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Taurine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144408/antioxidant-effect-of-barley-sprout-extract-via-enhancement-of-nuclear-factor-erythroid-2-related-factor-2-activity-and-glutathione-synthesis
#1
Yun-Hee Lee, Sou Hyun Kim, Seunghyun Lee, Kyung-Mi Kim, Jae-Chul Jung, Tae Gen Son, Sung Hwan Ki, Woo-Duck Seo, Jae-Hwan Kwak, Jin Tae Hong, Young-Suk Jung
We previously showed that barley sprout extract (BSE) prevents chronic alcohol intake-induced liver injury in mice. BSE notably inhibited glutathione (GSH) depletion and increased inflammatory responses, revealing its mechanism of preventing alcohol-induced liver injury. In the present study we investigated whether the antioxidant effect of BSE involves enhancing nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) activity and GSH synthesis to inhibit alcohol-induced oxidative liver injury. Mice fed alcohol for four weeks exhibited significantly increased oxidative stress, evidenced by increased malondialdehyde (MDA) level and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) immunostaining in the liver, whereas treatment with BSE (100 mg/kg) prevented these effects...
November 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141883/thermal-history-and-gape-of-individual-mytilus-californianus-correlate-with-oxidative-damage-and-thermoprotective-osmolytes
#2
Lani U Gleason, Luke P Miller, Jacob R Winnikoff, George N Somero, Paul H Yancey, Dylan Bratz, W Wesley Dowd
The ability of animals to cope with environmental stress depends - in part - on past experience, yet knowledge of the factors influencing an individual's physiology in nature remains underdeveloped. We used an individual monitoring system to record body temperature and valve gaping behavior of rocky intertidal zone mussels (Mytilus californianus). Thirty individuals were selected from two mussel beds (wave-exposed and wave-protected) that differ in thermal regime. Instrumented mussels were deployed at two intertidal heights (near the lower and upper edges of the mussel zone) and in a continuously submerged tidepool...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140140/the-physiological-mechanisms-of-effect-of-vitamins-and-amino-acids-on-tendon-and-muscle-healing-a-systematic-review
#3
Christopher Tack, Faye Shorthouse, Lindsy Kass
AIMS/OBJECTIVES: To evaluate current literature via systematic review to ascertain whether amino acids/ vitamins provide any influence on musculotendinous healing, and by which physiological mechanisms Methods: EBSCO, PUBMED, Science Direct, Embase Classic/ Embase, and MEDLINE were searched using terms including "vitamins", "amino acids", "healing", "muscle" and "tendon". The primary search had 479 citations, 466 of which were excluded predominantly due to non-randomised design. Randomised human and animal studies investigating all supplement types/ forms of administration were included...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132024/a-hilic-uhplc-ms-ms-untargeted-urinary-metabonomics-combined-with-quantitative-analysis-of-five-polar-biomarkers-on-osteoporosis-rats-after-oral-administration-of-gushudan
#4
Xiao Wu, Yue Huang, Jinghan Sun, Yongqing Wen, Feng Qin, Longshan Zhao, Zhili Xiong
A HILIC-UHPLC-MS/MS untargeted urinary metabonomic method combined with quantitative analysis of five potential polar biomarkers in rat urine was developed and validated, to further understand the anti-osteoporosis effect of Gushudan(GSD) and its mechanism on prednisolone-induced osteoporosis(OP) rats in this study. The metabolites were separated and identified on Waters BEH HILIC (2.1mm×100mm, 1.7μm) column using the Waters ACQUITY™ ultra performance liquid chromatography system (Waters Corporation, Milford, USA) coupled with a Micromass Quattro Micro™ API mass spectrometer (Waters Corp, Milford, MA, USA)...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131145/metabolomics-based-discovery-of-a-metabolite-that-enhances-oligodendrocyte-maturation
#5
Brittney A Beyer, Mingliang Fang, Benjamin Sadrian, J Rafael Montenegro-Burke, Warren C Plaisted, Bernard P C Kok, Enrique Saez, Toru Kondo, Gary Siuzdak, Luke L Lairson
Endogenous metabolites play essential roles in the regulation of cellular identity and activity. Here we have investigated the process of oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC) differentiation, a process that becomes limiting during progressive stages of demyelinating diseases, including multiple sclerosis, using mass-spectrometry-based metabolomics. Levels of taurine, an aminosulfonic acid possessing pleotropic biological activities and broad tissue distribution properties, were found to be significantly elevated (∼20-fold) during the course of oligodendrocyte differentiation and maturation...
November 13, 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131097/fluoxetine-treatment-in-rats-increases-the-rate-of-taurine-transport-in-mononuclear-cells
#6
María Gabriela Colmenares-Aguilar, Mary Urbina, Francisco Obregón, Fili Fazzino, Lucimey Lima
Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressant, modulates the mitogen-induced proliferation of lymphocytes. Lymphocytes contain taurine and express taurine transporter (TauT). Among the effects of taurine on lymphocytes are protection against oxidants and regulation of the inflammatory aspects of the immune response. Our aim was to determine the influence of fluoxetine treatment on taurine transport, and to determine the presence of TauT in the mononuclear cells of rats. METHODS: Male adult Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with fluoxetine 10 mg/kg i...
November 1, 2017: Neuroimmunomodulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127884/regional-dysregulation-of-taurine-and-related-amino-acids-in-the-fetal-rat-brain-following-gestational-alcohol-exposure
#7
Raine Lunde-Young, Katie Davis-Anderson, Vishal Naik, Matthew Nemec, Guoyao Wu, Jayanth Ramadoss
The fetal brain exhibits exquisite alcohol-induced regional neuronal vulnerability. A candidate mechanism for alcohol-mediated brain deficits is disruption of amino acid (AA) bioavailability. AAs are vitally important for proper neurodevelopment, as they comprise the most abundant neurotransmitters in the brain and act as neurotransmitter precursors, nitric oxide donors, antioxidants, and neurotrophic factors, which induce synaptogenesis, neuronal proliferation, and migration. We hypothesized that gestational alcohol alters brain AA concentrations, disrupts AAs associated with neuropathogenesis, and that alterations are region-specific...
September 30, 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125846/characterization-of-the-lycium-barbarum-fruit-transcriptome-and-development-of-est-ssr-markers
#8
Chunling Chen, Meilong Xu, Cuiping Wang, Gaixia Qiao, Wenwen Wang, Zhaoyun Tan, Tiantian Wu, Zhengsheng Zhang
Lycium barbarum, commonly known as goji, is important in Chinese herbal medicine and its fruit is a very important agricultural and biological product. However, the molecular mechanism of formation of its fruit and associated medicinal and nutritional components is unexplored. Moreover, this species lacks SSR markers due to lack of genomic and transcriptomic information. In this study, a total of 139,333 unigenes with average length of 1049 bp and N50 of 1579 bp are obtained by trinity assembly from Illumina sequencing reads...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124761/longitudinal-investigation-of-neuroinflammation-and-metabolite-profiles-in-the-appswe-%C3%A3-ps1%C3%AE-e9-transgenic-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
A Chaney, M Bauer, D Bochicchio, A Smigova, M Kassiou, K E Davies, S R Williams, H Boutin
There is increasing evidence linking neuroinflammation to many neurological disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD), however its exact contribution to disease manifestation and/or progression is poorly understood. Therefore, a need exists to find new ways of investigating neuroinflammation in both health and disease. Here we investigate cognitive decline, neuroinflammatory and other pathophysiological changes in the APPswe ×PS1Δe9 transgenic mouse model of AD. Transgenic (TG) mice were compared to C57BL/6 wild type (WT) mice at 6, 12 and 18 months of age...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123472/taurine-as-an-essential-neuromodulator-during-perinatal-cortical-development
#10
REVIEW
Werner Kilb, Atsuo Fukuda
A variety of experimental studies demonstrated that neurotransmitters are an important factor for the development of the central nervous system, affecting neurodevelopmental events like neurogenesis, neuronal migration, programmed cell death, and differentiation. While the role of the classical neurotransmitters glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on neuronal development is well established, the aminosulfonic acid taurine has also been considered as possible neuromodulator during early neuronal development...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118035/single-channel-analysis-of-isoflurane-and-ethanol-enhancement-of-taurine-activated-glycine-receptors
#11
Dean Kirson, Jelena Todorovic, S John Mihic
The amino acid taurine is an endogenous ligand acting on glycine receptors and is released by astrocytes in many brain regions, such as the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex. Taurine is a partial agonist with an efficacy significantly lower than that of glycine. Allosteric modulators such as ethanol and isoflurane produce leftward shifts of glycine concentration-response curves but have no effects at saturating glycine concentrations. In contrast, in whole-cell electrophysiology studies these modulators increase the effects of saturating taurine concentrations...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112762/alteration-of-bile-acid-and-cholesterol-biosynthesis-and-transport-by-perfluorononanoic-acid-pfna-in-mice
#12
Yue Zhang, Youcai Zhang, Curtis D Klaassen, Xingguo Cheng
Perfluorochemicals produce hepatotoxic effects via activation of PPARα and CAR nuclear receptors in animals. Bile formation is one major liver function. But it remains unknown whether perfluorochemicals alter metabolism of bile acids (BAs) in liver. The present study was designed to determine the impact of perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) on BA and cholesterol homeostasis in mice. A single dose of PFNA (0.1 mmol/kg) was intraperitoneally administered to adult male wild-type (WT), PPARα-null, and CAR-null mice...
November 3, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105628/enhanced-physical-endurance-and-improved-memory-performance-following-taurine-administration-in-rats
#13
Irfan Sajid, Saara Ahmad, Shaista Emad, Zehra Batool, Saima Khaliq, Lubna Anis, Saiqa Tabassum, Syeda Madiha, Laraib Liaquat, Sadia Sadir, Tahira Perveen, Saida Haider
Energy drinks enhance physical endurance and cognitive ability. The ingredients present in these drinks are considered as ergogenic and have memory boosting effects. In the present study effects of taurine administration for one week was monitored on physical exercise and memory performance in rats. Animals were divided into two groups namely control and test. Taurine was injected intraperitoneally to the test group at the dose of 100mg/kg. After one week of treatment rats were subjected to physical exercise and memory task...
September 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105115/randomised-clinical-study-the-effects-of-oral-taurine-6-day%C3%A2-g-vs-placebo-daily-on-portal-hypertension
#14
R Schwarzer, D Kivaranovic, M Mandorfer, R Paternostro, D Wolrab, B Heinisch, T Reiberger, M Ferlitsch, C Gerner, M Trauner, M Peck-Radosavljevic, A Ferlitsch
BACKGROUND: The amino sulphonic acid taurine reduces oxidative endoplasmatic reticulum stress and inhibits hepatic stellate cell activation, which might lead to reduction of portal pressure in cirrhosis. AIM: To assess the haemodynamic effects of taurine supplementation in patients with cirrhosis and varices. METHODS: Patients with hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) ≥12 mm Hg were included in this prospective proof of concept study...
November 3, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101223/taurine-treatment-prevents-derangement-of-the-hepatic-%C3%AE-glutamyl-cycle-and-methylglyoxal-metabolism-in-a-mouse-model-of-classical-homocystinuria-regulatory-crosstalk-between-thiol-and-sulfinic-acid-metabolism
#15
Kenneth N Maclean, Hua Jiang, Stefanos Aivazidis, Eugene Kim, Colin T Shearn, Peter S Harris, Dennis R Petersen, Robert H Allen, Sally P Stabler, James R Roede
Cystathionine β-synthase-deficient homocystinuria (HCU) is a poorly understood, life-threatening inborn error of sulfur metabolism. Analysis of hepatic glutathione (GSH) metabolism in a mouse model of HCU demonstrated significant depletion of cysteine, GSH, and GSH disulfide independent of the block in trans-sulfuration compared with wild-type controls. HCU induced the expression of the catalytic and regulatory subunits of γ-glutamyl ligase, GSH synthase (GS), γ-glutamyl transpeptidase 1, 5-oxoprolinase (OPLAH), and the GSH-dependent methylglyoxal detoxification enzyme, glyoxalase-1...
November 3, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096548/thermosensitive-hydrogels-a-versatile-concept-adapted-to-vaginal-drug-delivery
#16
Sebastien Taurin, Aliyah A Almomen, Tatianna Pollak, Sun Jin Kim, John Maxwell, C Matthew Peterson, Shawn C Owen, Margit M Janát-Amsbury
Vaginal drug delivery represents an attractive strategy for local and systemic delivery of drugs otherwise poorly absorbed after oral administration. The rather dense vascular network, mucus permeability and the physiological phenomenon of the uterine first-pass effect can all be exploited for therapeutic benefit. However, several physiological factors such as an acidic pH, constant secretion, and turnover of mucus as well as varying thickness of the vaginal epithelium can impact sustained drug delivery. In recent years, polymers have been designed to tackle challenges mentioned above...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Drug Targeting
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096085/proteomic-analysis-of-camellia-sinensis-l-reveals-a-synergistic-network-in-the-response-to-drought-stress-and-recovery
#17
Yu Wang, Kai Fan, Jing Wang, Zhao-Tang Ding, Hui Wang, Cai-Hong Bi, Yun-Wei Zhang, Hai-Wei Sun
Drought is a crucial limiting factor for tea yield and quality. To systematically characterize the molecular response of tea plants to drought stress and its capacity to recover, we used iTRAQ-based comparative proteomic approach to investigate the effects of drought on protein expression profiles in tea seedlings subjected to different drought treatments. A total of 3274 proteins were identified, of which 2169 and 2300 showed differential expressions during drought and recovery, respectively. Functional annotation showed that multiple biological processes were regulated, suggesting that tea plants probably employed multiple and synergistic resistance mechanisms in dealing with drought stress...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095932/metabolomics-based-predictive-biomarker-model-of-ards-a-systemic-measure-of-clinical-hypoxemia
#18
Neeraj Sinha, Akhila Viswan, Chandan Singh, Ratan Kumar Rai, Afzal Azim, Arvind Kumar Baronia
Despite advancements in ventilator technologies, lung supportive and rescue therapies, the outcome and prognostication in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) remains incremental and ambiguous. Metabolomics is a potential insightful measure to the diagnostic approaches practiced in critical disease settings. In our study patients diagnosed with mild and moderate/severe ARDS clinically governed by hypoxemic P/F ratio between 100-300 but with indistinct molecular phenotype were discriminated employing nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolomics of mini bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (mBALF)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095865/beneficial-effects-of-high-dose-taurine-treatment-in-juvenile-dystrophic-mdx-mice-are-offset-by-growth-restriction
#19
Jessica R Terrill, Gavin J Pinniger, Keshav V Nair, Miranda D Grounds, Peter G Arthur
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal muscle wasting disease manifested in young boys, for which there is no current cure. We have shown that the amino acid taurine is safe and effective at preventing dystropathology in the mdx mouse model for DMD. This study aimed to establish if treating growing mdx mice with a higher dose of taurine was more effective at improving strength and reducing inflammation and oxidative stress. Mice were treated with a dose of taurine estimated to be 16 g/kg/day, in drinking water from 1-6 weeks of age, after which in vivo and ex vivo muscle strength was assessed, as were measures of inflammation, oxidative stress and taurine metabolism...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093479/bile-acid-tudca-improves-insulin-clearance-by-increasing-the-expression-of-insulin-degrading-enzyme-in-the-liver-of-obese-mice
#20
Jean Franciesco Vettorazzi, Mirian Ayumi Kurauti, Gabriela Moreira Soares, Patricia Cristine Borck, Sandra Mara Ferreira, Renato Chaves Souto Branco, Luciana de Souza Lima Michelone, Antonio Carlos Boschero, Jose Maria Costa Junior, Everardo Magalhães Carneiro
Disruption of insulin secretion and clearance both contribute to obesity-induced hyperinsulinemia, though reduced insulin clearance seems to be the main factor. The liver is the major site for insulin degradation, a process mainly coordinated by the insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE). The beneficial effects of taurine conjugated bile acid (TUDCA) on insulin secretion as well as insulin sensitivity have been recently described. However, the possible role of TUDCA in insulin clearance had not yet been explored. Here, we demonstrated that 15 days treatment with TUDCA reestablished plasma insulin to physiological concentrations in high fat diet (HFD) mice, a phenomenon associated with increased insulin clearance and liver IDE expression...
November 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
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