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Metarhizium robertsii

Olga N Yaroslavtseva, Ivan M Dubovskiy, Viktor P Khodyrev, Bahytzhan A Duisembecov, Vadim Yu Kryukov, Viktor V Glupov
The synergistic effect between the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium robertsii and a sublethal dose of the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. morrisoni var. tenebrionis was studied in terms of immune defense reactions and detoxification system activity of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, fourth instar larvae. Bacterial infection led to more rapid germination of fungal conidia on integuments. We found a significant decrease of cellular immunity parameters, including total hemocyte count and encapsulation response, under the influence of bacteria...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
Oksana G Tomilova, Vadim Yu Kryukov, Bahytzhan A Duisembekov, Olga N Yaroslavtseva, Maksim V Tyurin, Natalia A Kryukova, Valery Skorokhod, Ivan M Dubovskiy, Viktor V Glupov
The interaction between the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium robertsii and natural avermectin metabolites of the actinomycete Streptomyces avermitilis were investigated on Colorado potato beetle larvae. A synergy in the mortality of larvae was detected after simultaneous treatment with half-lethal doses of avermectins (commercial name actarophit) 0.005% and fungus (5×10(5)conidia/ml). The treatment with avermectins led to rapid fungal colonization of the hemolymph. The defense strategies of insects infected by fungus and treated with avermectins and untreated insects were compared to investigate the mechanisms of this synergy...
October 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Qiang Gao, Yuzhen Lu, Hongyan Yao, Yong-Jiang Xu, Wei Huang, Chengshu Wang
The final product of the glycerol phosphate (GP) pathway is triacylglycerol (TAG) that regulates the homeostasis of energy, fatty acids and phospholipids in cells. The enzymes involved in this pathway have been characterized in many model organisms; however, their contributions to fungal infection are largely unclear. In this study, we performed serial deletion of genes in the GP pathway in the insect pathogenic fungus Metarhizium robertsii. The results indicated that a lysophosphatidate acyltransferase mrLPAAT1 was required for fungal growth, cell differentiation, maintenance of cell polarity and virulence...
June 17, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
Yamini Agrawal, Tarun Narwani, Srikrishna Subramanian
BACKGROUND: Aschersonia badia [(Ab) Teleomorph: Hypocrella siamensis] is an entomopathogenic fungus that specifically infects scale insects and whiteflies. We present the whole genome sequence of Ab and its comparison with two clavicipitaceous fungi Metarhizium robertsii (MR: generalist entomopathogen) and M. acridum (MAC: acridid-specific entomopathogen) that exhibit variable host preferences. Here, through comparative analysis of pathogen-host interacting genes, carbohydrate active enzymes, secondary metabolite biosynthesis genes, and sexuality genes, we explore the proteins with possible virulence functions in clavicipitaceous fungi...
2016: BMC Genomics
Hiroki Kato, Yuta Tsunematsu, Tsuyoshi Yamamoto, Takuya Namiki, Shinji Kishimoto, Hiroshi Noguchi, Kenji Watanabe
To rapidly identify novel natural products and their associated biosynthetic genes from underutilized and genetically difficult-to-manipulate microbes, we developed a method that uses (1) chemical screening to isolate novel microbial secondary metabolites, (2) bioinformatic analyses to identify a potential biosynthetic gene cluster and (3) heterologous expression of the genes in a convenient host to confirm the identity of the gene cluster and the proposed biosynthetic mechanism. The chemical screen was achieved by searching known natural product databases with data from liquid chromatographic and high-resolution mass spectrometric analyses collected on the extract from a target microbe culture...
July 2016: Journal of Antibiotics
Patricia Romans-Fuertes, Teis Esben Sondergaard, Manuela Ilse Helga Sandmann, Rasmus Dam Wollenberg, Kristian Fog Nielsen, Frederik T Hansen, Henriette Giese, Ditlev Egeskov Brodersen, Jens Laurids Sørensen
Sansalvamide is a cyclic pentadepsipeptide produced by Fusarium solani and has shown promising results as potential anti-cancer drug. The biosynthetic pathway has until now remained unidentified, but here we used an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) approach to generate knockout mutants of two candidate non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS29 and NRPS30). Comparative studies of secondary metabolites in the two deletion mutants and wild type confirmed the absence of sansalvamide in the NRPS30 deletion mutant, implicating this synthetase in the biosynthetic pathway for sansalvamide...
March 2, 2016: Current Genetics
Guilherme T P Brancini, Drauzio E N Rangel, Gilberto Ú L Braga
Metarhizium acridum is an entomopathogenic fungus commonly used as a bioinsecticide. The conidium is the fungal stage normally employed as field inoculum in biological control programs and must survive under field conditions such as high ultraviolet-B (UV-B) exposure. Light, which is an important stimulus for many fungi, has been shown to induce the production of M. robertsii conidia with increased stress tolerance. Here we show that a two-hour exposure to white or blue/UV-A light of fast-growing mycelium induces tolerance to subsequent UV-B irradiation...
March 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Xiaoxuan Chen, Chuan Xu, Ying Qian, Ran Liu, Qiangqiang Zhang, Guohong Zeng, Xin Zhang, Hong Zhao, Weiguo Fang
Metarhizium robertsii has been used as a model to study fungal pathogenesis in insects, and its pathogenicity has many parallels with plant and mammal pathogenic fungi. MAPK (Mitogen-activated protein kinase) cascades play pivotal roles in cellular regulation in fungi, but their functions have not been characterized in M. robertsii. In this study, we identified the full complement of MAPK cascade components in M. robertsii and dissected their regulatory roles in pathogenesis, conidiation and stress tolerance...
March 2016: Environmental Microbiology
Duangdao Wichadakul, Noppol Kobmoo, Supawadee Ingsriswang, Sithichoke Tangphatsornruang, Duriya Chantasingh, Janet Jennifer Luangsa-ard, Lily Eurwilaichitr
BACKGROUND: Ophiocordyceps unilateralis is an outstanding insect fungus for its biology to manipulate host ants' behavior and for its extreme host-specificity. Through the sequencing and annotation of Ophiocordyceps polyrhachis-furcata, a species in the O. unilateralis species complex specific to the ant Polyrhachis furcata, comparative analyses on genes involved in pathogenicity and virulence between this fungus and other fungi were undertaken in order to gain insights into its biology and the emergence of host specificity...
2015: BMC Genomics
Bernhardt M Steinwender, Jürg Enkerli, Franco Widmer, Jørgen Eilenberg, Hanne L Kristensen, Michael J Bidochka, Nicolai V Meyling
Metarhizium spp. have recently been shown to be associated with the roots of different plants. Here we evaluated which Metarhizium species were associated with roots of oat (Avena sativa), rye (Secale cereale) and cabbage (Brassica oleracea), common crop plants in Denmark. Thirty-six root samples from each of the three crops were collected within an area of approximately 3ha. The roots were rinsed with sterile water, homogenized and the homogenate plated onto selective media. A subset of 126 Metarhizium isolates were identified to species by sequencing of the 5' end of the gene translation elongation factor 1-alpha and characterized by simple sequence repeat (SSR) analysis of 14 different loci...
November 2015: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Johanna Mayerhofer, Andy Lutz, Franco Widmer, Stephen A Rehner, Adrian Leuchtmann, Jürg Enkerli
Cross-species transferability of 41 previously published simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers was assessed for 11 species of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium. A collection of 65 Metarhizium strains including all 54 used in a recent phylogenetic revision of the genus were characterized. Between 15 and 34 polymorphic SSR markers produced scorable PCR amplicons in seven species, including M. anisopliae, M. brunneum, M. guizhouense, M. lepidiotae, M. majus, M. pingshaense, and M. robertsii. To provide genotyping tools for concurrent analysis of these seven species fifteen markers grouped in five multiplex pools were selected based on high allelic diversity and easy scorability of SSR chromatograms...
November 2015: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Vicky L Hunt, Weihao Zhong, Colin D McClure, David T Mlynski, Elizabeth M L Duxbury, A Keith Charnley, Nicholas K Priest
Animals must tailor their life-history strategies to suit the prevailing conditions and respond to hazards in the environment. Animals with lethal infections are faced with a difficult choice: to allocate more resources to reproduction and suffer higher mortality or to reduce reproduction with the expectation of enhanced immunity and late-age reproduction. However, the strategies employed to mediate shifts in life-history traits are largely unknown. Here, we investigate the temperature preference of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, during infection with the fungal pathogen, Metarhizium robertsii, and the consequence of temperature preference on life-history traits...
January 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
Inmaculada Garrido-Jurado, María Fernández-Bravo, Carlos Campos, Enrique Quesada-Moraga
The diversity of entomopathogenic Hypocreales from the soil and phylloplanes in five Mediterranean cropping systems with different degrees of management [organic olive orchard conventional olive orchard, holm oak reforestation, holm oak dehesa (a multifunctional agro-sylvo-pastoral system), and sunflower plantation] was studied during four seasons. A total of 697 entomopathogenic fungal isolates were obtained from 272 soil samples, 1608 crop phylloplane samples and 1368 weed phylloplane samples. The following nine species were identified: Beauveria amorpha, B...
September 2015: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Bruno Giuliano Garisto Donzelli, Donna M Gibson, Stuart B Krasnoff
Efficient iron acquisition mechanisms are fundamental for microbial survival in the environment and for pathogen virulence within their hosts. M. robertsii produces two known iron-binding natural products: metachelins, which are used to scavenge extracellular iron, and ferricrocin, which is strictly intracellular. To study the contribution of siderophore-mediated iron uptake and storage to M. robertsii fitness, we generated null mutants for each siderophore synthase gene (mrsidD and mrsidC, respectively), as well as for the iron uptake transcriptional repressor mrsreA...
September 2015: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Yixiong Chen, Zhibing Duan, Peilin Chen, Yanfang Shang, Chengshu Wang
Bax inhibitor 1 (BI-1) is a highly conserved protein originally identified as a suppressor of the proapoptotic protein Bax to inhibit cell death in animals and plants. The orthologs of BI-1 are widely distributed in filamentous fungi but their functions remain largely unknown. Herein, we report the identification and characterizations of MrBI-1, an ortholog of BI-1, in the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium robertsii. First, we found that MrBI-1 could partially rescue mammalian Bax-induced cell death in yeast...
2015: Scientific Reports
Sylwia Różalska, Adrian Soboń, Julia Pawłowska, Marta Wrzosek, Jerzy Długoński
The biodegradation of nonylphenol (NP) by a newly isolated form of the larva fungal strain Metarhizium robertsii IM 6519 was investigated in this study. This isolate was capable of degrading 4-n-NP, and multiple metabolites were detected. The coexistence of parallel degradation pathways with versatile hydroxylation in different positions of the alkyl chain is a unique feature of this strain. Moreover, several metabolites previously described only in higher eukaryotes were detected in the fungal cultures. The degradation process led to the mineralization of 4-n-NP (with an efficiency of 36%), a great advantage of this strain that results in complete removal of toxic substrate from the environment...
September 2015: Bioresource Technology
Drauzio E N Rangel, Gilberto U L Braga, Éverton K K Fernandes, Chad A Keyser, John E Hallsworth, Donald W Roberts
The virulence to insects and tolerance to heat and UV-B radiation of conidia of entomopathogenic fungi are greatly influenced by physical, chemical, and nutritional conditions during mycelial growth. This is evidenced, for example, by the stress phenotypes of Metarhizium robertsii produced on various substrates. Conidia from minimal medium (Czapek's medium without sucrose), complex medium, and insect (Lepidoptera and Coleoptera) cadavers had high, moderate, and poor tolerance to UV-B radiation, respectively...
August 2015: Current Genetics
Yanfang Shang, Peilin Chen, Yixiong Chen, Yuzhen Lu, Chengshu Wang
Two-component signaling pathways generally include sensor histidine kinases and response regulators. We identified an ortholog of the response regulator protein Skn7 in the insect-pathogenic fungus Metarhizium robertsii, which we named MrSkn7. Gene deletion assays and functional characterizations indicated that MrSkn7 functions as a transcription factor. The MrSkn7 null mutant of M. robertsii lost the ability to sporulate and had defects in cell wall biosynthesis but was not sensitive to oxidative and osmotic stresses compared to the wild type...
April 2015: Eukaryotic Cell
Wei Huang, Yanfang Shang, Peilin Chen, Kai Cen, Chengshu Wang
Transcription factors (TFs) containing the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) domain are widely distributed in eukaryotes and display an array of distinct functions. In this study, a bZIP-type TF gene (MBZ1) was deleted and functionally characterized in the insect pathogenic fungus Metarhizium robertsii. The deletion mutant (ΔMBZ1) showed defects in cell wall integrity, adhesion to hydrophobic surfaces, and topical infection of insects. Relative to the WT, ΔMBZ1 was also impaired in growth and conidiogenesis. Examination of putative target gene expression indicated that the genes involved in chitin biosynthesis were differentially transcribed in ΔMBZ1 compared with the WT, which led to the accumulation of a higher level of chitin in mutant cell walls...
March 27, 2015: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Ryan M Kepler, Todd A Ugine, Jude E Maul, Michel A Cavigelli, Stephen A Rehner
Fungi in the genus Metarhizium are insect pathogens able to function in other niches, including soil and plant rhizosphere habitats. In agroecosystems, cropping and tillage practices influence soil fungal communities with unknown effects on the distribution of Metarhizium, whose presence can reduce populations of crop pests. We report results from a selective media survey of Metarhizium in soils sampled from a long-term experimental farming project in the mid-Atlantic region. Field plots under soybean cultivation produced higher numbers of Metarhizium colony-forming units (cfu) than corn or alfalfa...
August 2015: Environmental Microbiology
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