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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648929/toxicological-effects-of-nux-vomica-in-rats-urine-and-serum-by-means-of-clinical-chemistry-histopathology-and-1-h-nmr-based-metabonomics-approach
#1
Yunfei Fan, Shaofeng Liu, Xiaodong Chen, Meirou Feng, Fenyun Song, Xiaoxia Gao
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The dried ripe seeds of Nux Vomica (Strychnos nux-vomica L.), a traditional Chinese medicine, have been used to treat multifarious symptoms. However, the clinical applications of Nux Vomica are limited by its severe toxicity. In this study, Nux Vomica was subjected to nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabonomics and pathological examination to determine relevant biomarkers in target organs and to explain the underlying toxicity mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Thirty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups of twelve rats...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642786/signatures-of-selection-for-environmental-adaptation-and-zebu-%C3%A3-taurine-hybrid-fitness-in-east-african-shorthorn-zebu
#2
Hussain Bahbahani, Abdulfatai Tijjani, Christopher Mukasa, David Wragg, Faisal Almathen, Oyekanmi Nash, Gerald N Akpa, Mary Mbole-Kariuki, Sunir Malla, Mark Woolhouse, Tad Sonstegard, Curtis Van Tassell, Martin Blythe, Heather Huson, Olivier Hanotte
The East African Shorthorn Zebu (EASZ) cattle are ancient hybrid between Asian zebu × African taurine cattle preferred by local farmers due to their adaptability to the African environment. The genetic controls of these adaptabilities are not clearly understood yet. Here, we genotyped 92 EASZ samples from Kenya (KEASZ) with more than 770,000 SNPs and sequenced the genome of a pool of 10 KEASZ. We observe an even admixed autosomal zebu × taurine genomic structure in the population. A total of 101 and 165 candidate regions of positive selection, based on genome-wide SNP analyses (meta-SS, Rsb, iHS, and ΔAF) and pooled heterozygosity (Hp) full genome sequence analysis, are identified, in which 35 regions are shared between them...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630707/evidence-of-endometrial-amino-acid-metabolism-and-transport-modulation-by-peri-ovulatory-endocrine-profiles-driving-uterine-receptivity
#3
Moana Rodrigues França, Maressa Izabel Santos da Silva, Guilherme Pugliesi, Veerle Van Hoeck, Mario Binelli
BACKGROUND: In beef cattle, changes in the periovulatory endocrine milieu are associated with fertility and conceptus growth. A large preovulatory follicle (POF) and the resulting elevated concentrations of progesterone (P4) during diestrus positively affect pregnancy rates. Amino acids (AA) are important components of maternally derived secretions that are crucial for embryonic survival before implantation. The hypothesis is that the size of the POF and the concentration of P4 in early diestrus modulate the endometrial abundance of SLC transcripts related to AA transport and metabolism and subsequently impact luminal concentrations of AA...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628611/effects-of-salinity-on-gonadal-development-osmoregulation-and-metabolism-of-adult-male-chinese-mitten-crab-eriocheir-sinensis
#4
Xiaowen Long, Xugan Wu, Lei Zhao, Haihui Ye, Yongxu Cheng, Chaoshu Zeng
As a catadromous species, salinity is a key parameter that affects gonadal development of Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis during reproductive migration. It is however unclear the effects of salinity on the gonadal development of male E. sinensis as well as their physiological responses to salinity during reproductive migration. This study investigated the effects of four salinities (0 ‰, 6 ‰, 12 ‰ and 18 ‰) on gonadal development, osmoregulation and metabolism of adult male E. sinensis over a 40-day period...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626960/whole-blood-taurine-concentrations-in-cats-with-intestinal-disease
#5
A Kathrani, A J Fascetti, J A Larsen, C Maunder, E J Hall
BACKGROUND: Increased delivery of taurine-conjugated bile acids to the distal bowel can lead to dysbiosis resulting in colitis in mouse models of inflammatory bowel disease. A similar situation also could occur in cats with intestinal disease and might therefore result in decreased whole-body taurine concentration. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To determine whether whole-blood taurine concentrations are decreased at the time of diagnosis in cats with intestinal disease and to correlate concentrations with clinical and laboratory variables...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624318/differential-urinary-metabolites-related-with-the-severity-of-major-depressive-disorder
#6
Jian-Jun Chen, Chan-Juan Zhou, Peng Zheng, Ke Cheng, Hai-Yang Wang, Juan Li, Li Zeng, Peng Xie
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common mental disorder that affects a person's general health. However, there is still no objective laboratory test for diagnosing MDD. Here, an integrated analysis of data from our previous studies was performed to identify the differential metabolites in the urine of moderate and severe MDD patients. A dual platform approach (NMR spectroscopy and GC-MS) was used. Consequently, 14 and 22 differential metabolites responsible for separating moderate and severe MDD patients, respectively, from their respective healthy controls (HCs) were identified...
June 15, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623169/mutation-of-the-inhibitory-ethanol-site-in-gabaa-%C3%AF-1-receptors-promotes-tolerance-to-ethanol-induced-motor-incoordination
#7
Yuri A Blednov, Cecilia M Borghese, Carlos I Ruiz, Madeline A Cullins, Adriana Da Costa, Elizabeth A Osterndorff-Kahanek, Gregg E Homanics, R Adron Harris
Genes encoding the ρ1/2 subunits of GABAA receptors have been associated with alcohol (ethanol) dependence in humans, and ρ1 was also shown to regulate some of the behavioral effects of ethanol in animal models. Ethanol inhibits GABA-mediated responses in wild-type (WT) ρ1, but not ρ1(T6'Y) mutant receptors expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, indicating the presence of an inhibitory site for ethanol in the second transmembrane helix. In this study, we found that ρ1(T6'Y) receptors expressed in oocytes display overall normal responses to GABA, the endogenous GABA modulator (zinc), and partial agonists (β-alanine and taurine)...
June 13, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622483/human-milk-fortifiers-do-not-meet-the-current-recommendation-for-nutrients-in-very-low-birth-weight-infants
#8
Winston Koo, Hilary Tice
BACKGROUND: Use of multinutrient fortifiers is standard of care for small preterm infants fed exclusively human milk. However, adequacy of human milk fortifiers (HMFs) to meet the recommended intake for macronutrients and micronutrients is now known. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nutrient content of human milk fortified according to manufacturer's recommendations was compared at isocaloric levels for 1 human milk-based (HMF-A), 2 bovine milk protein-based (HMF-B, HMF-C), and 2 preterm infant formulas (PTF-B, PTF-C)...
June 1, 2017: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620784/inhibitory-effect-of-taurine-on-biofilm-formation-during-alkane-degradation-in-acinetobacter-oleivorans-dr1
#9
Hyo Jung Eom, Woojun Park
Taurine, 2-aminoethanesulfonate, is known to function as an antioxidant or membrane stabilizer in eukaryotic cells, but its role in bacteria has been poorly characterized. Biofilm formation of Acinetobacter oleivorans DR1 was significantly reduced by taurine only during alkane degradation, suggesting that taurine affects alkane-induced cell surface. Structurally similar compounds harboring an amine group such as hypotaurine or ethylenediamine have a similar effect, which was not observed with sulfonate-containing chemicals such as ethanesulfonic acid, hexanesulfonic acid...
June 15, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617552/long-non-coding-rna-tug1-can-promote-proliferation-and-migration-of-pancreatic-cancer-via-emt-pathway
#10
C-F Qin, F-L Zhao
OBJECTIVE: This paper aimed to investigate the effect of long non-coding RNA TUG1 (lncRNA TUG1) on cell proliferation, as well as cell migration in pancreatic cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The mRNA levels of Taurine-up-regulated gene 1 (TUG1) in three kinds of pancreatic cancer cells BxPC3, PaTu8988 and SW1990 was detected by RT-qPCR. Meantime, RT-qPCR was used to examine the mRNA levels of TUG1 in 20 cases of human pancreatic cancer tissues and its para-carcinoma tissues...
May 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615447/human-retinal-pigment-epithelium-cells-prefer-proline-as-a-nutrient-and-transport-metabolic-intermediates-to-the-retinal-side
#11
Jennifer R Chao, Kaitlen Knight, Abbi L Engel, Connor Jankowski, Yekai Wang, Megan A Manson, Haiwei Gu, Danijel Djukovic, Daniel Raftery, James B Hurley, Jianhai Du
Metabolite transport is a major function for the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) to support the neural retina. RPE dysfunction plays a significant role in retinal degenerative diseases. We have used mass spectrometry with (13)C tracers to systematically study nutrient consumption and metabolite transport in cultured human fetal RPE. LC MS/MS detected 120 metabolites in the medium from either the apical or basal side. Surprisingly, more proline is consumed than any other nutrient including glucose, taurine, lipids, vitamins, or other amino acids...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614360/comparative-genomics-of-cryptococcus-neoformans-var-grubii-associated-with-meningitis-in-hiv-infected-and-uninfected-patients-in-vietnam
#12
Jeremy N Day, Seet Qihui, Lam Tuan Thanh, Phan Hai Trieu, Anh Duong Van, Nha Hoang Thu, Tran Thi Hong Chau, Nguyen P H Lan, Nguyen Van Vinh Chau, Philip M Ashton, Guy E Thwaites, Maciej F Boni, Marcel Wolbers, Niranjan Nagarajan, Patrick B O Tan, Stephen Baker
The vast burden of cryptococcal meningitis occurs in immunosuppressed patients, driven by HIV, and is caused by Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii. We previously reported cryptococcal meningitis in Vietnam arising atypically in HIV uninfected, apparently immunocompetent patients, caused by a single amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) cluster of C. neoformans var. grubii (VNIγ). This variant was less common in HIV infected individuals; it remains unclear why this lineage is associated with apparently immunocompetent patients...
June 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612434/effect-of-increasing-taurine-and-methionine-supplementation-on-urinary-taurine-excretion-in-a-model-insectivore-the-giant-anteater-myrmecophaga-tridactyla
#13
S A Nofs, E S Dierenfeld, R C Backus
The giant anteater (Mymercophaga tridactyla) is a highly specialized insectivore for which nutrient requirements are not clearly established, making diet formulation challenging for this species. Multiple clinical reports suggest anteaters have an obligate dietary taurine (TAU) requirement. Sulphur amino acid (SAA) metabolism in adult anteaters was evaluated using noninvasive methods to measure TAU synthesis potential from dietary methionine (MET) and a basal diet containing on a dry matter (DM) basis 1.7 mg TAU/kg DM and 6...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611598/early-paradoxical-increase-of-dopamine-a-neurochemical-study-of-olfactory-bulb-in-asymptomatic-and-symptomatic-mptp-treated-monkeys
#14
Christian Pifl, Harald Reither, Natalia Lopez-Gonzalez Del Rey, Carmen Cavada, Jose A Obeso, Javier Blesa
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease with both motor and non-motor manifestations. Hyposmia is one of the early non-motor symptoms, which can precede motor symptoms by several years. The relationship between hyposmia and PD remains elusive. Olfactory bulb (OB) pathology shows an increased number of olfactory dopaminergic cells, protein aggregates and dysfunction of neurotransmitter systems. In this study we examined tissue levels of dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and their metabolites, of noradrenaline (NA) and of the amino acid neurotransmitters aspartate, glutamate, taurine and γ-aminobutyric acid in OBs of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) treated Macaca fascicularis in different stages, including monkeys who were always asymptomatic, monkeys who recovered from mild parkinsonian signs, and monkeys with stable moderate or severe parkinsonism...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605831/age-related-changes-in-sulfur-amino-acid-metabolism-in-male-c57bl-6-mice
#15
Jang Su Jeon, Jeong-Ja Oh, Hui Chan Kwak, Hwi-Yeol Yun, Hyoung Chin Kim, Young-Mi Kim, Soo Jin Oh, Sang Kyum Kim
Alterations in sulfur amino acid metabolism are associated with an increased risk of a number of common late-life diseases, which raises the possibility that metabolism of sulfur amino acids may change with age. The present study was conducted to understand the age-related changes in hepatic metabolism of sulfur amino acids in 2-, 6-, 18- and 30-month-old male C57BL/6 mice. For this purpose, metabolite profiling of sulfur amino acids from methionine to taurine or glutathione (GSH) was performed. The levels of sulfur amino acids and their metabolites were not significantly different among 2-, 6- and 18-month-old mice, except for plasma GSH and hepatic homocysteine...
June 14, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603806/atp-sulfurylase-is-essential-for-the-utilization-of-sulfamate-as-a-sulfur-source-in-the-yeast-komagataella-pastoris-syn-pichia-pastoris
#16
Tomas Linder
The methylotrophic yeast Komagataella pastoris (syn. Pichia pastoris) is one of the few known yeasts that can utilize sulfamate ([Formula: see text]) as a sulfur source. The biochemical pathway responsible for the catabolism of sulfamate has yet to be identified. The present study sought to investigate whether sulfamate catabolism proceeds through either of the inorganic sulfur intermediates sulfate ([Formula: see text]) or sulfite ([Formula: see text]) before its assimilation and subsequent incorporation into sulfur-containing amino acids and their derivatives...
June 12, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602601/association-of-amine-biomarkers-with-incident-dementia-and-alzheimer-s-disease-in-the-framingham-study
#17
Vincent Chouraki, Sarah R Preis, Qiong Yang, Alexa Beiser, Shuo Li, Martin G Larson, Galit Weinstein, Thomas J Wang, Robert E Gerszten, Ramachandran S Vasan, Sudha Seshadri
INTRODUCTION: The identification of novel biomarkers associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) could provide key biological insights and permit targeted preclinical prevention. We investigated circulating metabolites associated with incident dementia and AD using metabolomics. METHODS: Plasma levels of 217 metabolites were assessed in 2067 dementia-free Framingham Offspring Cohort participants (mean age = 55.9 ± 9.7 years; 52.4% women). We studied their associations with future dementia and AD risk in multivariate Cox models...
June 8, 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597931/an-in-vitro-study-of-the-long-non-coding-rna-tug1-in-tongue-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#18
Zhi-Qiang Li, Rui Zou, Ke-Xiong Ouyang, Wei-Jian Ai
BACKGROUND: This study sought to study the expression of the long non-coding RNA (lncRNA)taurine-upregulated gene 1 (TUG1) in tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) and reveal its possible function. METHODS: qRT-PCR was used to evaluate 27 samples of fresh TSCC tissues and adjacent normal tongue tissues. siRNA technology was employed to down-regulate TUG1 expression in CAL-27 and SCC-9 cell lines.The3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was utilized to assess cell proliferation ability; apoptosis and cell cycle phases were analysed via flow cytometry...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595554/sulphur-containing-amino-acids-protective-role-against-free-radicals-and-heavy-metals
#19
Mirjana B Čolović, Vesna M Vasić, Dragan M Djuric, Danijela Z Krstić
Sulphur is an abundant element in biological systems, which plays an important role in processes essential for life as a constituent of proteins, vitamins and other crucial biomolecules. The major source of sulphur for humans is plants being able to use inorganic sulphur in the purpose of sulphur-containing amino acids synthesis. Sulphur-containing amino acids include methionine, cysteine, homocysteine, and taurine. Among them, methionine and cysteine are classified as proteinogenic, canonic amino acids incorporated in proteins structure...
June 8, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595553/sulfur-containing-amino-acids-homocysteine-and-taurine-in-seizures-current-state-of-the-art
#20
Dragan Hrncic, Aleksandra Rasic-Markovic, Duro Macut, Dusan Mladenovic, Veselinka Susic, Dragan Djuric, Olivera Stanojlovic
Homocysteine and taurine are non-proteinogenic sulfur-containing amino acids with numerous important physiological roles. Homocysteine and taurine are considered to be neurotransmitters and neuromodulators, the first showing clear hyperexcitability role, while the second is known by its inhibitory and neuroprotective properties. In this article we addressed the role of homocysteine and its related metabolite homocysteine thiolactone in the development of seizures, focusing on its experimental models in vivo, potential mechanisms of proepileptogenic activity via interactions with glutamatergic neurotransmission, sodium pump activity, oxidative stress, cholinergic system and NO-mediated neuronal signaling, as well as the pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches to modulate its proconvulsive activity...
June 8, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
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