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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535174/probabilistic-multiple-bias-modelling-applied-to-the-canadian-data-from-the-interphone-study-of-mobile-phone-use-and-risk-of-glioma-meningioma-acoustic-neuroma-and-parotid-gland-tumors
#1
F Momoli, J Siemiatycki, M L McBride, M-É Parent, L Richardson, D Bedard, R Platt, M Vrijheid, E Cardis, D Krewski
We undertook a re-analysis of the Canadian data from the thirteen-country INTERPHONE case-control study (2001-2004), which evaluated the association between mobile phone use and risk of brain, acoustic neuroma, and parotid gland tumors. The main publication of the multinational INTERPHONE study concluded that "biases and errors prevent a causal interpretation". We applied a probabilistic multiple-bias model to address possible biases simultaneously, using validation data from billing records and non-participant questionnaires as information on recall error and selective participation...
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533123/molecular-characterization-of-caulobacter-crescentus-mutator-strains
#2
Marinalva Martins-Pinheiro, Alice R Oliveira, Alexy O Valencia, Frank S Fernandez-Silva, Larissa G Silva, Carina O Lopes-Kulishev, Valeria C S Italiani, Marilis V Marques, Carlos F Menck, Rodrigo S Galhardo
Mutator strains were identified by screening random Tn5 insertion clones of Caulobacter crescentus. We identified clones with robust increases in mutation rates with Tn5 insertions in the mutY, mutS, mutL and uvrD genes, known to act in mutation-preventing pathways in Escherichia coli. Analysis of mutations in the rpoB gene revealed that in both the parental strain and mismatch repair-deficient mutants, A:T→G:C transitions predominate by a large margin over C:G→T:A. We have also investigated the role of the error-prone polymerase encoded by imuC (dnaE2) in spontaneous mutagenesis, and found that a imuC mutant strain shows mutation rates and sequences comparable to the parental strain...
May 19, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532207/tutorial-on-biostatistics-statistical-analysis-for-correlated-binary-eye-data
#3
Gui-Shuang Ying, Maureen G Maguire, Robert Glynn, Bernard Rosner
PURPOSE: To describe and demonstrate methods for analyzing correlated binary eye data. METHODS: We describe non-model based (McNemar's test, Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test) and model-based methods (generalized linear mixed effects model, marginal model) for analyses involving both eyes. These methods were applied to: (1) CAPT (Complications of Age-related Macular Degeneration Prevention Trial) where one eye was treated and the other observed (paired design); (2) ETROP (Early Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity) where bilaterally affected infants had one eye treated conventionally and the other treated early and unilaterally affected infants had treatment assigned randomly; and (3) AREDS (Age-Related Eye Disease Study) where treatment was systemic and outcome was eye-specific (both eyes in the same treatment group)...
May 22, 2017: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526495/automated-external-defibrillator-and-operator-performance-in-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest
#4
Jolande A Zijlstra, Loes E Bekkers, Michiel Hulleman, Stefanie G Beesems, Rudolph W Koster
AIM: An increasing number of failing automated external defibrillators (AEDs) is reported: AEDs not giving a shock or other malfunction. We assessed to what extent AEDs are 'failing' and whether this had a device-related or operator-related cause. METHODS: We studied analysis periods from AEDs used between January 2012 and December 2014. For each analysis period we assessed the correctness of the (no)-shock advice (sensitivity/specificity) and reasons for an incorrect (no)-shock advice...
May 16, 2017: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526091/a-pre-therapeutic-coating-for-medical-devices-that-prevents-the-attachment-of-candida-albicans
#5
Diego Vargas-Blanco, Aung Lynn, Jonah Rosch, Rony Noreldin, Anthony Salerni, Christopher Lambert, Reeta P Rao
BACKGROUND: Hospital acquired fungal infections are defined as "never events"-medical errors that should never have happened. Systemic Candida albicans infections results in 30-50% mortality rates. Typically, adhesion to abiotic medical devices and implants initiates such infections. Efficient adhesion initiates formation of aggressive biofilms that are difficult to treat. Therefore, inhibitors of adhesion are important for drug development and likely to have a broad spectrum efficacy against many fungal pathogens...
May 19, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524220/-metabolic-approach-in-epileptic-encephalopathies-in-infants
#6
L Lopez-Marin
INTRODUCTION: Although the overall incidence of inborn errors of metabolism is low, their early diagnosis is essential, since some of them have a specific treatment. DEVELOPMENT: We review the main treatable inborn errors of metabolism that can present as early-onset epileptic encephalopathies, together with their biochemical markers and their treatment. CONCLUSIONS: It is important to think about the possibility of an inborn error of metabolism with a specific therapy, since it is crucial for this to be started as soon as possible in order to prevent permanent neurological damage...
May 17, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523298/role-of-genetic-polymorphism-in-nutritional-supplementation-therapy-in-personalized-medicine
#7
Nicolae Ovidiu Peneş, Bernard Weber, Silviu Dumitru Păun
Genetic-guided nutritional supplementation therapy in personalized medicine is the type of treatment that prevents and acts against errors during the copying process of a cell's deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), mistakes that lead to diversification in the DNA sequence at certain locations, called single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Positive results are quickly achieved using one of the four types of therapy. These types are: personalized, when individual human genetic variations drive individual treatment, preventive, with a tailored healthcare strategy and therapeutic preventive drugs and vaccines, participatory, when empowered patients make informed choices and take responsibility of their own health and predictive, using a proactive approach to health and medicine...
2017: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522541/a-novel-histone-crosstalk-pathway-important-for-regulation-of-uv-induced-dna-damage-repair-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#8
Anna L Boudoures, Jacob J Pfeil, Elizabeth M Steenkiste, Rachel A Hoffman, Elizabeth A Bailey, Sara E Wilkes, Sarah K Higdon, Jeffrey S Thompson
Histone post-translational modifications play vital roles in a variety of nuclear processes, including DNA repair. It has been previously shown that histone H3K79 methylation is important for the cellular response to DNA damage caused by ultraviolet (UV) radiation, with evidence that specific methylation states play distinct roles in UV repair. Here we report that H3K79 methylation is reduced in response to UV exposure in Saccharomyces cerevisiae This reduction is specific to the dimethylated state, as trimethylation levels are minimally altered by UV exposure...
May 18, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520882/ocular-determinants-of-refractive-error-and-its-age-and-sex-related-variations-in-the-chinese-american-eye-study
#9
Grace M Richter, Mingwu Wang, Xuejuan Jiang, Shuang Wu, Dandan Wang, Mina Torres, Farzana Choudhury, Rohit Varma
Importance: Uncorrected refractive error (RE) is a leading cause of visual impairment, and variations in ocular anatomy determine RE. The unique ocular determinants of RE in Chinese American individuals have not been studied previously. Objective: To report ocular determinants of RE in a Chinese American population 50 years and older in Monterey Park, California. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Chinese American Eye Study, a population-based, cross-sectional study, was conducted from February 1, 2010, through October 31, 2013, in Monterey Park, with this particular data analysis performed from January 1 through December 31, 2016...
May 18, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520711/inhalational-chlorine-injuries-at-public-aquatic-venues-california-2008-2015
#10
Jason A Wilken, Michele DiMaggio, Matthew Kaufmann, Kevin O'Connor, Svetlana Smorodinsky, Christina Armatas, Tracy Barreau, Richard Kreutzer, Lino Ancheta
In June 2015, personnel from California's Contra Costa Health Services Environmental Health and Hazardous Materials (hazmat) divisions were alerted to a possible chemical release at a swimming pool in an outdoor municipal water park. Approximately 50 bathers were in the pool when symptoms began; 34 (68%) experienced vomiting, coughing, or eye irritation. Among these persons, 17 (50%) were treated at the scene by Contra Costa's Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and released, and 17 (50%) were transported to local emergency departments; five patients also were evaluated later at an emergency department or by a primary medical provider...
May 19, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515512/a-just-culture-approach-to-managing-medication-errors
#11
Erin Rogers, Emily Griffin, William Carnie, Joseph Melucci, Robert J Weber
Medication errors continue to be a concern of health care providers and the public, in particular how to prevent harm from medication mistakes. Many health care workers are afraid to report errors for fear of retribution including the loss of professional licensure and even imprisonment. Most health care workers are silent, instead of admitting their mistake and discussing it openly with peers. This can result in further patient harm if the system causing the mistake is not identified and fixed; thus self-denial may have a negative impact on patient care outcomes...
April 2017: Hospital Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515316/dna-damage-induced-degradation-of-exo1-limits-dna-end-resection-to-ensure-accurate-dna-repair
#12
Nozomi Tomimatsu, Bipasha Mukherjee, Janelle Louise Harris, Francesca Ludovica Boffo, Molly Hardebeck, Patrick Ryan Potts, Kum Kum Khanna, Sandeep Burma
End resection of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) to generate 3'-single-stranded DNA facilitates DSB repair via error-free homologous recombination (HR) while stymieing repair by the error-prone non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway. Activation of DNA end resection involves phosphorylation of the 5' to 3' exonuclease EXO1 by the phosphoinositide 3-kinase-like kinases ATM and ATR, and by the cyclin-dependent kinases 1 and 2. After activation, EXO1 must also be restrained in order to prevent over-resection which is known to hamper optimal HR and trigger global genomic instability...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510742/drug-safety-in-paediatric-anaesthesia
#13
J Kaufmann, A R Wolf, K Becke, M Laschat, F Wappler, T Engelhardt
Life-threatening drug errors are more common in children than in adults. This is likely to be because of their variations in age and weight, combined with the occasional exposure of most anaesthetists to paediatric patients. Drug administration in anaesthesia is mostly undertaken by a single operator and thus represents a potentially greater risk compared with other areas of medicine. This increased risk is believed to be offset by anaesthetists working with only a limited number of drugs on a very frequent and repetitive basis...
May 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510498/deficits-in-go-no-go-task-performance-in-male-undergraduate-high-risk-alcohol-users-are-driven-by-speeded-responding-to-go-stimuli
#14
Xin Zhao, Wang Qian, Lily Fu, Joseph H R Maes
BACKGROUND: Response disinhibition plays an important role in addictive behaviors. However, results of studies on the performance on response inhibition tasks of individuals evidencing potentially problematic levels of alcohol drinking are mixed. OBJECTIVES: We assessed conditions under which persons with a relatively high risk of alcohol dependence show inhibition deficits in such tasks and investigated the nature of those deficits. METHODS: Fifty-eight male undergraduate students, 27 of which were high-risk drinkers according to the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, performed a go/no-go inhibition task with differing percentages of no-go trials (50% vs...
February 17, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508995/l-carnitine-and-acetyl-l-carnitine-roles-and-neuroprotection-in-developing-brain
#15
Gustavo C Ferreira, Mary C McKenna
L-Carnitine functions to transport long chain fatty acyl-CoAs into the mitochondria for degradation by β-oxidation. Treatment with L-carnitine can ameliorate metabolic imbalances in many inborn errors of metabolism. In recent years there has been considerable interest in the therapeutic potential of L-carnitine and its acetylated derivative acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) for neuroprotection in a number of disorders including hypoxia-ischemia, traumatic brain injury, Alzheimer's disease and in conditions leading to central or peripheral nervous system injury...
May 16, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504990/a-structured-transfer-of-care-process-reduces-perioperative-complications-in-cardiac-surgery-patients
#16
Michael Hall, Jamie Robertson, Matthias Merkel, Michael Aziz, Michael Hutchens
INTRODUCTION: Serious complications are common during the intensive care of postoperative cardiac surgery patients. Some of these complications may be influenced by communication during the process of handover of care from the operating room to the intensive care unit (ICU) team. A structured transfer of care process may reduce the rate of communication errors and perioperative complications. METHODS: We hypothesized that a collaborative, comprehensive, structured handover of care from the intraoperative team to the ICU team would reduce a specific set of postoperative complications...
May 11, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501113/clinical-acuity-shorthand-system-a-standardized-classification-tool-to-facilitate-handoffs
#17
Brian F Gilmore, Adam K Brys, Neel S Nath, Michael Barfield, Kristy L Rialon, Tracy Truong, Gina-Maria Pomann, John Migaly, Paul J Mosca
BACKGROUND: The handoff of medical information from one provider to another can be inefficient and error prone, potentially undermining patient safety. Although several tools for structuring handoffs exist, none provide a brief, standardized framework for ensuring that patient acuity is efficiently and reliably communicated. We aim to introduce and perform initial testing of the Clinical Acuity Shorthand System (CLASS) (Copyright 2015, Duke University. All rights reserved.) for surgery, a patient classification tool intended to facilitate efficient communication of key patient information during handoffs...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500914/limitations-of-experiments-performed-in-artificially-made-oecd-standard-soils-for-predicting-cadmium-lead-and-zinc-toxicity-towards-organisms-living-in-natural-soils
#18
Mateusz Sydow, Łukasz Chrzanowski, Nina Cedergreen, Mikołaj Owsianiak
Development of comparative toxicity potentials of cationic metals in soils for applications in hazard ranking and toxic impact assessment is currently jeopardized by the availability of experimental effect data. To compensate for this deficiency, data retrieved from experiments carried out in standardized artificial soils, like OECD soils, could potentially be tapped as a source of effect data. It is, however, unknown whether such data are applicable to natural soils where the variability in pore water concentrations of dissolved base cations is large, and where mass transfer limitations of metal uptake can occur...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497871/vital-signs-deficiencies-in-environmental-control-identified-in-outbreaks-of-legionnaires-disease-north-america-2000-2014
#19
EDITORIAL
L E Garrison, J M Kunz, L A Cooley, M R Moore, C Lucas, S Schrag, J Sarisky, C G Whitney
BACKGROUND: The number of reported cases of Legionnaires' disease, a severe pneumonia caused by the bacterium Legionella, is increasing in the United States. During 2000-2014, the rate of reported legionellosis cases increased from 0.42 to 1.62 per 100 000 persons; 4% of reported cases were outbreak-associated. Legionella is transmitted through aerosolization of contaminated water. A new industry standard for prevention of Legionella growth and transmission in water systems in buildings was published in 2015...
October 2016: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495605/inactivation-of-basolateral-amygdala-prevents-chronic-immobilization-stress-induced-memory-impairment-and-associated-changes-in-corticosterone-levels
#20
Sunil Jamuna Tripathi, Suwarna Chakraborty, B N Srikumar, T R Raju, B S Shankaranarayana Rao
Chronic stress causes detrimental effects on various forms of learning and memory. The basolateral amygdala (BLA) not only plays a crucial role in mediating certain forms of memory, but also in the modulation of the effects of stress. Chronic immobilization stress (CIS) results in hypertrophy of the BLA, which is believed to be one of the underlying causes for stress' effects on learning. Thus, it is plausible that preventing the effects of CIS on amygdala would preclude its deleterious cognitive effects. Accordingly, in the first part, we evaluated the effect of excitotoxic lesion of the BLA on chronic stress-induced hippocampal-dependent spatial learning using a partially baited radial arm maze task...
May 8, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
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