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Pneumonia in elderly

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340588/antimicrobial-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-carriage-and-infection-in-specialized-geriatric-care-wards-linked-to-acquisition-in-the-referring-hospital
#1
Claire L Gorrie, Mirjana Mirceta, Ryan R Wick, Louise M Judd, Kelly L Wyres, Nicholas R Thomson, Richard A Strugnell, Nigel F Pratt, Jill S Garlick, Kerrie M Watson, Peter C Hunter, Steve A McGloughlin, Denis W Spelman, Adam W J Jenney, Kathryn E Holt
Background: Klebsiella pneumoniae is a leading cause of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing hospital-associated infections, for which elderly patients are at increased risk. Methods: We conducted a 1-year prospective cohort study, in which a third of patients admitted to two geriatric wards in a specialized hospital were recruited and screened for carriage of K. pneumoniae by microbiological culture. Clinical isolates were monitored via the hospital laboratory...
January 11, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337268/the-double-sidedness-of-cough-in-the-elderly
#2
REVIEW
Ha-Kyeong Won, Sol-Ji Yoon, Woo-Jung Song
Cough is a physiological reflex to protect airways against aspiration, but also it is one of the most frequent problems that lead patients to seek medical care. Chronic cough is more prevalent in the elderly than younger subjects, and more challenging to manage due to frequent comorbidities and possible side effects from drug treatment. Meanwhile, cough reflex does not decrease with natural aging but is often impaired by pathologic conditions like stroke. The impairment in cough reflex may lead to fatal complication like aspiration pneumonia...
January 11, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325686/phase-ii-study-of-tailored-s-1-monotherapy-with-a-1-week-interval-after-a-2-week-dosing-period-in-elderly-patients-with-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#3
Hisatsugu Goto, Yoshio Okano, Hisanori Machida, Nobuo Hatakeyama, Fumitaka Ogushi, Takashi Haku, Takanori Kanematsu, Tomoyuki Urata, Soji Kakiuchi, Masaki Hanibuchi, Saburo Sone, Yasuhiko Nishioka
BACKGROUND: S-1 is an oral fluoropyrimidine that is active in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); however, an optimal treatment schedule and appropriate dose adjustments of S-1 in elderly patients have not yet been established. METHODS: We conducted a phase II trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a 2-week S-1 monotherapy treatment followed by a 1-week interval as a first-line treatment of elderly NSCLC patients, by adjusting the dose based on the individual creatinine clearance (Ccr) and body surface area (BSA)...
January 2018: Respiratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318106/pneumococcal-vaccination-in-older-persons-where-are-we-today
#4
REVIEW
Paul Van Buynder, Robert Booy
Disease due to Streptococcus pneumoniae, the pneumococcus, remains a major source of illness in older persons. Globally, it remains the most important pathogen in respiratory infection deaths. Conjugated pneumococcal vaccines are used extensively in national pediatric programs, whereas a polysaccharide vaccine is used in all age groups, but mainly in the elderly and for high-risk groups. Recent data from the Netherlands led to the licensing in many countries of conjugated pneumococcal vaccines for older persons...
2018: Pneumonia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317806/profile-of-sugammadex-for-reversal-of-neuromuscular-blockade-in-the-elderly-current-perspectives
#5
REVIEW
Michele Carron, Francesco Bertoncello, Giovanna Ieppariello
The number of elderly patients is increasing worldwide. This will have a significant impact on the practice of anesthesia in future decades. Anesthesiologists must provide care for an increasing number of elderly patients, who have an elevated risk of perioperative morbidity and mortality. Complications related to postoperative residual neuromuscular blockade, such as muscle weakness, airway obstruction, hypoxemia, atelectasis, pneumonia, and acute respiratory failure, are more frequent in older than in younger patients...
2018: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312554/aging-increases-the-expression-of-lung-cincs-and-mcp-1-in-senile-patients-with-pneumonia
#6
Wei Li, Cheng Ding, Shaojun Yin
Objective: To explore the relationship between aging and the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP) and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINCs) in patients with pneumonia. Results: Bacteria counts in senile group were significantly higher than non-senile group, and while white blood cell and neutrophil counts in senile group were observably lower than non-senile group. The concentration of MCP-1 was significantly higher in senile group compared with the non-senile group, and the expression of CINC-1 and CINC-2α was also higher in senile group...
December 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306225/an-examination-of-healthcare-associated-infections-in-elderly-patients
#7
Serap İskender, Gürdal Yılmaz, İftihar Köksal
Background/aim: Healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs) are increasing due to the growing numbers of elderly people requiring long-term care and immunosuppressive therapies. The purpose of this study was to examine HCAIs occurring in elderly inpatients in our hospital.Materials and methods: This study prospectively investigated HCAIs developing in all patients hospitalized over a 1-year period. Diagnosis was based on Centers for Disease Control criteria. The results were subjected to statistical analysis between patients aged over and under 65...
December 19, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303279/-hospital-acquired-pneumonias
#8
Petr Jakubec, Aneta Křenková, Vítězslav Kolek
Nosocomial infections are a common complication of hospital care. Hospital-acquired (HAP) pneumonia is one of the most common nosocomial infections and it is the most dangerous in terms of mortality. The problem is mainly selected hospital bacterial strains with rising antibiotic resistance. Diagnosis of the cause of pneumonia is difficult and often does not lead to a positive result. Management is complex and is based on timely and appropriate empirical antibiotic treatment. Local and extrapulmonary complications are relatively common and they increase morbidity and mortality...
2018: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303277/-a-targeted-search-for-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-brief-summary
#9
Vladimír Koblížek, Karel Hejduk
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause mortality and morbidity globally, with permanently growing prevalence. Expressive underdiagnosis and undertreatment is a general features across all European countries. Individuals with undiagnosed, symptomatic COPD had significantly increased risk of exacerbations, pneumonia, and death. Early smoking cessation is able to reduce the mortality and morbidity burden of newly diagnosed COPD individuals. These findings suggest that better initiatives for early diagnosis and early treatment of COPD are needed...
2018: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302987/an-investigation-of-factors-influencing-high-usage-of-medical-and-long-term-care-services-in-an-aging-society-in-japan
#10
Kana Kazawa, Md Moshiur Rahman, Michiko Moriyama
Medical and long-term care costs are increasing all over the world. In this study, we investigated the characteristics of groups with high cost of medical and long-term care to define targets for curbing social security costs. As a result, for the population covered by the National Health Insurance, a large portion of medical costs were incurred for mental disorders, malignant neoplasms, and lifestyle-related diseases. For those covered by the Late Elderly Health Insurance System, most medical costs were incurred for lifestyle-related diseases, femoral fractures, neurological diseases, mental disorders, pneumonia, malignant neoplasms, and Alzheimer's disease...
January 1, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288715/inflammation-and-neutrophil-immunosenescence-in-health-and-disease-targeted-treatments-to-improve-clinical-outcomes-in-the-elderly
#11
REVIEW
William Drew, Daisy V Wilson, Elizabeth Sapey
Despite increasing longevity, many old people are not in good health. There has been an increase in the prevalence of age-associated multi-morbidity (two or more chronic conditions in the same person). Also, severe infections, such as pneumonia, remain significant causes of mortality and morbidity in this aging group. Many chronic health conditions share risk factors such as increasing age, smoking, a sedentary life style and being part of a lower socioeconomic group. However, despite this, multi-morbidities often co-occur more commonly than would be predicted...
December 27, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284419/serotype-distribution-and-antibiotic-resistance-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-isolates-from-17-chinese-cities-from-2011-to-2016
#12
Chunjiang Zhao, Zongbo Li, Feifei Zhang, Xiaobing Zhang, Ping Ji, Ji Zeng, Bijie Hu, Zhidong Hu, Kang Liao, Hongli Sun, Rong Zhang, Bin Cao, Chao Zhuo, Wei Jia, Yaning Mei, Yunzhuo Chu, Xuesong Xu, Qing Yang, Yan Jin, Quan Fu, Xiuli Xu, Hongling Li, Lijun Wang, Yuxing Ni, Hongjie Liang, Hui Wang
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae, the leading pathogen of bacterial infections in infants and the elderly, is responsible for pneumococcal diseases with severe morbidity and mortality. Emergence of drug-resistant strains presented new challenges for treatment and prevention. Vaccination has proven to be an effective means of preventing pneumococcal infection worldwide. Detailed epidemiological information of antibiotic susceptibilities and serotype distribution will be of great help to the management of pneumococcal infections...
December 29, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283958/risk-of-pneumonia-after-vertebral-compression-fracture-in-women-with-low-bone-density-a-population-based-study
#13
Byunghyun Kim, Joonghee Kim, You Hwan Jo, Si-Hyuck Kang, Yeon Joo Lee, Jae Hyuk Lee, Je Eun Hwang, Min Ji Park, Sihyung Lee
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective large population based-study. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to elucidate the association between VCFs and pneumonia. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Vertebral compression fracture (VCF) is known to be associated with impaired pulmonary function. However, the risk of developing a pneumonia after a new-onset VCF has not been evaluated. METHODS: The data source was the National Health Screening Program Cohort, a population-based sample cohort of national health screening enrolees...
December 27, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240884/a-proposal-for-a-comprehensive-risk-scoring-system-for-predicting-postoperative-complications-in-octogenarian-patients-with-medically-operable-lung-cancer-jacs1303
#14
Hisashi Saji, Takahiko Ueno, Hiroshige Nakamura, Norihito Okumura, Masanori Tsuchida, Makoto Sonobe, Takuro Miyazaki, Keiju Aokage, Masayuki Nakao, Tomohiro Haruki, Hiroyuki Ito, Kazuhiko Kataoka, Kazunori Okabe, Kenji Tomizawa, Kentaro Yoshimoto, Hirotoshi Horio, Kenji Sugio, Yasuhisa Ode, Motoshi Takao, Morihito Okada, Masayuki Chida
OBJECTIVES: Although some retrospective studies have reported clinicopathological scoring systems for predicting postoperative complications and survival outcomes for elderly lung cancer patients, optimized scoring systems remain controversial. METHODS: The Japanese Association for Chest Surgery (JACS) conducted a nationwide multicentre prospective cohort and enrolled a total of 1019 octogenarians with medically operable lung cancer. Details of the clinical factors, comorbidities and comprehensive geriatric assessment were recorded for 895 patients to develop a comprehensive risk scoring (RS) system capable of predicting severe complications...
December 11, 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236737/comparison-of-sequential-multiplex-pcr-sequetyping-and-whole-genome-sequencing-for-serotyping-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#15
Florian Mauffrey, Éric Fournier, Walter Demczuk, Irene Martin, Michael Mulvey, Christine Martineau, Simon Lévesque, Sadjia Bekal, Marc-Christian Domingo, Florence Doualla-Bell, Jean Longtin, Brigitte Lefebvre
Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the major causes of pneumonia, meningitis and other pneumococcal infections in young children and elders. Determination of circulating S. pneumoniae serotypes is an essential service by public health laboratories for the monitoring of putative serotype replacement following the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) and of the efficacy of the immunization program. The Quellung method remains the gold standard for typing S. pneumoniae. Although this method is very effective, it is also costly, time consuming and not totally reliable due to its subjective nature...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230219/functional-impairment-of-mononuclear-phagocyte-system-by-the-human-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#16
REVIEW
Karen Bohmwald, Janyra A Espinoza, Raúl A Pulgar, Evelyn L Jara, Alexis M Kalergis
The mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) comprises of monocytes, macrophages (MΦ), and dendritic cells (DCs). MPS is part of the first line of immune defense against a wide range of pathogens, including viruses, such as the human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV). The hRSV is an enveloped virus that belongs to the Pneumoviridae family, Orthopneumovirus genus. This virus is the main etiological agent causing severe acute lower respiratory tract infection, especially in infants, children and the elderly. Human RSV can cause bronchiolitis and pneumonia and it has also been implicated in the development of recurrent wheezing and asthma...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226070/economic-burden-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-among-elderly-patients-a-japanese-perspective
#17
Keiko Konomura, Hideaki Nagai, Manabu Akazawa
Background: This study aimed to estimate the economic burden of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) among elderly patients in Japan. In addition, the study evaluated the relationship between total treatment cost and CAP risk factors. Methods: An administrative database was searched for elderly patients (≥ 65 years old) who had pneumonia (ICD-10 code: J12-J18) and an antibiotic prescription between 1 June 2014 and 31 May 2015. The all-cause total healthcare costs of outpatient and inpatient CAP episodes were calculated...
2017: Pneumonia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212998/-spontaneous-regression-of-lung-cancer-in-an-elderly-patient-a-case-report
#18
Chiemi Nogimori, Hiroshi Yamamoto, Keisuke Nonaka, Manami Sazuka, Hironobu Hamaya, Hirokazu Yamada
An 82 year-old male was referred to us because of a nodule in the upper lobe of his right lung, which was incidentally found by computed tomography (CT) carried out in the course of treating pneumonia. The nodule was identified as non-keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma of the lung by bronchoscopy. A close investigation revealed the tumor to be cT1bN3M1b, clinical Stage IV. Although we only adopted a wait-and-see approach because of his age and his suspected myelodysplastic syndrome, the nodule had regressed on CT images after a year...
2017: Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212467/excess-pneumonia-and-influenza-mortality-attributable-to-seasonal-influenza-in-subtropical-shanghai-china
#19
Xinchun Yu, Chunfang Wang, Tao Chen, Wenyi Zhang, Huiting Yu, Yuelong Shu, Wenbiao Hu, Xiling Wang
BACKGROUND: Disease burden attributable to influenza is substantial in subtropical regions. Our study aims to estimate excess pneumonia and influenza (P&I) mortality associated with influenza by subtypes/lineages in Shanghai, China, 2010-2015. METHODS: Quasi-Poisson regression models were fitted to weekly numbers of deaths from causes coded as P&I for Shanghai general and registered population. Three proxies for influenza activity were respectively used as an explanatory variable...
December 7, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201813/risk-factors-and-functional-impact-of-medical-complications-in-stroke
#20
Bo-Ram Kim, Jongmin Lee, Min Kyun Sohn, Deog Young Kim, Sam-Gyu Lee, Yong-Il Shin, Gyung-Jae Oh, Yang-Soo Lee, Min Cheol Joo, Eun Young Han, Yun-Hee Kim
Objective: To determine the incidence and risk factors for medical complications in Korean patients suffering from stroke and the impact of such complications on post-stroke functional outcomes. Methods: We assessed patients enrolled in a prospective cohort study. All recruited patients had suffered a first acute stroke episode and been admitted to nine university hospitals in Korea between August 2012 and June 2015. We analyzed patient and stroke characteristics, comorbidities, prevalence of post-stroke medical complications, and functional outcomes at time of discharge and 3, 6, and 12 months after stroke onset...
October 2017: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
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