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Calvert cardiac

Siiri E Iismaa, Ming Li, Scott Kesteven, Jianxin Wu, Andrea Y Chan, Sara R Holman, John W Calvert, Ahtesham Ul Haq, Amy M Nicks, Nawazish Naqvi, Ahsan Husain, Michael P Feneley, Robert M Graham
We have previously demonstrated that adult transgenic C57BL/6J mice with CM-restricted overexpression of the dominant negative W v mutant protein (dn-c-kit-Tg) respond to pressure overload with robust cardiomyocyte (CM) cell cycle entry. Here, we tested if outcomes after myocardial infarction (MI) due to coronary artery ligation are improved in this transgenic model. Compared to non-transgenic littermates (NTLs), adult male dn-c-kit-Tg mice displayed CM hypertrophy and concentric left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy in the absence of an increase in workload...
April 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yuuki Shimizu, Rohini Polavarapu, Kattri-Liis Eskla, Chad K Nicholson, Christopher A Koczor, Rui Wang, William Lewis, Sruti Shiva, David J Lefer, John W Calvert
BACKGROUND: Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) is an important regulator of mitochondrial bioenergetics, but its role in regulating mitochondrial biogenesis is not well understood. Using both genetic and pharmacological approaches, we sought to determine if H2 S levels directly influenced cardiac mitochondrial content. RESULTS: Mice deficient in the H2 S-producing enzyme, cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE KO) displayed diminished cardiac mitochondrial content when compared to wild-type hearts...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
Paulus Kirchhof, Benjamin F Blank, Melanie Calvert, A John Camm, Gregory Chlouverakis, Hans-Christoph Diener, Andreas Goette, Andrea Huening, Gregory Y H Lip, Emmanuel Simantirakis, Panos Vardas
Oral anticoagulation prevents ischemic strokes in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Early detection of AF and subsequent initiation of oral anticoagulation help to prevent strokes in AF patients. Implanted cardiac pacemakers and defibrillators allow seamless detection of atrial high rate episodes (AHRE), but the best antithrombotic therapy in patients with AHRE is not known. RATIONALE: Stroke risk is higher in pacemaker patients with AHRE than in those without, but the available data also show that stroke risk in patients with AHRE is lower than in patients with AF...
August 2017: American Heart Journal
Dipak Kotecha, Melanie Calvert, Jonathan J Deeks, Michael Griffith, Paulus Kirchhof, Gregory Yh Lip, Samir Mehta, Gemma Slinn, Mary Stanbury, Richard P Steeds, Jonathan N Townend
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is common and causes impaired quality of life, an increased risk of stroke and death as well as frequent hospital admissions. The majority of patients with AF require control of heart rate. In this article , we summarise the limited evidence from clinical trials that guides prescription, and present the rationale and protocol for a new randomised trial. As rate control has not yet been shown to reduce mortality, there is a clear need to compare the impact of therapy on quality of life, cardiac function and exercise capacity...
July 20, 2017: BMJ Open
A John Camm, Emmanuel Simantirakis, Andreas Goette, Gregory Y H Lip, Panos Vardas, Melanie Calvert, Gregory Chlouverakis, Hans-Christoph Diener, Paulus Kirchhof
While the benefit of oral anticoagulants (OACs) for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) is well established, it is not known whether oral anticoagulation is indicated in patients with atrial high-rate episodes (AHRE) recorded on a cardiac implantable electronic device, sometimes also called subclinical AF, and lasting for at least 6 min in the absence of clinically diagnosed AF. Clinical evidence has shown that short episodes of rapid atrial tachycarrhythmias are often detected in patients presenting with stroke and transient ischaemic attack...
October 4, 2016: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
Ming Li, Thor Tejada, Jonathan P Lambert, Chad K Nicholson, Eiji Yahiro, Vats T Ambai, Syeda F Ali, Eddie W Bradley, Robert M Graham, Louis J Dell'Italia, John W Calvert, Nawazish Naqvi
Angiotensin II (Ang II) modulates blood pressure and atherosclerosis development through its vascular type-1 (AT1R) and type-2 (AT2R) receptors, which have opposing effects. AT2R activation produces hypotension, and is anti-atherogenic. Targeted overexpression of AT2Rs in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) indicates that these effects are due to increased nitric oxide (NO) generation. However, the role of endogenous VSMC AT2Rs in these events is unknown. Effect of 7-day low-dose Ang II-infusion (12 µg/kg/hr) on blood pressure was tested in 9-week-old apoE((-/-)) mice fed a low or high cholesterol diet (LCD or HCD, respectively)...
2016: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
Laurel A Grisanti, Anna M Gumpert, Christopher J Traynham, Joshua E Gorsky, Ashley A Repas, Erhe Gao, Rhonda L Carter, Daohai Yu, John W Calvert, Andrés Pun García, Borja Ibáñez, Joseph E Rabinowitz, Walter J Koch, Douglas G Tilley
BACKGROUND: Immune cell-mediated inflammation is an essential process for mounting a repair response after myocardial infarction (MI). The sympathetic nervous system is known to regulate immune system function through β-adrenergic receptors (βARs); however, their role in regulating immune cell responses to acute cardiac injury is unknown. METHODS: Wild-type (WT) mice were irradiated followed by isoform-specific βAR knockout (βARKO) or WT bone-marrow transplantation (BMT) and after full reconstitution underwent MI surgery...
July 12, 2016: Circulation
Thor Tejada, Lin Tan, Rebecca A Torres, John W Calvert, Jonathan P Lambert, Madiha Zaidi, Murtaza Husain, Maria D Berce, Hussain Naib, Gunnar Pejler, Magnus Abrink, Robert M Graham, David J Lefer, Nawazish Naqvi, Ahsan Husain
Heart disease is a leading cause of death in adults. Here, we show that a few days after coronary artery ligation and reperfusion, the ischemia-injured heart elaborates the cardioprotective polypeptide, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), which activates IGF-1 receptor prosurvival signaling and improves cardiac left ventricular systolic function. However, this signaling is antagonized by the chymase, mouse mast cell protease 4 (MMCP-4), which degrades IGF-1. We found that deletion of the gene encoding MMCP-4 (Mcpt4), markedly reduced late, but not early, infarct size by suppressing IGF-1 degradation and, consequently, diminished cardiac dysfunction and adverse structural remodeling...
June 21, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Yuuki Shimizu, Chad K Nicholson, Jonathan P Lambert, Larry A Barr, Nicholas Kuek, David Herszenhaut, Lin Tan, Toyoaki Murohara, Jason M Hansen, Ahsan Husain, Nawazish Naqvi, John W Calvert
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic strategies aimed at increasing hydrogen sulfide (H2S) levels exert cytoprotective effects in various models of cardiovascular injury. However, the underlying mechanism(s) responsible for this protection remain to be fully elucidated. Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a cellular target of H2S and facilitator of H2S-mediated cardioprotection after acute myocardial infarction. Here, we tested the hypothesis that Nrf2 mediates the cardioprotective effects of H2S therapy in the setting of heart failure...
April 2016: Circulation. Heart Failure
Nicole J Boczek, Nieves Gomez-Hurtado, Dan Ye, Melissa L Calvert, David J Tester, Dmytro Kryshtal, Hyun Seok Hwang, Christopher N Johnson, Walter J Chazin, Christina G Loporcaro, Maully Shah, Andrew L Papez, Yung R Lau, Ronald Kanter, Bjorn C Knollmann, Michael J Ackerman
BACKGROUND: Calmodulin (CaM) is encoded by 3 genes, CALM1, CALM2, and CALM3, all of which harbor pathogenic variants linked to long QT syndrome (LQTS) with early and severe expressivity. These LQTS-causative variants reduce CaM affinity to Ca(2+) and alter the properties of the cardiac L-type calcium channel (CaV1.2). CaM also modulates NaV1.5 and the ryanodine receptor, RyR2. All these interactions may play a role in disease pathogenesis. Here, we determine the spectrum and prevalence of pathogenic CaM variants in a cohort of genetically elusive LQTS, and functionally characterize the novel variants...
April 2016: Circulation. Cardiovascular Genetics
Yuuki Shimizu, John W Calvert, Toyoaki Murohara
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
Justin D Thomason, Gregg Rapoport, Tiffany Fallaw, Clay A Calvert, Kaori Sakamoto
A 4-year-old castrated labrador retriever presented for cardiac evaluation to determine the etiology of cardiogenic pulmonary edema diagnosed 1 month prior. A large pedunculated mass involving the ventral aspect of the mural mitral valve leaflet and the endocardial surface of the left ventricular free wall, resulting in severe mitral regurgitation, was identified on echocardiogram. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry of this mass and other endocardial masses identified at necropsy for S-100 protein were consistent with a diagnosis of schwannoma...
June 2015: Journal of Veterinary Cardiology: the Official Journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology
Dominique Mylod
Breast milk represents optimum infant nutrition. The World Health Organization's recommendation that babies should be exclusively breastfed for a minimum of 6 months (Kramer & Kakuma, 2001) remains unchanged in its second decade (Kramer & Kakuma, 2014), which is acknowledged in industrialized countries by successive policies and guidelines for the promotion and care of breastfeeding in children's wards and departments. The known protective influence of breast milk in preventing the onset of disease in later life is of particular import for any sick infant, but the user voice as represented by Helen Calvert's Twitter campaign @heartmummy#hospitalbreastfeeding has united service user and professional voices to call for improved breastfeeding support in pediatric care...
June 2015: Issues in Comprehensive Pediatric Nursing
Richard Calvert, Sanah Vohra, Martine Ferguson, Paddy Wiesenfeld
Some dietary supplements may contain cardiac stimulants and potential cardiotoxins. In vitro studies may identify ingredients of concern. A beating human cardiomyocyte cell line was used to evaluate cellular effects following phenylethylamine (PEA), higenamine, ephedrine or caffeine treatment. PEA and higenamine exposure levels simulated published blood levels in humans or animals after intravenous administration. Ephedrine and caffeine levels approximated published blood levels following human oral intake...
April 2015: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Larry A Barr, Yuuki Shimizu, Jonathan P Lambert, Chad K Nicholson, John W Calvert
Diabetic cardiomyopathy is a significant contributor to the morbidity and mortality associated with diabetes and metabolic syndrome. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms that lead to its development have not been fully elucidated. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenously produced signaling molecule that is critical for the regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis. Recently, therapeutic strategies aimed at increasing its levels have proven cardioprotective in models of acute myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury and heart failure...
April 30, 2015: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Larry A Barr, John W Calvert
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenously produced gaseous signaling molecule that elicits a number of cytoprotective effects in mammalian species. H2S was originally considered toxic at elevated levels, but 15 years ago the labile molecule was discovered in mammalian tissue and termed a gasotransmitter, thus opening the door for research aimed towards understanding its physiologic nature. Since then, novel findings have depicted the beneficial aspects of H2S therapy, such as vasodilation, antioxidant upregulation, inflammation inhibition, and activation of anti-apoptotic pathways...
2014: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
Nigel E Drury, Neil J Howell, Melanie J Calvert, Ralf J M Weber, Eshan L Senanayake, Michael E Lewis, Jonathan A J Hyde, David H Green, Jorge G Mascaro, Ian C Wilson, Timothy R Graham, Stephen J Rooney, Mark R Viant, Nick Freemantle, Michael P Frenneaux, Domenico Pagano
OBJECTIVES: Perhexiline is thought to modulate metabolism by inhibiting mitochondrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1, reducing fatty acid uptake and increasing carbohydrate utilization. This study assessed whether preoperative perhexiline improves markers of myocardial protection in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery and analysed its effect on the myocardial metabolome. METHODS: In a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, patients at two centres were randomized to receive either oral perhexiline or placebo for at least 5 days prior to surgery...
March 2015: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
Nawazish Naqvi, Ming Li, John W Calvert, Thor Tejada, Jonathan P Lambert, Jianxin Wu, Scott H Kesteven, Sara R Holman, Torahiro Matsuda, Joshua D Lovelock, Wesley W Howard, Siiri E Iismaa, Andrea Y Chan, Brian H Crawford, Mary B Wagner, David I K Martin, David J Lefer, Robert M Graham, Ahsan Husain
It is widely believed that perinatal cardiomyocyte terminal differentiation blocks cytokinesis, thereby causing binucleation and limiting regenerative repair after injury. This suggests that heart growth should occur entirely by cardiomyocyte hypertrophy during preadolescence when, in mice, cardiac mass increases many-fold over a few weeks. Here, we show that a thyroid hormone surge activates the IGF-1/IGF-1-R/Akt pathway on postnatal day 15 and initiates a brief but intense proliferative burst of predominantly binuclear cardiomyocytes...
May 8, 2014: Cell
Stacey Calvert, Andrew Shaw
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a serious complication in the perioperative period, and is consistently associated with increased rates of mortality and morbidity. Two major consensus definitions have been developed in the last decade that allow for easier comparison of trial evidence. Risk factors have been identified in both cardiac and general surgery and there is an evolving role for novel biomarkers. Despite this, there has been no real change in outcomes and the mainstay of treatment remains preventive with no clear evidence supporting any therapeutic intervention as yet...
2012: Perioperative Medicine
Patrick A Calvert, James Cockburn, Dylan Wynne, Peter Ludman, Bushra S Rana, David Northridge, Michael J Mullen, Iqbal Malik, Mark Turner, Saib Khogali, Gruschen R Veldtman, Martin Been, Rob Butler, John Thomson, Jonathan Byrne, Philip MacCarthy, Lindsay Morrison, Len M Shapiro, Ben Bridgewater, Jo de Giovanni, David Hildick-Smith
BACKGROUND: Postinfarction ventricular septal defect carries a grim prognosis. Surgical repair offers reasonable outcomes in patients who survive a healing phase. Percutaneous device implantation represents a potentially attractive early alternative. METHODS AND RESULTS: Postinfarction ventricular septal defect closure was attempted in 53 patients from 11 centers (1997-2012; aged 72±11 years; 42% female). Nineteen percent had previous surgical closure. Myocardial infarction was anterior (66%) or inferior (34%)...
June 10, 2014: Circulation
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