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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092926/effect-of-gravity-and-microgravity-on-intracranial-pressure
#1
Justin S Lawley, Lonnie G Petersen, Erin J Howden, Satyam Sarma, William K Cornwell, Rong Zhang, Louis A Whitworth, Michael A Williams, Benjamin D Levine
Astronauts have recently been discovered to have impaired vision, with a presentation that resembles syndromes of elevated intracranial pressure (ICP). This syndrome is considered the most mission critical medical problem identified in the past decade of manned spaceflight. We recruited five men and three women who had an Ommaya reservoir inserted for the delivery of prophylactic central nervous system chemotherapy, but were free of their malignant disease for at least 1 year. ICP was assessed by placing a fluid-filled 25 ga butterfly needle into the Ommaya reservoir...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092799/fibrin-improves-skin-wound-perfusion-in-a-diabetic-rat-model
#2
Tamara Hoppenbrouwers, Bastiaan Tuk, Esther M G Fijneman, Moniek P M de Maat, Johan W van Neck
: The fibrin matrix of the thrombus that is formed directly after wounding, is an important determinant of the success of the early phase of wound healing. This phase is often impaired in patients with diabetes. A promising approach to improve skin wound healing is the application of a pro-angiogenic fibrin matrix onto the wound. We studied this in 59 female WAG/RijCrl diabetic rats, in which we created two dorsal full-thickness wounds of which one was treated with a human physiological fibrin matrix (2mg/ml) and one with PBS as control...
January 10, 2017: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092746/supranutritional-selenium-intake-from-enriched-milk-casein-impairs-hepatic-insulin-sensitivity-via-attenuated-irs-pi3k-akt-signaling-and-decreased-pgc-1%C3%AE-expression-in-male-sprague-dawley-rats
#3
Priska Stahel, Julie J Kim, Scott R L Cieslar, Jenny M Warrington, Changting Xiao, John P Cant
Selenium (Se)-enriched milk provides antioxidant benefits and has therapeutic potential against cancer. However, both antidiabetic and prodiabetic effects have been attributed to Se. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of Se-enriched milk casein on insulin sensitivity in rats when given at the requirement of 0.25 ppm Se and supranutritionally on both low- and high-fat diets. Two hundred sixteen male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed low- or high-fat diets containing one, two or eight times the Se requirement in a randomized block design...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092675/unbalancing-p53-mdm2-igf-1r-axis-by-mdm2-activation-restrains-the-igf-1-dependent-invasive-phenotype-of-skin-melanoma
#4
C Worrall, N Suleymanova, C Crudden, I Trocoli Drakensjö, E Candrea, D Nedelcu, S-I Takahashi, L Girnita, A Girnita
Melanoma tumors usually retain wild-type p53; however, its tumor-suppressor activity is functionally disabled, most commonly through an inactivating interaction with mouse double-minute 2 homolog (Mdm2), indicating p53 release from this complex as a potential therapeutic approach. P53 and the tumor-promoter insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor (IGF-1R) compete as substrates for the E3 ubiquitin ligase Mdm2, making their relative abundance intricately linked. Hence we investigated the effects of pharmacological Mdm2 release from the Mdm2/p53 complex on the expression and function of the IGF-1R...
January 16, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092660/the-role-of-peripheral-immune-cells-in-the-cns-in-steady-state-and-disease
#5
REVIEW
Marco Prinz, Josef Priller
The CNS is protected by the immune system, including cells that reside directly within the CNS and help to ensure proper neural function, as well as cells that traffic into the CNS with disease. The CNS-resident immune system is comprised mainly of innate immune cells and operates under homeostatic conditions. These myeloid cells in the CNS parenchyma and at CNS-periphery interfaces are highly specialized but also extremely plastic cells that immediately react to any changes in CNS homeostasis and become reactive in the context of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease or Parkinson's disease...
January 16, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092651/long-lasting-antinociceptive-effects-of-green-light-in-acute-and-chronic-pain-in-rats
#6
Mohab M Ibrahim, Amol Patwardhan, Kerry B Gilbraith, Aubin Moutal, Xiaofang Yang, Lindsey A Chew, Tally Largent-Milnes, T Philip Malan, Todd W Vanderah, Frank Porreca, Rajesh Khanna
Treatments for chronic pain are inadequate, and new options are needed. Nonpharmaceutical approaches are especially attractive with many potential advantages including safety. Light therapy has been suggested to be beneficial in certain medical conditions such as depression, but this approach remains to be explored for modulation of pain. We investigated the effects of light-emitting diodes (LEDs), in the visible spectrum, on acute sensory thresholds in naive rats as well as in experimental neuropathic pain...
February 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092643/physical-activity-and-sedentary-time-among-children-with-disabilities-at-school
#7
Cindy H P Sit, Thomas L McKenzie, Ester Cerin, Bik C Chow, Wendy Y Huang, Jie Yu
PURPOSES: Physical activity (PA) is important for the development of children with disabilities, but rarely does this population meet the recommended standards. Schools are salient locations for PA, but little is known about how specific school settings affect the PA of children with diverse disabilities. We assessed PA and sedentary time (ST) of children with disabilities in three school settings (physical education, recess, lunchtime). METHODS: Participants included 259 children from 13 Hong Kong special schools for five primary disabilities: visual impairments, hearing impairments, physical disabilities, intellectual disabilities, and social development problems...
February 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092641/performance-characterization-of-a-novel-electronic-number-connection-test-to-detect-minimal-hepatic-encephalopathy-in-cirrhotic-patients
#8
Tilo Wuensch, Darius Ferenc Ruether, Caroline Zöllner, Tobias Mueller, Tobias Jung, Magnus Kaffarnik, Ursula Kassner, Eckart Schott, Stephan Kiefer, Johann Pratschke, Martin Stockmann, Maximilian Jara
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a frequent complication of cirrhosis, characterized by cognitive deficits that negatively impact patients' quality of life. The mild, minimal hepatic encephalopathy (mHE) can only be detected by psychometric tests and early mHE detection can prevent more severe complications or even survival times. Here, we aimed to investigate the feasibility and validity of the novel-developed electronic number connection test (eNCT), which is designed as a fast and easy-to-perform mHE patient self-test...
January 12, 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092591/relational-regularized-discriminative-sparse-learning-for-alzheimer-s-disease-diagnosis
#9
Baiying Lei, Peng Yang, Tianfu Wang, Siping Chen, Dong Ni
Accurate identification and understanding informative feature is important for early Alzheimer's disease (AD) prognosis and diagnosis. In this paper, we propose a novel discriminative sparse learning method with relational regularization to jointly predict the clinical score and classify AD disease stages using multimodal features. Specifically, we apply a discriminative learning technique to expand the class-specific difference and include geometric information for effective feature selection. In addition, two kind of relational information are incorporated to explore the intrinsic relationships among features and training subjects in terms of similarity learning...
January 16, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092567/inter-joint-coordination-deficits-revealed-in-the-decomposition-of-endpoint-jerk-during-goal-directed-arm-movement-after-stroke
#10
Jozsef Laczko, Robert Arthur Scheidt, Lucia S Simo, Davide Piovesan
It is well-documented that neurological deficits after stroke can disrupt motor control processes that affect the smoothness of reaching movements. The smoothness of hand trajectories during multi-joint reaching depends on shoulder and elbow joint angular velocities and their successive derivatives as well as on the instantaneous arm configuration and its rate of change. Right-handed survivors of unilateral hemiparetic stroke and neurologically-intact control participants held the handle of a two-joint robot and made horizontal planar reaching movements...
January 16, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092472/using-biomarkers-to-predict-and-to-prevent-cardiotoxicity-of-cancer-therapy
#11
Daniela Cardinale, Gina Biasillo, Michela Salvatici, Maria Teresa Sandri, Carlo Maria Cipolla
Cardiotoxicity is a common complication that may compromise the clinical effectiveness of anticancer therapy. The current standard for monitoring cardiac function detects cardiotoxicity only when a functional impairment has already occurred, not allowing for any early preventive strategy. Areas covered: A novel approach, based on the use of biomarkers has recently emerged, resulting in a very effective tool for early, real-time identification, and monitoring of cardiotoxicity. In particular, cardiac troponin elevation during chemotherapy allows to identify patients more prone to develop myocardial dysfunction and cardiac events...
January 16, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092376/infectious-immunity-in-the-central-nervous-system-and-brain-function
#12
REVIEW
Robyn S Klein, Charise Garber, Nicole Howard
Inflammation is emerging as a critical mechanism underlying neurological disorders of various etiologies, yet its role in altering brain function as a consequence of neuroinfectious disease remains unclear. Although acute alterations in mental status due to inflammation are a hallmark of central nervous system (CNS) infections with neurotropic pathogens, post-infectious neurologic dysfunction has traditionally been attributed to irreversible damage caused by the pathogens themselves. More recently, studies indicate that pathogen eradication within the CNS may require immune responses that interfere with neural cell function and communication without affecting their survival...
January 16, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092360/chemical-proteomics-reveals-adp-ribosylation-of-small-gtpases-during-oxidative-stress
#13
Nathan P Westcott, Joseph P Fernandez, Henrik Molina, Howard C Hang
ADP-ribosylation is a post-translational modification that is known to be involved in cellular homeostasis and stress but has been challenging to analyze biochemically. To facilitate the detection of ADP-ribosylated proteins, we show that an alkyne-adenosine analog, N(6)-propargyl adenosine (N(6)pA), is metabolically incorporated in mammalian cells and enables fluorescence detection and proteomic analysis of ADP-ribosylated proteins. Notably, our analysis of N(6)pA-labeled proteins that are upregulated by oxidative stress revealed differential ADP-ribosylation of small GTPases...
January 16, 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092345/acute-effects-of-a-beverage-containing-bitter-melon-extract-carela-on-postprandial-glycemia-among-prediabetic-adults
#14
C H Boone, J R Stout, J A Gordon, M J Redd, D D Church, L P Oliveira, D H Fukuda, J R Hoffman
BACKGROUND: Acute ingestion of bitter melon (BM) has been shown to suppress the postprandial glycemic response in diabetics, but its impact on glucose regulation among individuals with impaired glucose tolerance is unclear. Moreover, one's glucose tolerance level may influence the effectiveness of BM. This study aimed to examine the acute effects of a beverage containing BM extract on blood glucose regulation during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) among prediabetics. METHODS: Ten prediabetic adults completed two OGTTs-glucose only (D2) and glucose+BM (D3)...
January 16, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092342/integrity-of-outer-retinal-layers-after-resolution-of-central-involved-diabetic-macular-edema
#15
Ilkay Kilic Muftuoglu, Nadia Mendoza, Raouf Gaber, Mostafa Alam, Qisheng You, William R Freeman
PURPOSE: To evaluate the integrity of outer retina layers after resolution of central involved diabetic macular edema (DME) and to demonstrate the effect of various baseline factors for the final vision and final external limiting membrane (ELM) integrity. METHODS: Fifty-nine eyes of 48 patients with resolved DME were included. Several optical coherence tomography parameters including central subfield thickness, maximum foveal thickness, foveal center point thickness, and the extent of the ellipsoidal (ISe) layer and ELM damage were assessed at the time of DME and after resolution of DME...
January 13, 2017: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092321/dexmedetomidine-disrupts-the-local-and-global-efficiencies-of-large-scale-brain-networks
#16
Javeria A Hashmi, Marco L Loggia, Sheraz Khan, Lei Gao, Jieun Kim, Vitaly Napadow, Emery N Brown, Oluwaseun Akeju
BACKGROUND: A clear understanding of the neural basis of consciousness is fundamental to research in clinical and basic neuroscience disciplines and anesthesia. Recently, decreased efficiency of information integration was suggested as a core network feature of propofol-induced unconsciousness. However, it is unclear whether this finding can be generalized to dexmedetomidine, which has a different molecular target. METHODS: Dexmedetomidine was administered as a 1-μg/kg bolus over 10 min, followed by a 0...
January 16, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092298/individualized-exercise-interventions-for-spinal-pain
#17
Deborah Falla, Paul W Hodges
Exercise is the most effective treatment for the management and prevention of spinal pain, yet on average it delivers small to moderate treatment effects, which are rarely long-lasting. This review examines the hypothesis that outcome of exercise interventions can be optimized when targeted towards the "right" patients and when tailored to address the neuromuscular impairments of each individual.
January 13, 2017: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092287/current-and-future-management-of-the-young-child-with-early-onset-wheezing
#18
Allison J Burbank, Stanley J Szefler
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we discuss current thinking in relation to available guidelines for the care of preschool-aged children with recurrent wheezing, while highlighting the gaps in our knowledge and discussing changes that could occur over the next 5 years. RECENT FINDINGS: The Asthma Predictive Index as well as allergen-specific IgE, peripheral eosinophil count and exhaled nitric oxide are perhaps underutilized sources of information that can assist in predicting progression to asthma and response to therapies...
January 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092246/-neonatal-hearing-screening-and-early-intervention-a-screening-program-to-evaluate-all-infants-to-identify-the-hearing-impaired
#19
Beatriz González-Jiménez, Efrén Delgado-Mendoza, Rafael Rojano-González, Florencia Valdez-Izaguirre, Pedro Gutiérrez-Aguilar, Félix Guillermo Márquez-Celedonio, Mario González-Santes
BACKGROUND: Neonatal Hearing Screening and Early Intervention (NHSEI) is a screening program to evaluate all infants and identify those with hearing impairment. The objective of this work was to determine the factors associated with hearing loss in NHSEI program. METHODS: Analytical cross-sectional study was performed. 234 infants were included in the NHSEI program, hearing was evaluated with transitory evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOE) at frequencies of 1.5 to 4...
January 2017: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092212/systemic-medications-used-in-treatment-of-common-dermatological-conditions-safety-profile-with-respect-to-pregnancy-breast-feeding-and-content-in-seminal-fluid
#20
S M Brown, K A Aljefri, R Waas, P J Hampton
: Prescribing for pregnant or lactating patients and male patients wishing to father children can be a difficult area for dermatologists. There is a lack of review articles of commonly used systemic medications in dermatology with respect to their effects on developing embryogenesis and their potential transfer across the placenta, in breast milk and in seminal fluid. This paper aims to provide an up to date summary of evidence to better equip dermatologists to inform patients about the effects of systemic medications commonly used in dermatology to treat conditions such as atopic dermatitis, psoriasis and acne, on current and future embryogenesis and fertility...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
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