no rigorous clinical trial has validated whether this beneficial effect of taurine occurs in human, especially in prehypertensive participants. DESIGN AND METHOD: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we assessed the effects of taurine intervention on metabolic parameters, such as blood pressure (BP) levels, carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), ankle brachial index (ABI)/toe brachial index (TBI), BMI and biochemical parameters in prehypertensive participants...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Aslaug Drotningsvik, Svein A Mjøs, Daniela M Pampanin, Rasa Slizyte, Ana Carvajal, Tore Remman, Ingmar Høgøy, Oddrun A Gudbrandsen
The world's fisheries and aquaculture industries produce vast amounts of protein-containing by-products that can be enzymatically hydrolysed to smaller peptides and possibly be used as additives to functional foods and nutraceuticals targeted for patients with obesity-related metabolic disorders. To investigate the effects of fish protein hydrolysates on markers of metabolic disorders, obese Zucker fa/fa rats consumed diets with 75 % of protein from casein/whey (CAS) and 25 % from herring (HER) or salmon (SAL) protein hydrolysate from rest raw material, or 100 % protein from CAS for 4 weeks...
October 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Luisa Matos Do Canto, Catalin Marian, Rency S Varghese, Jaeil Ahn, Patricia A Da Cunha, Shawna Willey, Mary Sidawy, Janice D Rone, Amrita K Cheema, George Luta, Mohammad R Nezami Ranjbar, Habtom W Ressom, Bassem R Haddad
Identification of new biomarkers for breast cancer remains critical in order to enhance early detection of the disease and improve its prognosis. Towards this end, we performed an untargeted metabolomic analysis of breast ductal fluid using an ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a quadrupole time-of-light (UPLC-QTOF) mass spectrometer. We investigated the metabolomic profiles of breast tumors using ductal fluid samples collected by ductal lavage (DL). We studied fluid from both the affected breasts and the unaffected contralateral breasts (as controls) from 43 women with confirmed unilateral breast cancer...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Oncology
Bo Sun, Xubin Wang, Ruili Cao, Qi Zhang, Qiao Liu, Meifeng Xu, Ming Zhang, Xiangbo Du, Fangting Dong, Xianzhong Yan
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Fuzi, the processed lateral root of Aconitum carmichaelii Debeaux, is a traditional Chinese medicine used for its analgesic, antipyretic, anti-rheumatoid arthritis and anti-inflammation effects; however, it is also well known for its toxicity. Gancao, the root of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch., is often used concurrently with Fuzi to alleviate its toxicity. However, the mechanism of detoxication is still not well clear. AIM OF THE STUDY: In this study, the effect of Gancao on the metabolic changes induced by Fuzi was investigated by NMR-based metabonomic approaches...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Ashley E Mohrman, Mahmoud Farrag, He Huang, Stephan Ossowski, Stephanie Haft, Leah P Shriver, Nic D Leipzig
Syringomyelia is a condition of the spinal cord in which a syrinx, or fluid-filled cavity, forms from trauma, malformation, or general disorder. Previous work has shown that in noncanalicular syringomyelia irregular flow and pressure conditions enhance the volumetric growth of syrinxes. A better understanding of the underlying molecular pathways associated with syrinx formation will unveil targets for treatments and possibly prevention of syringomyelia in the future. In this study, we performed an established surgical induction of a syrinx using quisqualic acid and kaolin injections in rats to characterize the injury at the molecular level by RNA sequencing and metabolomics techniques at three and six weeks post-injury...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Yang Quan-Jun, Zhang Jian-Ping, Zhang Jian-Hua, Han Yong-Long, Xin Bo, Zhang Jing-Xian, Dai Bona, Zhang Yuan, Guo Cheng
Inhaled budesonide and salbutamol represent the most important and frequently used drugs in asthmatic children during acute exacerbation. However, there is still no consensus about their resulting metabolic derangements; thus, the present study was conducted to determine the distinct metabolic profiles of these two drugs. A total of 69 children with asthma during acute exacerbation were included, and their serum and urine were investigated using high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). A metabolomics analysis was performed using a principal component analysis and orthogonal signal correction-partial least squares using SIMCA-P...
October 12, 2016: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Jason Gavin, Fran Quilty, Ferenc Majer, Georgina Gilsenan, Anne Marie Byrne, Aideen Long, Gabor Radics, John F Gilmer
Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) is a cytoprotective ER stress inhibitor and chemical chaperone. It has therapeutic potential in a wide array of diseases but a specific macromolecular target or molecular mechanism of action remains obscure. This Letter describes an effective new synthetic approach to taurine conjugation of bile acids which we used to prepare 3α-dansyl TUDCA (4) as a probe for TUDCA actions. As a model of ER stress we used the hepatocarcinoma cell line HUH7 and stimulation with either deoxycholic acid (DCA, 200μM) or tunicamycin (5μg/ml) and measured levels of Bip/GRP78, ATF4, CHOP and XBP1s/XBP1u...
June 23, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Yumiko Takahashi, Yuki Tamura, Yutaka Matsunaga, Yu Kitaoka, Shin Terada, Hideo Hatta
We previously reported that taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid; dose: 0.5 mg/g body weight) administration after treadmill running at 25 m/min for 90 min increased the glycogen concentration in the skeletal muscle of ICR mice at 120 min after the exercise (Takahashi et al. 2014). In the current study, we further investigated the effects of taurine administration on glycogen repletion and carbohydrate metabolism in the tibialis anterior muscle after endurance exercise. The metabolomic profiles of the tibialis anterior muscle at 120 min after the exercise were analyzed by a capillary electrophoresis-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (n=6)...
2016: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Seo Yeon Lee, Kwang Suk Ko
BACKGROUND: Exposure to ethanol abuse and severe oxidative stress are risk factors for hepatocarcinoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) and its combinations with taurine and/or betaine on the level of glutathione (GSH), a powerful antioxidant in the liver, in acute hepatotoxicity induced by ethanol. METHODS: To examine the effects of SAMe and its combinations with taurine and/or betaine on ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity, AML12 cells and C57BL/6 mice were pretreated with SAMe, taurine, and/or betaine, followed by ethanol challenge...
September 2016: Journal of Cancer Prevention
Seo Yeon Lee, Kwang Suk Ko
BACKGROUND: Several mechanisms for the pathogenesis of many liver diseases are related with oxidative stress, endotoxins, and infections by many microorganisms. These can lead to chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and even liver cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) and its combinations with taurine and/or betaine against hepatotoxicites induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (polyI:C). METHODS: RAW 264...
September 2016: Journal of Cancer Prevention
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