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Junjie Wang, Kota Hanzawa, Hidenori Hiramatsu, Junghwan Kim, Naoto Umezawa, Koki Iwanaka, Tomofumi Tada, Hideo Hosono
Inspired by the successful synthesis of alkaline-earth-metals-based electrides [Ca24Al28O64](4+)(e(-))4 (C12A7:e(-)) and [Ca2N](+):e(-) and high-throughput database screening results, we explore the potential for new electrides to emerge in the Sr-P system through a research approach combining ab initio evolutionary structure searches and experimental validation. Through employing an extensive evolutionary structure search and first-principles calculations, we first predict the new structures of a series of strontium phosphides: Sr5P3, Sr8P5, Sr3P2 and Sr4P3...
October 12, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Jiang Huanhuan, Hao Pengjie, Xu Sheng, Wang Binchen, Shu Li
It is not clear whether surface bioactive chemistry plays an important role in the early osseointegration of micro-structured titanium implants that have the same surface topography at the micrometer and submicrometer scales. In this study, magnetron sputtering methodology was employed for the preparation of Sr coating on sandblasted and acid-etched (SLA) titanium implant without changing the surface characteristics. The study of the surface morphology of the coating was carried out with the use of scanning electron microscopy, and the chemical composition of the surface was examined by X-ray energy-dispersive spectrometry...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah Eqani, Zafar Iqbal Tanveer, Chi Qiaoqiao, Alessandra Cincinelli, Zafeer Saqib, Sikandar I Mulla, Nadeem Ali, Ioannis A Katsoyiannis, Mustafa Nawaz Shafqat, Heqing Shen
The current study determined, for the first time, the levels of titanium (Ti), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), vanadium (V), gallium (Ga), tin (Sn), thallium (Tl), and antinomy (Sb), in deposited dust, and human hair collected from general population of different geographical areas of Pakistan. All the samples were prepared by microwave digestion and measured by ICP-MS. The results showed that on deposited dust samples, the detected elements followed the descending trend as: Ti > Sr > Ba > V > Ga > Sn > Tl > Sb similar to the upper continental crust...
October 11, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
D Sangiuliano, C Rubio, A J Gutiérrez, D González-Weller, C Revert, A Hardisson, E Zanardi, S Paz
Cephalopods are an important source of nutrients and some of the most widely consumed marine foods. However, because of contamination of the oceans and the bioaccumulative nature of toxic metals, these foods may pose a health risk. For this reason, the concentrations of some trace elements (chromium [Cr], lithium, strontium [Sr], copper [Cu], and nickel) and toxic metals (aluminum [Al], cadmium, and lead) were determined in 65 frozen samples of cuttlefish, octopus, common squid, and shortfin squid by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry to evaluate dietary intake and toxic risk...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
Jiseon Jang, Waheed Mirana, Sewu D Divine, Mohsin Nawaz, Asif Shahzad, Seung Han Woo, Dae Sung Lee
Biochars from agricultural residues have recently attracted significant attention as adsorbents for purifying contaminated water and wastewater. In this study, the removal of strontium from aqueous solutions was investigated using rice straw-based biochar (RSBC) beads in both batch and continuous fixed-bed column systems. The RSBC beads had negatively charged surfaces and exhibited a large surface area (71.53m(2)/g) with high micro-porosity. The synthesized beads showed a maximum adsorption capacity of 175...
October 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Tao Zhang, Thomas Doert, Michael Ruck
Homogeneous powders of almost spherical particles of SrTiO3 with diameters of about 1 μm and large surface areas of up to 186 m(2) g(-1) were obtained from a facile one-pot solvothermal synthesis. Thorough characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), (high-resolution) transmission electron microscopy, and nitrogen physisorption measurements revealed the hierarchical architecture of the particles down to the scale of a few nanometers. In contrast to SrTiO3 samples obtained by high-temperature solid-state reaction, the particles are neither agglomerated nor sintered above the micrometer scale...
October 9, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Hye-Jin Hong, Byoung-Gyu Kim, Jungho Ryu, In-Su Park, Kang-Sup Chung, Sang Moon Lee, Jin-Bae Lee, Hyeon Su Jeong, Hyunchul Kim, Taegong Ryu
Alginate bead is a promising strontium (Sr) adsorbent in seawater, but highly concentrated Na ions caused over-swelling and damaged the hydrogel bead. To improve the mechanical stability of alginate bead, flexible foam-type zeolite-alginate composite was synthesized and Sr adsorption performance was evaluated in seawater; 1-10% zeolite immobilized alginate foams were prepared by freeze-dry technique. Immobilization of zeolite into alginate foam converted macro-pores to meso-pores which lead to more compact structure...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
S L Campbell, R B Hutson, G E Marti, A Goban, N Darkwah Oppong, R L McNally, L Sonderhouse, J M Robinson, W Zhang, B J Bloom, J Ye
Strontium optical lattice clocks have the potential to simultaneously interrogate millions of atoms with a high spectroscopic quality factor of 4 × 10(17) Previously, atomic interactions have forced a compromise between clock stability, which benefits from a large number of atoms, and accuracy, which suffers from density-dependent frequency shifts. Here we demonstrate a scalable solution that takes advantage of the high, correlated density of a degenerate Fermi gas in a three-dimensional (3D) optical lattice to guard against on-site interaction shifts...
October 6, 2017: Science
Yuki Morishita, Seiichi Yamamoto, Takumaro Momose, Junichi H Kaneko, Norio Nemoto
Plutonium dioxide (PuO2) is used to fabricate a mixed oxide fuel for fast breeder reactors. When a glove box containing PuO2 fails, such as by rupture of a glove or a vinyl bag, airborne contamination of plutonium (Pu) can occur. If a worker inhales PuO2 particles, they will be continually irradiating their lung tissue with alpha particles, and this could cause lung cancer. The nasal smear and nose blow methods are useful for checking workers for PuO2 intake in the field. However, neither method can evaluate the quantitative activity of Pu...
September 8, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Heribert A Graetsch
Quenching of Sr0.52Ba0.48Nb2O6 (SBN52) from temperatures above 700°C causes small modifications in the strontium distribution over the large cation sites (Me1 and Me2), changed off-centre shifts of the Nb atoms and slightly increased modulation amplitudes. The higher disorder of cation incorporation can explain the enhanced ferroelectric properties. The quenched structural disorder can be healed by reheating followed by slow cooling. A change of the modulation dimension on quenching such as for CaxBa1-xNb2O6 (CBN) mixed crystals was not observed...
October 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica Section B, Structural Science, Crystal Engineering and Materials
Jennifer S Harkness, Thomas H Darrah, Paul Mathewson, Myles T Moore, Colin J Whyte, Tyson Cook, Avner Vengosh
Molybdenum (Mo) is an essential trace nutrient but has negative health effects at high concentrations. Groundwater typically has low Mo (<2 µg/L), and elevated levels are associated with anthropogenic contamination, although geogenic sources have also been reported. Coal combustion residues (CCRs) are enriched in Mo, and thus present a potential anthropogenic contamination source. Here, we use diagnostic geochemical tracers combined with groundwater residence time indicators to investigate the sources of Mo in drinking-water wells from shallow aquifers in a region of widespread CCR disposal in southeastern Wisconsin...
October 5, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Cristiane de Melo Alencar, Victor Feliz Pedrinha, Jesuína Lamartine Nogueira Araújo, Renata Antunes Esteves, Ana Daniela Silva da Silveira, Cecy Martins Silva
BACKGROUND: Dental whitening has been increasingly sought out to improve dental aesthetics, but may cause chemical and morphological changes in dental enamel surfaces. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated in vitro the effect of 10% strontium chloride and 5% potassium nitrate with fluoride on bovine enamel, through tristimulus colorimetry, Knoop microhardness (KHN), and roughness after bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide (HP). METHODS: The specimens were divided into three groups (n=15): GControl received bleaching treatment with 35% HP; GNitrate received bleaching with 35% HP followed by the application of 5% potassium nitrate with 2% sodium fluoride; and GStrontium received bleaching with 35% HP followed by the application of 10% strontium chloride on the enamel...
2017: Open Dentistry Journal
Zhe Lü, Jingwei Li, Bo Wei, Zhiqun Cao, Xing Yue, Yaxin Zhang
A novel Nb-doped lanthanum strontium ferrite perovskite oxide La0.8Sr0.2Fe0.9Nb0.1O3-δ (LSFNb) is evaluated as anode material of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The effects of Nb partial substitution on the crystal structure, electrical conductivity and valence of Fe ions are studied. A good structural stability of LSFNb in severe reducing atmosphere at 800 °C is found, suggesting that high valent Nb can effectively promote the stability of lattice structure. The ratio of Fe2+ increases after Nb doping as confirmed by the results of XPS...
October 4, 2017: ChemSusChem
Clare L Thorpe, Gareth T W Law, Jonathan R Lloyd, Heather A Williams, Nick Atherton, Katherine Morris
The high-yield fission products (99)Tc and (90)Sr are found as problematic radioactive contaminants in groundwater at nuclear sites. Treatment options for radioactively contaminated land include bioreduction approaches, and this paper explores (99m)Tc and (90)Sr behavior and stability under a range of biogeochemical conditions stimulated by electron donor addition methods. Dynamic column experiments with sediment from the Sellafield nuclear facility, completed at site relevant flow conditions, demonstrated that Fe(III)-reducing conditions had developed by 60 days...
October 11, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Anil Kumar Paidi, P W Jaschin, K B R Varma, Kanamaluru Vidyasagar
Five isomorphous AM2V2O11 vanadates of niobium and tantalum, namely, BaNb2V2O11, BaTa2V2O11, SrNb2V2O11, SrTa2V2O11, and PbTa2V2O11, were prepared by solid-state reactions and structurally characterized by single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction techniques. Barium and strontium compounds, respectively, have centrosymmetric and noncentrosymmetric types of layered structure, wherein [M2V2O11](2-) anionic layers are interleaved with A(2+) cations. Both types of layered structure are found for lead compound...
October 2, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
Ryota Kabe, Chihaya Adachi
Long persistent luminescence (LPL) materials-widely commercialized as 'glow-in-the-dark' paints-store excitation energy in excited states that slowly release this energy as light. At present, most LPL materials are based on an inorganic system of strontium aluminium oxide (SrAl2O4) doped with europium and dysprosium, and exhibit emission for more than ten hours. However, this system requires rare elements and temperatures higher than 1,000 degrees Celsius during fabrication, and light scattering by SrAl2O4 powders limits the transparency of LPL paints...
October 2, 2017: Nature
Jamie C DeWitt, Brenda J Buck, Dirk Goossens, Yuanxin Teng, James Pollard, Brett T McLaurin, Russell Gerads, Deborah E Keil
The specific health effects of direct inhalation of fine minerogenic dusts generated by natural soil surfaces remain poorly known and relatively little researched. To learn more about this exposure and its contribution to human health effects, we surveyed surface sediment and characterized dust from the Nellis Dunes Recreation Area (NDRA) in Clark County, Nevada, a popular off-road vehicle (ORV) recreational site. Dry drainage systems at NDRA are commonly used as natural trail systems for ORV recreation; these surfaces also are characterized by high concentrations of heavy metals...
2017: Toxicology Reports
V M Kalita, D M Polishchuk, D G Kovalchuk, A V Bodnaruk, S O Solopan, A I Tovstolytkin, S M Ryabchenko, A G Belous
Magnetic nanoparticles constitute promising tools for addressing medical and health-related issues based on the possibility to obtain various kinds of responses triggered by safe remote stimuli. However, such richness can be detrimental if different performances are not adequately differentiated and controlled. The aim of this work is to understand and systemize different kinds of magnetic-field-induced response for an ensemble of lanthanum-strontium manganite nanoparticles, which are considered as promising materials for self-controlled magnetic hyperthermia...
October 11, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
C Lavet, G Mabilleau, D Chappard, R Rizzoli, P Ammann
Strontium ranelate treatment is known to prevent fractures. Here, we showed that strontium ranelate treatment enhances bone healing and affects bone cellular activities differently in intact and healing bone compartments: Bone formation was increased only in healing compartment, while resorption was reduced in healing and normal bone compartments. INTRODUCTION: Systemic administration of strontium ranelate (SrRan) accelerates the healing of bone defects; however, controversy about its action on bone formation remains...
September 28, 2017: Osteoporosis International
Zhi-Guo Chen, Luyang Wang, Yu Song, Xingye Lu, Huiqian Luo, Chenglin Zhang, Pengcheng Dai, Zhiping Yin, Kristjan Haule, Gabriel Kotliar
We report infrared studies of AFe_{2}As_{2} (A=Ba, Sr), two representative parent compounds of iron-arsenide superconductors, at magnetic fields (B) up to 17.5 T. Optical transitions between Landau levels (LLs) were observed in the antiferromagnetic states of these two parent compounds. Our observation of a sqrt[B] dependence of the LL transition energies, the zero-energy intercepts at B=0  T under the linear extrapolations of the transition energies and the energy ratio (∼2.4) between the observed LL transitions, combined with the linear band dispersions in two-dimensional (2D) momentum space obtained by theoretical calculations, demonstrates the existence of massless Dirac fermions in the antiferromagnet BaFe_{2}As_{2}...
September 1, 2017: Physical Review Letters
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