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Alan Pestronk, Richard Keeling, Rati Choksi
OBJECTIVE: We studied mitochondrial impairment as a factor in the pathologic equivalent of sarcopenia, muscle fiber atrophy associated with increased age. METHODS: Mitochondrial oxidative enzyme activities and coenzyme Q10 levels were measured in frozen human proximal limb muscles with combined age and atrophy, age alone, atrophy alone, denervation, immune myopathies, and mitochondrial disorders with ophthalmoplegia. RESULTS: Sarcopenia (age and atrophy) had reduced mean activities of mitochondrial Complexes I, II, and II+III, with severe reduction of Complex I activity in 54% of patients...
October 19, 2016: Muscle & Nerve
George Taylor-Walker, Savannah A Lynn, Eloise Keeling, Rosie Munday, David A Johnston, Anton Page, Jennifer A Scott, Srini Goverdhan, Andrew J Lotery, J Arjuna Ratnayaka
Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is a common, irreversible blinding condition that leads to the loss of central vision. AMD has a complex aetiology with both genetic as well as environmental risks factors, and share many similarities with Alzheimer's disease. Recent findings have contributed significantly to unravelling its genetic architecture that is yet to be matched by molecular insights. Studies are made more challenging by observations that aged and AMD retinas accumulate the highly pathogenic Alzheimer's-related Amyloid beta (Aβ) group of peptides, for which there appears to be no clear genetic basis...
October 14, 2016: Experimental Eye Research
Kelly L Klump, Shannon M O'Connor, Britny A Hildebrandt, Pamela K Keel, Michael Neale, Cheryl L Sisk, Steven Boker, S Alexandra Burt
Recent data show shifts in genetic and environmental influences on emotional eating across the menstrual cycle, with significant shared environmental influences during pre-ovulation, and primarily genetic effects during post-ovulation. Factors driving differential effects are unknown, although increased estradiol during pre-ovulation and increased progesterone during post-ovulation are thought to play a role. We indirectly investigated this possibility by examining whether overall levels of estradiol and progesterone differentially impact genetic and environmental risk for emotional eating in adult female twins (N = 571) drawn from the MSU Twin Registry...
September 2016: Clinical Psychological Science
Luciana A Pagnussat, Florencia Salcedo, Guillermo Maroniche, Christoph Keel, Claudio Valverde, Cecilia M Creus
Plant growth promoting bacteria belonging to Azospirillum and Pseudomonas genera are major inhabitants of the rhizosphere. Both are increasingly commercialized as crops inoculants. Inter-specific interaction in the rhizosphere is critical for inoculants aptness. The objective of this work was to evaluate Azospirillum and Pseudomonas interaction in mixed biofilms by co-cultivation of the model strains A. brasilense Sp245 and P. protegens CHA0. The results revealed enhanced growth of both strains when co-cultured in static conditions...
October 14, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Emma L Houck, Krista A Keller, Michelle G Hawkins, Andrew G Burton, Keriann M Casey, Kevin Keel, Nathan Tong, David Sanchez-Migallon Guzman
A 28-year-old female Congo African grey parrot ( Psittacus erithacus erithacus) was evaluated because of a mass in the left external auditory meatus. Results of a computed tomography scan revealed an osteolytic left hemimandibular mass with irregular bone production and a soft tissue mass in the left external auditory meatus. Results of cytologic examination of fine needle aspirates of the hemimandible were interpreted as adenocarcinoma with reactive osteoblasts. The owner chose palliative treatment, and a debulking procedure was performed on the left external auditory meatus mass 52 days after initial presentation to control self-trauma...
September 2016: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
Peter Kupferschmied, Tiancong Chai, Pascale Flury, Jochen Blom, Theo H M Smits, Monika Maurhofer, Christoph Keel
Some plant-beneficial pseudomonads can invade and kill pest insects in addition to their ability to protect plants from phytopathogens. We explored the genetic basis of O-polysaccharide (O-PS, O-antigen) biosynthesis in the representative insecticidal strains Pseudomonas protegens CHA0 and Pseudomonas chlororaphis PCL1391 and investigated its role in insect pathogenicity. Both strains produce two distinct forms of O-PS, but differ in the organization of their O-PS biosynthesis clusters. Biosynthesis of the dominant O-PS in both strains depends on a gene cluster similar to the O-specific antigen (OSA) cluster of Pseudomonas aeruginosa...
October 11, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
Bauke W Kooistra, W Jaap Willems, Eelke Lemmens, Bas P Hartel, Michel P J van den Bekerom, Derek F P van Deurzen
BACKGROUND: Compared with total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA), total shoulder surface replacement (TSSR) may offer the advantage of preservation of bone stock and shorter surgical time, possibly at the expense of glenoid component positioning and increasing lateral glenohumeral offset. We hypothesized that in patients treated for osteoarthritis with a sufficient rotator cuff, TSA and TSSR patients have comparable functional outcome, glenoid component version, and lateral glenohumeral offset...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
Kelly L Keeling, Okki Cho, Denis B Scanlon, Grant W Booker, Andrew D Abell, Kate L Wegener
Constrained α-helical peptides are showing potential as biological probes and therapeutic agents that target protein-protein interactions. However, the factors that determine the optimal constraint locations are still largely unknown. Using the β-integrin/talin protein interaction as a model system, we examine the effect of constraint location on helical conformation, as well as binding affinity, using circular dichroism and NMR spectroscopy. Stapling increased the overall helical content of each integrin-based peptide tested...
October 18, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
W Brent Keeling, Jose Binongo, Michael E Halkos, Bradley G Leshnower, Duc Q Nguyen, Edward P Chen, Eric L Sarin, Jeffrey S Miller, Steven Macheers, Omar M Lattouf, Robert A Guyton, Vinod H Thourani
BACKGROUND: It has been established that outcomes for black patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) are inferior to those of their white counterparts. The purpose of this study was to determine (1) whether rates of multiarterial grafting are different among black patients and white patients, and (2) whether racial differences exist in postoperative outcomes after accounting for grafting strategy. METHODS: A retrospective review of black patients (n = 2,810) and white patients (n = 13,569) who underwent isolated, primary CABG from January 2002 to June 2014 at a US academic institution was performed...
October 4, 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Lukáš Novák, Zuzana Zubáčová, Anna Karnkowska, Martin Kolisko, Miluše Hroudová, Courtney W Stairs, Alastair G B Simpson, Patrick J Keeling, Andrew J Roger, Ivan Čepička, Vladimír Hampl
BACKGROUND: Multiple prokaryotic lineages use the arginine deiminase (ADI) pathway for anaerobic energy production by arginine degradation. The distribution of this pathway among eukaryotes has been thought to be very limited, with only two specialized groups living in low oxygen environments (Parabasalia and Diplomonadida) known to possess the complete set of all three enzymes. We have performed an extensive survey of available sequence data in order to map the distribution of these enzymes among eukaryotes and to reconstruct their phylogenies...
October 6, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Melanie Thompson, Sonya L Heath, Bentley Sweeton, Kathy Williams, Pamela Cunningham, Brandon F Keele, Sharon Sen, Brent E Palmer, Nicolas Chomont, Yongxian Xu, Rahul Basu, Michael S Hellerstein, Suefen Kwa, Harriet L Robinson NCT01378156.
2016: PloS One
Monica Vaccari, Shari N Gordon, Slim Fourati, Luca Schifanella, Namal P M Liyanage, Mark Cameron, Brandon F Keele, Xiaoying Shen, Georgia D Tomaras, Erik Billings, Mangala Rao, Amy W Chung, Karen G Dowell, Chris Bailey-Kellogg, Eric P Brown, Margaret E Ackerman, Diego A Vargas-Inchaustegui, Stephen Whitney, Melvin N Doster, Nicolo Binello, Poonam Pegu, David C Montefiori, Kathryn Foulds, David S Quinn, Mitzi Donaldson, Frank Liang, Karin Loré, Mario Roederer, Richard A Koup, Adrian McDermott, Zhong-Min Ma, Christopher J Miller, Tran B Phan, Donald N Forthal, Matthew Blackburn, Francesca Caccuri, Massimiliano Bissa, Guido Ferrari, Vaniambadi Kalyanaraman, Maria G Ferrari, DeVon Thompson, Marjorie Robert-Guroff, Silvia Ratto-Kim, Jerome H Kim, Nelson L Michael, Sanjay Phogat, Susan W Barnett, Jim Tartaglia, David Venzon, Donald M Stablein, Galit Alter, Rafick-Pierre Sekaly, Genoveffa Franchini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 6, 2016: Nature Medicine
Bijoyita Roy, Westley J Friesen, Yuki Tomizawa, John D Leszyk, Jin Zhuo, Briana Johnson, Jumana Dakka, Christopher R Trotta, Xiaojiao Xue, Venkateshwar Mutyam, Kim M Keeling, James A Mobley, Steven M Rowe, David M Bedwell, Ellen M Welch, Allan Jacobson
A premature termination codon (PTC) in the ORF of an mRNA generally leads to production of a truncated polypeptide, accelerated degradation of the mRNA, and depression of overall mRNA expression. Accordingly, nonsense mutations cause some of the most severe forms of inherited disorders. The small-molecule drug ataluren promotes therapeutic nonsense suppression and has been thought to mediate the insertion of near-cognate tRNAs at PTCs. However, direct evidence for this activity has been lacking. Here, we expressed multiple nonsense mutation reporters in human cells and yeast and identified the amino acids inserted when a PTC occupies the ribosomal A site in control, ataluren-treated, and aminoglycoside-treated cells...
October 4, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Jörg Freyhof, Younis Sabir Abdullah, Korsh Ararat, Hamad Ibrahim, Matthias F Geiger
Eidinemacheilus proudlovei, new species, is described from subterranean waters in the Little Zab River drainage in Iraqi Kurdistan. After the discovery of E. smithi in 1976, E. proudlovei is the second troglomorphic nemacheilid loach found in the Middle East and the second species placed in Eidinemacheilus. Eidinemacheilus proudlovei is distinguished from E. smithi by having 8+8 or 8+7 branched caudal-fin rays, no adipose keel on the caudal peduncle, enlarged jaws and a fully developed head canal system. It furthers differs substantially in its DNA barcode (>8% K2P distance) from all other nemacheilid loaches in the Middle East, Europe and Western India...
October 4, 2016: Zootaxa
Vandana Shashi, Loren D M Pena, Katherine Kim, Barbara Burton, Maja Hempel, Kelly Schoch, Magdalena Walkiewicz, Heather M McLaughlin, Megan Cho, Nicholas Stong, Scott E Hickey, Christine M Shuss, Michael S Freemark, Jane S Bellet, Martha Ann Keels, Melanie J Bonner, Maysantoine El-Dairi, Megan Butler, Peter G Kranz, Constance T R M Stumpel, Sylvia Klinkenberg, Karin Oberndorff, Malik Alawi, Rene Santer, Slavé Petrovski, Outi Kuismin, Satu Korpi-Heikkilä, Olli Pietilainen, Palotie Aarno, Mitja I Kurki, Alexander Hoischen, Anna C Need, David B Goldstein, Fanny Kortüm
The ASXL genes (ASXL1, ASXL2, and ASXL3) participate in body patterning during embryogenesis and encode proteins involved in epigenetic regulation and assembly of transcription factors to specific genomic loci. Germline de novo truncating variants in ASXL1 and ASXL3 have been respectively implicated in causing Bohring-Opitz and Bainbridge-Ropers syndromes, which result in overlapping features of severe intellectual disability and dysmorphic features. ASXL2 has not yet been associated with a human Mendelian disorder...
October 6, 2016: American Journal of Human Genetics
Keele E Wurst, Barbara K Zedler, Andrew R Joyce, Maciek Sasinowski, E Lenn Murrelle
BACKGROUND: Untreated opioid dependence in pregnant women is associated with adverse birth outcomes. Buprenorphine and methadone are options for opioid agonist medication-assisted treatment during pregnancy. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe adverse birth outcomes observed with buprenorphine or methadone treatment compared to the general population in Sweden. METHODS: Pregnant women and their corresponding births during 2005-2011 were identified in the Swedish Medical Birth Register...
2016: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
Patrick J Keeling
The genetic code is not quite universal. The rare variations that we know of reveal selective pressures on the code and on the translation machinery. New data suggest the code changes through ambiguous intermediates and that termination is context dependent.
September 26, 2016: Current Biology: CB
W Brent Keeling, Bradley G Leshnower, Jose Binongo, Yi Lasanajak, LaRonica McPherson, Edward P Chen
BACKGROUND: The David V valve-sparing aortic root replacement (VSRR) is an established and durable method of root reconstruction for varying pathologies. However, the impact of the severity of preoperative aortic regurgitation (AR) on long-term durability remains unclear. The purpose of this research was to investigate the impact of the degree of preoperative AR on midterm durability following VSRR. METHODS: A retrospective review of the adult cardiac surgical database at a single academic center was undertaken from 2005 to 2015 for 223 adult patients who underwent VSRR...
September 22, 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Ahilan Anantha Krishnan, Rupesh Ghyar, Bhallamudi Ravi
Fatigue performance of tibial tray in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is of critical importance in terms of longevity of the prosthesis. Standards have been proposed by American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and International Organization for Standardization (ISO) to ensure its long-term structural integrity. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the effect of modularity in the tibial tray following the testing standards, using finite element analysis. Goodman and Sines criteria were used to compare the fatigue safety factor (FSF) of four modular designs versus the two conventional designs...
2016: Journal of Long-term Effects of Medical Implants
Shannon M O'Connor, Christopher R Beam, Xiaochen Luo, L Adelyn Cohen, Jessica L VanHuysse, Robert E Emery, Eric Turkheimer, Pamela K Keel, S Alexandra Burt, Michael Neale, Steven Boker, Kelly Klump
OBJECTIVE: Prior twin studies provide support for a single "common factor" that contributes genetic and environmental risk to a range of disordered eating symptoms. However, the common factor may be indexed less well by binge eating (BE) than other symptoms of eating disorders [i.e., body dissatisfaction (BD) and weight preoccupation (WP)]. We sought to explore the presence of a common factor and test whether loadings differed across three key symptoms (i.e., BE, BD, WP). METHOD: Disordered eating was assessed via self-report in 631 female twin pairs from the Michigan State University Twin Registry...
September 16, 2016: International Journal of Eating Disorders
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