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Transplantation induction therapies

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637076/-clinical-course-of-an-early-childhood-onset-granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis
#1
Marco Krasselt, Matthias Pierer, Kerstin Amann, Anette Bachmann, Tom H Lindner
History A 26-year-old male patient presented with an eight-week history of unspecific symptoms such as weight loss and fever. Besides, he also suffered from haemoptysis, cough, and arthralgia. Since the age of twelve years, the patient has been treated for Wegner's granulomatosis. At the age of 20 years he received a kidney transplant which failed only four years later. Investigations The relapse we clinically suspected was confirmed by CT scan showing bilateral pulmonary manifestations. Moreover, we found highly positive antibodies against proteinase 3...
June 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636891/comparison-of-cyclophosphamide-thalidomide-dexamethasone-to-bortezomib-cyclophosphamide-dexamethasone-as-induction-therapy-for-multiple-myeloma-patients-in-brazil
#2
Suelen Vigolo, Joice Zuckermann, Rosane Isabel Bittencourt, Lúcia Silla, Diogo André Pilger
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy followed by autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) remains the standard treatment for multiple myeloma (MM). Thalidomide or bortezomib may be combined with cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone, in what are known as the CTD and VCD protocols, respectively. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics and response rates obtained with CTD and VCD, observing whether the inclusion of bortezomib to treat MM patients in Brazil increases therapeutic efficiency...
June 15, 2017: Hematology/oncology and Stem Cell Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634034/absence-of-%C3%AE-chain-in-keratinocytes-alters-chemokine-secretion-resulting-in-reduced-immune-cell-recruitment
#3
Karolin Nowak, Daniela Linzner, Adrian J Thrasher, Paul F Lambert, Wei Li Di, Siobhan O Burns
Loss of function mutations in the common gamma (γc) chain cytokine receptor subunit give rise to severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) characterised by lack of T and natural killer cells and infant death from infection. Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation or gene therapy offer cure but despite successful replacement of lymphoid immune lineages a long-term risk of severe cutaneous human papilloma virus (HPV) infections persists, possibly related to persistent γc-deficiency in other cell types. Here we demonstrate that keratinocytes, the only cell type directly infected by HPV, express functional γc and its co-receptors...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633036/recent-advances-in-understanding-multiple-myeloma
#4
REVIEW
Parameswaran Hari
There have been major recent advancements in the understanding and management of multiple myeloma which in turn has led to unprecedented survival outcomes for patients. Diagnostic and response criteria have been recently revised. Our understanding of clonal progression, evolution, and clonal tides will inform therapeutic choices and appropriate treatment for patients. Response rates to initial induction with modern triplet therapies containing proteasome inhibitors and immunomodulators have made this approach the global standard for initial treatment...
June 13, 2017: Hematology/oncology and Stem Cell Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621420/the-retinal-pigmented-epithelium-from-basic-developmental-biology-research-to-translational-approaches
#5
Benjamin Amram, Yamit Cohen-Tayar, Ahuvit David, Ruth Ashery-Padan
The development of the eye has been a topic of extensive investigation, from the early studies on tissue induction to more recent breakthroughs in resolving the mechanism regulating progenitor patterning and their gradual and coordinated differentiation into diverse tissue types that function together throughout life. Among the ocular tissue types, the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) is at the forefront of developmental biology and stem cell research. The growing interest in this lineage stems from its importance for photoreceptor function as well as from its requirement during embryogenesis for the development of the photoreceptors and the choroid...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621199/sciatic-nerve-regeneration-by-transplantation-of-in-vitro-differentiated-nucleus-pulposus-progenitor-cells
#6
Takayuki Ishii, Daisuke Sakai, Jordy Schol, Tomoko Nakai, Kaori Suyama, Masahiko Watanabe
AIM: To assess the applicability of mouse intervertebral disc-derived nucleus pulposus (NP) progenitor cells as a cell source for sciatic nerve regeneration. MATERIALS & METHODS: P0-Cre/Floxed-EGFP-transgenic mouse-derived NP progenitor cells were differentiated to Schwann-like cells in conventional induction medium. Schwann-like cells were subsequently transplanted into a mouse model of sciatic nerve transection, and nerve regeneration assessed by immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy and functional walking track analysis and heat stimulus reflex...
June 16, 2017: Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620195/attenuation-of-cgvhd-by-c5a-c5ar-blockade-is-associated-with-increased-frequency-of-treg
#7
Yulian Wang, Peilong Lai, Xiaomei Chen, Chang He, Xin Huang, Suxia Geng, Chenwei Luo, Suijing Wu, Wei Ling, Liye Zhong, Zesheng Lu, Peng Li, Jianyu Weng, Xin Du
C5aR signaling plays an important role in the regulation of T cell activation and alloimmune responses in chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD). However, direct evidence of this modulation and the efficacy of C5aR blockade in the treatment of cGVHD have not been demonstrated. We observed higher expression of C5aR on both monocytes and T cells of patients with cGVHD compared with healthy controls and non-GVHD patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Our data also demonstrated a significant negative correlation between C5aR expression and regulatory T cells (Treg) frequency in cGVHD patients, indicating a potential role of C5aR in the generation and regulation of Treg...
June 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619384/risk-stratification-to-determine-the-impact-of-induction-therapy-on-survival-rejection-and-adverse-events-after-pediatric-heart-transplant-a-multi-institutional-study
#8
Chesney Castleberry, Elizabeth Pruitt, Rebecca Ameduri, Kenneth Schowengerdt, Erik Edens, Nancy Hagin, James K Kirklin, David Naftel, Simon Urschel
BACKGROUND: Induction therapy is increasingly being used in pediatric heart transplantation. General versus risk-adapted use remains controversial. We aimed to determine the impact of induction therapy on outcomes after stratifying patients by diagnosis and risk. METHODS: The Pediatric Heart Transplant Study (PHTS) database was used to identify patients (age ≤18 years) who underwent transplantation between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2014. Patients were excluded if they survived <48 hours or received multiple induction agents...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618138/expansion-of-umbilical-cord-blood-aldehyde-dehydrogenase-expressing-cells-generates-myeloid-progenitor-cells-that-stimulate-limb-revascularization
#9
David M Putman, Tyler T Cooper, Stephen E Sherman, Ayesh K Seneviratne, Mark Hewitt, Gillian I Bell, David A Hess
Uncompromised by chronic disease-related comorbidities, human umbilical cord blood (UCB) progenitor cells with high aldehyde dehydrogenase activity (ALDH(hi) cells) stimulate blood vessel regeneration after intra-muscular transplantation. However, implementation of cellular therapies using UCB ALDH(hi) cells for critical limb ischemia, the most severe form of severe peripheral artery disease, is limited by the rarity (<0.5%) of these cells. Our goal was to generate a clinically-translatable, allogeneic cell population for vessel regenerative therapies, via ex vivo expansion of UCB ALDH(hi) cells without loss of pro-angiogenic potency...
June 15, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612983/systematic-review-with-meta-analysis-faecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-the-induction-of-remission-for-active-ulcerative-colitis
#10
REVIEW
S P Costello, W Soo, R V Bryant, V Jairath, A L Hart, J M Andrews
BACKGROUND: Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is emerging as a novel therapy for ulcerative colitis (UC). Interpretation of efficacy of FMT for UC is complicated by differences among studies in blinding, FMT administration procedures, intensity of therapy and donor stool processing methods. AIM: To determine whether FMT is effective and safe for the induction of remission in active UC. METHODS: Medline (Ovid), Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched from inception through February 2017...
June 14, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611473/apc-targeted-proinsulin-expression-inactivates-insulin-specific-memory-cd8-t-cells-in-nod-mice
#11
Peta Ls Reeves, Rajeev Rudraraju, Xiao Liu, F Susan Wong, Emma E Hamilton-Williams, Raymond J Steptoe
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from T-cell mediated autoimmune destruction of pancreatic β cells. Effector T-cell responses emerge early in disease development and expand as disease progresses. Following β cell destruction, a long-lived T-cell memory is generated that represents a barrier to islet transplantation and other cellular insulin-replacement therapies. Development of effective immunotherapies that control or ablate β cell destructive effector and memory T cell responses has the potential to prevent disease progression and recurrence...
June 14, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608641/risk-factors-for-pneumocystis-pneumonia-after-the-first-6-months-following-renal-transplantation
#12
Emmanuel Faure, Arnaud Lionet, Eric Kipnis, Christian Noël, Marc Hazzan
Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) incidence was decreased in renal transplant thanks to prophylaxis, recommended during the first months after transplantation. However, many late PCP cases are observed after the first 6 months and recommendations to maintain or reintroduce prophylaxis are lacking. The objective of the study was to identify risk factors to guide the individual prescription of prophylaxis, 6 months after transplantation. Thirty-three late PCP cases were identified between 1995 and 2012 in Lille Hospital, France, and were compared to 72 randomized controls transplant recipients...
June 13, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605832/comparison-of-reprogramming-methods-for-generation-of-induced-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells
#13
Eun-Hye Lee, Chang-Hwan Park
Direct conversion by trans-differentiation is of growing interest in cell therapy for incurable diseases. The efficiency of cell reprogramming and functionality of converted cells are important considerations in cell transplantation therapy. Here, we compared two representative protocols for the generation of induced-oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (iOPCs) from mouse and rat fibroblasts. Then, we showed that induction of Nkx6.2, Olig2, and Sox10 (NOS) was more effective in mouse fibroblasts and that induction of Olig2, Sox10, and Zfp536 (OSZ) was more effective at reprogramming iOPCs from rat fibroblasts...
June 14, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600038/potential-differentiation-of-islet-like-cells-from-pregnant-cow-derived-placental-stem-cells
#14
Shao-Yu Peng, Chien-Wen Chou, Yu-Hsuan Kuo, Perng-Chih Shen, S W Steven Shaw
OBJECTIVE: Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that destroys islet cells and results in insufficient insulin secretion by pancreatic β-cells. Islet transplantation from donors is an approach used for treating patients with diabetes; however, this therapy is difficult to implement because of the lack of donors. Nevertheless, several stem cells have the potential to differentiate from islet-like cells and enable insulin secretion for treating diabetes in animal models. For example, placenta is considered a waste material and can be harvested noninvasively during delivery without ethical or moral concerns...
June 2017: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596644/highlights-of-multiple-myeloma-at-the-annual-meeting-of-american-society-of-hematology-2016
#15
REVIEW
Nidhi Tandon, Shaji K Kumar
This review discusses the landmark studies in the field of multiple myeloma (MM) which were presented at American society of hematology annual meeting, 2016. There were contrary results from two large phase III trials (one from US and one from Europe) that evaluated the role of additional interventions like tandem autologous transplant (ASCT) and consolidation after induction therapy followed by ASCT in newly diagnosed MM (NDMM) patients, but there were critical differences between the two studies. Novel agents like carfilzomib and ixazomib proved to be of benefit when used as induction and post ASCT consolidation and maintenance in NDMM...
June 2017: Indian Journal of Hematology & Blood Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592767/immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-and-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#16
Eisei Kondo, Yoshinobu Maeda
Immune checkpoint inhibitors, such as anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1 antibodies, have revolutionized cancer therapy, particularly in the treatment of malignant melanoma and lung cancer. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT) is another form of immunotherapy and is being widely used to cure high-risk hematological malignancies. However, more than one-third of patients suffer a relapse after allo-HCT and often have a poor prognosis. A phase I/Ib study to assess the safety and efficacy of ipilimumab (anti-CTLA-4 antibody) for the treatment of relapsed hematological malignancies after allo-HCT has shown that induction treatment with ipilimumab led to remissions in some patients, including those with myeloid malignancies, without eliciting severe graft versus host disease (GVHD)...
2017: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592755/acute-myeloid-leukemia-developing-secondary-immune-thrombocytopenia-after-umbilical-cord-blood-transplantation
#17
Rena Matsumoto, Kazuhiro Ito, Naoko Hosono, Yasufumi Matsuda, Katsunori Tai, Ippei Sakamaki, Goh Aoki, Hirohito Yamazaki, Shinji Nakao, Takahiro Yamauchi
A 64-year-old man was diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia M2 (FLT3-ITD-positive). After induction chemotherapy and four courses of consolidation therapy, he underwent umbilical cord blood transplantation (CBT) in his first remission. He developed acute graft-versus-host disease (skin stage 2) after successful engraftment. On post-transplantation day 147, he was admitted to the hospital suffering from pneumonia. During the treatment, drastic thrombocytopenia was observed on day 251. Both platelet-associated immunoglobulin G and platelet antibody producing B cells were detected, and he was diagnosed with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP)...
2017: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588617/outcomes-of-six-dose-high-dose-cytarabine-as-a-salvage-regimen-for-patients-with-relapsed-refractory-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#18
Brandi Anders, Lauren Veltri, Abraham S Kanate, Alexandra Shillingburg, Nilay Shah, Michael Craig, Aaron Cumpston
Relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia (RR-AML) is associated with poor prognosis and long-term disease-free survival requires allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). Limited data exists, regarding the optimal regimen to obtain remission prior to allo-HCT. Single agent high-dose cytarabine (10-12 doses administered every 12 hours) has been previously used as induction therapy. Six-dose high-dose cytarabine (HiDAC-6), commonly used as a consolidation regimen, has never been evaluated as induction therapy...
2017: Advances in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585408/increased-risk-of-infection-associated-death-with-incompatible-kidney-transplantations
#19
Christian Morath, Martin Zeier, Caner Süsal
In times of organ shortage, transplantation over the blood group A/B and HLA antibody barriers helps increasing the living donor pool in kidney transplantation. Waiting times are reduced while patient survival may be improved. By desensitization, both blood group A/B as well as HLA antibodies are eliminated from the patient's circulation using plasmapheresis, double filtration plasmapheresis or selective or unselective immunoadsorption. In addition, antibody production and posttransplant antibody rebound are prevented by powerful immunosuppression and induction therapy with or without B-cell eliminating anti-CD20 antibody rituximab...
June 6, 2017: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584756/disseminated-cutaneous-trichosporonosis-in-an-adult-bone-marrow-transplant-patient
#20
A M Y Yong, S S Yang, K B Tan, S A Ho
The Trichosporon species are yeast-like opportunistic pathogens in immunocompromised patients. Trichosporon asahii infections have been reported in pediatric bone marrow transplant (BMT) patients. However, its incidence is low in the adult literature. A 52-year-old Chinese woman who was diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia received induction chemotherapy and underwent allogenic bone marrow transplant, which was complicated by a relapse and required salvage chemotherapy. She developed persistent non-neutropenic fever secondary to presumed hepatosplenic candidiasis...
May 2017: Indian Dermatology Online Journal
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