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Erebouni Arakelian, Emma Laurssen, Caisa Öster
PURPOSE: To examine anxiety and what older patients worry about related to anesthesia and colorectal surgery, and their perceptions regarding nurses' ability to ease preoperative worry. DESIGN: Qualitative individual face-to-face interviews. METHODS: The study included 18 patients aged between 62 and 91 years with lower abdominal tumors. The study was conducted in two day-surgery wards in Sweden. Interview data were analyzed with Malterud's systematic text condensation...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Perianesthesia Nursing: Official Journal of the American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses
Christina Nehlin, Margareta Wennberg, Caisa Öster
BACKGROUND: Research has identified drinking motives as the final common pathway to alcohol use, and associations between specific drinking motives and drinking patterns have consistently been demonstrated. Data on drinking motives can be used for research, in the planning of prevention strategies and for treatment purposes. The Drinking Motives Questionnaire-Revised (DMQ-R) has become the most used measure of drinking motives. So far, the questionnaire has not been investigated with qualitative methods...
March 14, 2018: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
Eimear Muir-Cochrane, Deb O'Kane, Candice Oster
Restrictive practices continue to be used in mental health care despite increasing recognition of their harms and an international effort to reduce and ultimately eliminate their use. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore mental health nurses' views of the potential elimination of these practices. Nine focus groups were conducted with 44 mental health nurses across Australia, and the data analysed using thematic analysis. Overall, the nurses expressed significant fear about the potential elimination of restrictive practices and saw themselves as being blamed for both the use of these practices and the consequences should they be eliminated...
March 9, 2018: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing
Natalia Olchanski, Ryan N Hansen, Elle Pope, Brittany D'Cruz, Jaime Fergie, Mitchell Goldstein, Leonard R Krilov, Kimmie K McLaurin, Barbara Nabrit-Stephens, Gerald Oster, Kenneth Schaecher, Fadia T Shaya, Peter J Neumann, Sean D Sullivan
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is the most common cause of lower respiratory tract infection and the leading cause of hospitalization among young children, incurring high annual costs among US children under the age of 5 years. Palivizumab has been found to be effective in reducing hospitalization and preventing serious lower respiratory tract infections in high-risk infants. This paper presents a systematic review of the cost-effectiveness studies of palivizumab and describes the main highlights of a round table discussion with clinical, payer, economic, research method, and other experts...
March 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
M D Cyrus Oster, M D Theodore Stein, M D Sumire Kitahara, M D Serhan Alkan, Qin Huang
Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a distinct clinicopathologic entity usually characterized by presentation as a lymphomatous body cavity effusion in the absence of solid tumor mass or dissemination during its clinical course. PEL can also rarely occur as a solid lymphoma involving nodal and extranodal sites and is referred to as extracavitary PEL. Here we report a unique case of extracavitary PEL in a 49year-old HIV-seropositive patient, who presented with vague abdominal pain and 20 pound weight loss. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy revealed >100 broad based intestinal polyps ranging from 2 mm to 3cm in size, spreading from the duodenum to the rectum as a typical impression of "intestinal polyposis syndrome"...
March 2, 2018: Human Pathology
M Mardones, T Trampe-Jaschik, S Oster, M Elliott, H Urbina, I Schmitt, M Piepenbring
The order Phyllachorales ( Pezizomycotina , Ascomycota ) is a group of biotrophic, obligate plant parasitic fungi with a tropical distribution and high host specificity. Traditionally two families are recognised within this order: Phyllachoraceae and Phaeochoraceae , based mostly on morphological and host characteristics. Currently, the position of the order within the class Sordariomycetes is inconclusive, as well as the monophyly of the order, and its internal phylogenetic structure. Here we present a phylogeny of the order Phyllachorales based on sequence data of 29 species with a broad host range resulting from a wide geographical sampling...
December 2017: Persoonia
Ceren Yarar-Fisher, Keith Fl Polston, Mualla Eraslan, Kathryn Y Henley, Gizem I Kinikli, C Scott Bickel, Samuel T Windham, Amie B McLain, Robert A Oster, Marcas M Bamman
This study compares the effects of an 8-week iso-caloric high protein (HP) diet versus a combination exercise (Comb-Ex) regimen on paralytic vastus lateralis (VL) and non-paralytic deltoid muscle in individuals with long-standing spinal cord injury (SCI). Fiber type distribution, cross-sectional area (CSA), levels of translation initiation signaling proteins (Erk-1/2, Akt, p70S6K1, 4EBP1, RPS6, and FAK), and lean thigh mass were analyzed at baseline and after the 8-week interventions. A total of 11 participants (C5-T12 levels, 21...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
M Cheryl Bañez Ocfemia, Richard Dunville, Tianchi Zhang, Lisa C Barrios, Alexandra M Oster
In 2014, persons aged 13-29 years represented 23% of the U.S. population, yet accounted for 40% of diagnoses of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection during the same year (1). During 2010-2014, the rates of diagnosis of HIV infection decreased among persons aged 15-19 years, were stable among persons aged 20-24 years, and increased among persons aged 25-29 years (1). However, these 5-year age groups encompass multiple developmental stages and potentially mask trends associated with the rapid psychosocial changes during adolescence through young adulthood...
February 23, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Philippe Grieshaber, Tobias Schneider, Lukas Oster, Coskun Orhan, Peter Roth, Bernd Niemann, Andreas Böning
INTRODUCTION: Prophylactic intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation (pIABC) is recommended for high-risk patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. Criteria for high-risk patients benefiting from pIABC are unclear. This study aimed to specifically describe the effect of pIABC on outcomes of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) undergoing CABG. METHODS: In 178 of 484 AMI patients (non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction [NSTEMI] or ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction [STEMI] ≤5 days before surgery) without cardiogenic shock who underwent CABG between 2008 and 2013, pIABC was initiated preoperatively...
February 1, 2018: Perfusion
Johanna Salberg, Fredrik Folke, Lisa Ekselius, Caisa Öster
A promising intervention in mental health in-patient care is behavioural activation (BA). Interventions based on BA can be used by mental health nurses and other staff members. The aim of this study was to evaluate patients' and staff members' experiences of a nursing staff-led behavioural group intervention in mental health in-patient care. The intervention was implemented at three adult acute general mental health in-patient wards in a public hospital setting in Sweden. A self-administrated questionnaire, completed by 84 patients and 34 nurses and nurse assistants, was administered, and nonparametric data analysed using descriptive statistics...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing
Jenny Sandmark, Göran Dahl, Linda Öster, Bingze Xu, Patrik Johansson, Tomas Akerud, Anna Aagaard, Pia Davidsson, Janna M Bigalke, Maria Sörhede-Winzell, G Jonah Rainey, Robert G Roth
Neurturin (NRTN) provides trophic support to neurons and is considered a therapeutic agent for neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease. It binds to its co-receptor GFRa2 and the resulting NRTN:GFRa2 complex activates the transmembrane receptors RET or NCAM. We report the crystal structure of NRTN, alone and in complex with GFRa2. This is the first crystal structure of a GFRa with all three domains and shows that domain 1 does not interact directly with NRTN, but may support an interaction with RET and/or NCAM, via a highly conserved surface...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Zakia Hammal, Jeffrey F Cohn, Erin R Wallace, Carrie L Heike, Craig B Birgfeld, Harriet Oster, Matthew L Speltz
OBJECTIVE: To compare facial expressiveness (FE) of infants with and without craniofacial macrosomia (cases and controls, respectively) and to compare phenotypic variation among cases in relation to FE. DESIGN: Positive and negative affect was elicited in response to standardized emotion inductions, video recorded, and manually coded from video using the Facial Action Coding System for Infants and Young Children. SETTING: Five craniofacial centers: Children's Hospital of Los Angeles, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Seattle Children's Hospital, University of Illinois-Chicago, and University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill...
January 1, 2018: Cleft Palate-craniofacial Journal
Carina Braunger, Gottfried Müller, Jörn von Wietersheim, Jörg Oster
BACKGROUND: In this naturalistic study the changes of patients of an in-patient psychosomatic rehabilitation with regard to functioning and to symptom severity were examined. METHODS: Self-evaluations of patients concerning their functioning (ICF AT-50 Psych) and their symptom severity (GSI) were elevated at 3 measurement periods: on admission (n=419), on discharge (n=354) and 6 months after discharge (n=297). RESULTS: Functioning as well as symptom severity improved from t1 to t2...
January 22, 2018: Die Rehabilitation
Philippe Grieshaber, Lukas Oster, Tobias Schneider, Victoria Johnson, Coskun Orhan, Peter Roth, Bernd Niemann, Andreas Böning
BACKGROUND: In acute situations such as acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with indication for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), total arterial revascularization (TAR) is often rejected in favour of saphenous vein (SV) grafting, which is assumed to allow for quicker vessel harvesting, a simpler anastomosis technique, and thus quicker revascularization and fewer bleeding complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether reluctance to apply TAR in AMI is still justified from a technical point of view in the current era and whether superiority of TAR results is also evident in emergency patients with AMI undergoing CABG...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
Violetta Pilorz, Charlotte Helfrich-Förster, Henrik Oster
Life on earth is shaped by the 24-h rotation of our planet around its axes. To adapt behavior and physiology to the concurring profound but highly predictable changes, endogenous circadian clocks have evolved that drive 24-h rhythms in invertebrate and vertebrate species. At the molecular level, circadian clocks comprised a set of clock genes organized in a system of interlocked transcriptional-translational feedback loops. A ubiquitous network of cellular central and peripheral tissue clocks coordinates physiological functions along the day through activation of tissue-specific transcriptional programs...
February 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Howard S Oster, Gal Carmi, Alex Kolomansky, Erel Joffe, Irit Kaye, Ilya Kirgner, Uri Greenbaum, Doron Comaneshter, Moshe Mittelman
A non-invasive myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) diagnostic model would allow for care while avoiding invasive bone marrow examinations (BME). BME-established MDS patients were compared to non-MDS (BME-excluded) patients. Variables (gender, age, hemoglobin (Hb), mean red blood cell corpuscular volume (MCV), platelet (PLT), and white blood cell (WBC)) were combined with multivariate logistic regression; a probability score (Y) was calculated. MDS (n = 48) and non-MDS (n = 63) patients were used to establish the model...
January 2, 2018: Leukemia & Lymphoma
Ellie Moore, Sharon Lawn, Candice Oster, Andrea Morello
Objectives Review the evidence for the effectiveness of chronic condition self-management programs applied to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples. Methods A rapid review methodology was followed to develop an evidence summary from peer-reviewed and grey literature. Results Only seven peer-reviewed studies were identified. The evidence indicated that group programs, particularly the Stanford Program, and structured individual chronic condition self-management programs were of good quality for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples, although these need to be integrated into practice in order to see the greatest benefits...
January 1, 2017: Chronic Illness
Candice Oster, Andrea Morello, Anthony Venning, Paula Redpath, Sharon Lawn
BACKGROUND: For the majority of serving members, life in the military has a positive effect on wellbeing. However, the type, intensity and duration of service, along with the transition from fulltime military to civilian life, may have a negative effect on veterans' wellbeing. Such negative consequences, alongside the growing veteran population, indicate the need for greater exploration of veterans' physical, mental and social wellbeing. METHODS: The current paper reports on the findings of a rapid review of the literature on the health and wellbeing needs of veterans, commissioned by the Australian Department of Veterans' Affairs to inform future programs and services...
December 29, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
Justyna Horodyska, Michael Oster, Henry Reyer, Anne Maria Mullen, Peadar G Lawlor, Klaus Wimmers, Ruth M Hamill
Residual feed intake (RFI), the difference between actual feed intake and predicted feed requirements, is suggested to impact various aspects of meat quality. The objective of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms underpinning the relationship between RFI and meat quality. Technological, sensory and nutritional analysis as well as transcriptome profiling were carried out in Longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscle of pigs divergent in RFI (n=20). Significant differences in sensory profile and texture suggest a minor impairment of meat quality in more efficient pigs...
November 20, 2017: Meat Science
Dominic Landgraf, Anne-Marie Neumann, Henrik Oster
Food intake and sleep are two mutually exclusive behaviors and both are normally confined to opposing phases of the diurnal cycle. The temporal coordination of behavior and physiology along the 24-h day-night cycle is organized by a network of circadian clocks that orchestrate transcriptional programs controlling cellular physiology. Many of the peptide hormones of the gastrointestinal tract are not only secreted in a circadian fashion, they can also affect circadian clock function in peripheral metabolic tissues and the brain, thus providing metabolic feedback to metabolic and neurobehavioral circuits...
December 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
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