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Transplantation induction therapies

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339671/characteristics-of-donor-specific-anti-hla-antibodies-and-outcome-in-renal-transplant-patients-treated-with-a-standardized-induction-regimen
#1
Daniel Zecher, Christian Bach, Christoph Staudner, Carsten A Böger, Tobias Bergler, Bernhard Banas, Bernd M Spriewald
Background.: Pre-transplant donor-specific anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies (DSA) have been associated with antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) and early kidney allograft loss. Uncertainties remain regarding the general applicability of these findings and the optimal induction therapy in DSA-positive patients. Methods.: Pre-transplant sera from 174 patients receiving a crossmatch-negative kidney transplant were retrospectively analysed for DSA using Luminex technology...
February 18, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321641/transformed-follicular-lymphoma-tfl-consolidation-therapy-may-improve-survival
#2
E Elhassadi, R Flavin, P Browne, E Conneally, P Hayden, F Quinn, E Higgins, E Vandenberghe
PURPOSE: Retrospective study to evaluate the outcome of patients with transformed follicular lymphoma (tFL) treated with rituximab-containing chemotherapy and consolidation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients diagnosed with tFL from 2003 to 2013 treated with consolidation therapy with last follow-up in December 2015 were identified from the institutional lymphoma database and included in this study. Data collected included age, gender, stage, interval to tFL diagnosis, R-IPI score, histological diagnosis and therapy...
March 21, 2017: Irish Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321218/the-induction-and-maintenance-of-transplant-tolerance-engages-both-regulatory-and-anergic-cd4-t-cells
#3
Alix Besançon, Marije Baas, Tania Goncalves, Fabrice Valette, Herman Waldmann, Lucienne Chatenoud, Sylvaine You
Therapeutic tolerance to self-antigens or foreign antigens is thought to depend on constant vigilance by Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs). Previous work using a pancreatic islet allograft model and a short pulse of CD3 antibody therapy has shown that CD8(+) T cells become anergic and use TGFβ and coinhibitory signaling as their contribution to the tolerance process. Here, we examine the role of CD4(+) T cells in tolerization by CD3 antibodies. We show that both Foxp3(+) Tregs and CD4(+) T cell anergy play a role in the induction of tolerance and its maintenance...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320767/comparing-outcomes-between-antibody-induction-therapies-in-kidney-transplantation
#4
Neel Koyawala, Jeffrey H Silber, Paul R Rosenbaum, Wei Wang, Alexander S Hill, Joseph G Reiter, Bijan A Niknam, Orit Even-Shoshan, Roy D Bloom, Deirdre Sawinski, Susanna Nazarian, Jennifer Trofe-Clark, Mary Ann Lim, Jesse D Schold, Peter P Reese
Kidney transplant recipients often receive antibody induction. Previous studies of induction therapy were often limited by short follow-up and/or absence of information about complications. After linking Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network data with Medicare claims, we compared outcomes between three induction therapies for kidney recipients. Using novel matching techniques developed on the basis of 15 clinical and demographic characteristics, we generated 1:1 pairs of alemtuzumab-rabbit antithymocyte globulin (rATG) (5330 pairs) and basiliximab-rATG (9378 pairs) recipients...
March 20, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320553/kidney-transplantation-for-kidney-failure-due-to-multiple-myeloma-case-reports
#5
Thuy X Le, Jeffrey L Wolf, Carmen A Peralta, Allison B Webber
Transplantation centers have historically considered a history of multiple myeloma as a contraindication to kidney transplantation due to high recurrence rates and poor transplant survival. However, there have been significant advances in the treatment of multiple myeloma, with improved patient survival, which may allow for successful kidney transplantation in these patients. We report on 4 patients who underwent kidney transplantation at our institution between 2009 and 2015 after having achieved a very good partial response or better with chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation...
March 17, 2017: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319168/targeting-chronic-cardiac-remodeling-with-cardiac-progenitor-cells-in-a-murine-model-of-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#6
Janine C Deddens, Dries A Feyen, Peter-Paul Zwetsloot, Maike A Brans, Sailay Siddiqi, Linda W van Laake, Pieter A Doevendans, Joost P Sluijter
BACKGROUND: Translational failure for cardiovascular disease is a substantial problem involving both high research costs and an ongoing lack of novel treatment modalities. Despite the progress already made, cell therapy for chronic heart failure in the clinical setting is still hampered by poor translation. We used a murine model of chronic ischemia/reperfusion injury to examine the effect of minimally invasive application of cardiac progenitor cells (CPC) in cardiac remodeling and to improve clinical translation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317077/de-novo-cancer-in-patients-on-dialysis-and-after-renal-transplantation-north-western-italy-1997-2012
#7
Valentina Mazzucotelli, Pierluca Piselli, Diana Verdirosi, Claudia Cimaglia, Giovanni Cancarini, Diego Serraino, Silvio Sandrini
BACKGROUND: Kidney transplant recipients (KTR) are known to have a higher risk of cancer than the general population, especially of malignancies related to oncogenic viral infections. This study assessed the incidence of de novo malignancies (DNMs) in patients receiving kidney transplantation and in dialysis patients (DP) on the waiting list for transplantation at the same centre. The aim was to quantify the contribution of post-transplant immunosuppression to the underlying risk of developing a DNM in dialysis patients on the waiting list for kidney transplant...
March 19, 2017: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303661/immunological-and-physiological-observations-in-baboons-with-life-supporting-genetically-engineered-pig-kidney-grafts
#8
Hayato Iwase, Hidetaka Hara, Mohamed Ezzelarab, Tao Li, Zhongqiang Zhang, Bingsi Gao, Hong Liu, Cassandra Long, Yi Wang, Amy Cassano, Edwin Klein, Carol Phelps, David Ayares, Abhinav Humar, Martin Wijkstrom, David K C Cooper
BACKGROUND: Genetically engineered pigs could provide a source of kidneys for clinical transplantation. The two longest kidney graft survivals reported to date have been 136 and 310 days, but graft survival >30 days has been unusual until recently. METHODS: Donor pigs (n=4) were on an α1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-knockout (GTKO)/human complement regulatory protein (CD46) background (GTKO/CD46). In addition, the pigs were transgenic for at least one human coagulation regulatory protein...
March 17, 2017: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302184/cytokine-free-directed-differentiation-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-efficiently-produces-hemogenic-endothelium-with-lymphoid-potential
#9
Yekaterina Galat, Svetlana Dambaeva, Irina Elcheva, Aaruni Khanolkar, Kenneth Beaman, Philip M Iannaccone, Vasiliy Galat
BACKGROUND: The robust generation of human hematopoietic progenitor cells from induced or embryonic pluripotent stem cells would be beneficial for multiple areas of research, including mechanistic studies of hematopoiesis, the development of cellular therapies for autoimmune diseases, induced transplant tolerance, anticancer immunotherapies, disease modeling, and drug/toxicity screening. Over the past years, significant progress has been made in identifying effective protocols for hematopoietic differentiation from pluripotent stem cells and understanding stages of mesodermal, endothelial, and hematopoietic specification...
March 17, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296035/sepsis-after-renal-transplantation-clinical-immunological-and-microbiological-risk-factors
#10
Thomas Schachtner, Maik Stein, Petra Reinke
BACKGROUND: As immunosuppressive therapy and allograft survival have improved, the increased incidence of sepsis has become a major hurdle of disease-free survival after renal transplantation. METHODS: We identified 112 of 957 kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) with sepsis. 31 KTRs developed severe sepsis or septic shock, and 30 KTRs died from sepsis. KTRs without sepsis were used for comparison. CMV-specific and alloreactive T-cells were measured using an interferon-γ Elispot-assay...
March 11, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296027/transitional-b-cells-predominantly-reconstituted-after-a-desensitization-therapy-using-rituximab-before-kidney-transplantation
#11
Masako Ikemiyagi, Toshihito Hirai, Rumi Ishii, Satoshi Miyairi, Masayoshi Okumi, Kazunari Tanabe
The role of B cells in graft rejection and tolerance has aroused great interest. We previously reported that rituximab (RIT) induction prior to kidney transplantation (KTx) reduced the incidence rate of chronic rejection. Here, we performed a cross sectional investigation to determine the characteristics of B cells after RIT induction for KTx. We sampled blood from 29 patients with (N = 16) and without (N = 13) RIT induction 3 to 18 months after KTx. In the RIT group, the majority of repopulating B cells was the transitional type, while memory B cells were scarce...
March 13, 2017: Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295952/long-term-outcomes-of-living-related-small-intestinal-transplantation-in-children-a-single-center-experience
#12
Sandra Garcia Aroz, Ivo Tzvetanov, Elizabeth Anne Hetterman, Hoonbae Jeon, Jose Oberholzer, Giuliano Testa, Eunice John, Enrico Benedetti
Pediatric patients with irreversible intestinal failure present a significant challenge to meet the nutritional needs that promote growth. From 2002 to 2013, 13 living-related small intestinal transplantations were performed in 10 children, with a median age of 18 months. Grafts included isolated living-related intestinal transplantation (n=7), and living-related liver and small intestine (n=6). The immunosuppression protocol consisted of induction with thymoglobulin and maintenance therapy with tacrolimus and steroids...
March 12, 2017: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287507/chondrogenic-differentiation-induction-of-adipose-derived-stem-cells-by-centrifugal-gravity
#13
Yeonsue Jang, Hyerin Jung, Ji Hyeon Ju
Impaired cartilage cannot heal naturally. Currently, the most advanced therapy for defects in cartilage is the transplantation of chondrocytes differentiated from stem cells using cytokines. Unfortunately, cytokine-induced chondrogenic differentiation is costly, time-consuming, and associated with a high risk of contamination during in vitro differentiation. However, biomechanical stimuli also serve as crucial regulatory factors for chondrogenesis. For example, mechanical stress can induce chondrogenic differentiation of stem cells, suggesting a potential therapeutic approach for the repair of impaired cartilage...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286633/successful-intrathecal-chemotherapy-combined-with-radiotherapy-followed-by-pomalidomide-and-low-dose-dexamethasone-maintenance-therapy-for-a-primary-plasma-cell-leukemia-patient
#14
Yusuke Yamashita, Shinobu Tamura, Takehiro Oiwa, Hiroshi Kobata, Kodai Kuriyama, Toshiki Mushino, Shogo Murata, Hiroki Hosoi, Akinori Nishikawa, Nobuyoshi Hanaoka, Takashi Sonoki
Primary plasma cell leukemia (PPCL) is a rare aggressive variant of plasma cell disorder and frequently presents with extramedullary disease. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement with PPCL has an extremely poor prognosis. We describe a 46-year-old man with PPCL treated with a combination of lenalidomide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone as induction therapy following upfront allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). Despite achieving a very good partial response, the patient suffered from an isolated CNS relapse 12 months after allo-SCT...
February 23, 2017: Hematology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284745/prolonged-use-of-zoledronic-acid-4-years-did-not-improve-outcome-in-multiple-myeloma-patients
#15
Agustin Avilès, Maria-Jesùs Nambo, Judith Huerta-Guzmàn, Sergio Cleto, Natividad Neri
BACKGROUND: Bisphosphonates, especially zoledronic acid (ZA), show antitumor effects in multiple myeloma (MM) and other neoplasms. The standard time for ZA administration has been 2 years. However, with improvement in overall survival (OS) in MM with new agents, it unclear whether ZA could be administered for a prolonged time to improve OS. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 170 patients with untreated, symptomatic MM were randomly divided into a group to receive ZA for 4 years, with a control group to receive ZA for 2 years...
February 16, 2017: Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma & Leukemia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282321/intestinal-transplantation-a-review
#16
Larry Loo, Georgio Vrakas, Srikanth Reddy, Philip Allan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this article is to review the existing literature on the current indications, surgical techniques, immunosuppressive therapy and outcomes following intestinal transplantation (ITx). RECENT FINDINGS: Over recent years, ITx has become a more common operation with approximately 2500 procedures carried out worldwide by 2014. It is reserved for patients with intestinal failure and who have developed complications of home parenteral nutrition or who have a high risk of dying from their underlying disease...
March 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280691/old-game-new-players-linking-classical-theories-to-new-trends-in-transplant-immunology
#17
REVIEW
Marina Burgos da Silva, Flavia Franco da Cunha, Fernanda Fernandes Terra, Niels Olsen Saraiva Camara
The evolutionary emergence of an efficient immune system has a fundamental role in our survival against pathogenic attacks. Nevertheless, this same protective mechanism may also establish a negative consequence in the setting of disorders such as autoimmunity and transplant rejection. In light of the latter, although research has long uncovered main concepts of allogeneic recognition, immune rejection is still the main obstacle to long-term graft survival. Therefore, in order to define effective therapies that prolong graft viability, it is essential that we understand the underlying mediators and mechanisms that participate in transplant rejection...
February 24, 2017: World Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279287/a-42-year-old-woman-with-anemia-shock-and-ischemic-stroke-after-lung-transplantation
#18
Abhishek Biswas, Ali Ataya, Juan C Salgado, Satish Chandrasekharan, Tiago N Machuca, Amir M Emtiazjoo
A 42-year-old woman with mixed connective tissue disease-associated interstitial lung disease underwent bilateral lung transplantation. She had an uneventful surgery and was extubated 3 h later. Induction immunosuppression therapy included methylprednisolone 500 mg intraoperatively, basiliximab (anti-IL-2 monoclonal antibody) on days 0 and 4 after transplantation, and methylprednisolone 125 mg intravenously bid for 2 days following surgery. Maintenance immunosuppression therapy consisted of prednisone 20 mg daily, mycophenolate mofetil 750 mg bid, and enteral tacrolimus 0...
March 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276629/improved-fetal-hemoglobin-with-mtor-inhibitor-based-immunosuppression-in-a-kidney-transplant-recipient-with-sickle-cell-disease
#19
Noémie Gaudre, Pierre Cougoul, Pablo Bartolucci, Gaëlle Dörr, Alessandra Bura-Riviere, Nassim Kamar, Arnaud Del Bello
Fetal hemoglobin induction is a key-point in the management of sickle-cell disease (SCD). Herein, we report on a kidney-transplant recipient with SCD that was treated with everolimus, a mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor. At 10 months after initiating therapy, HbF level was dramatically increased (from 4.8% to 15%) and there was excellent tolerance to treatment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
March 9, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273399/clinical-presentation-and-outcomes-of-norovirus-infection-in-intestinal-allograft-compared-to-native-intestine
#20
Diana F Florescu, Jessica L Sonderup, Wendy Grant, Pearlie P Chong, David van Duin, Andre C Kalil
BACKGROUND: No data are available on clinical manifestations and course of norovirus gastroenteritis (NVE) in intestinal allograft (from intestinal and multivisceral transplant recipients, ITR) compared to native intestine (from other allograft recipients, nITR). METHODS: This was a retrospective study of solid organ transplant recipients with NVE at two centers from January 1, 2010 to April 1, 2014. Chi-square, t-test, linear and logistic regression analyses were done to compare NVE in ITR vs nITR patients...
March 8, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
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