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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931202/different-sized-incisions-for-phacoemulsification-in-age-related-cataract
#1
REVIEW
Chongfei Jin, Xinyi Chen, Andrew Law, Yunhee Kang, Xue Wang, Wen Xu, Ke Yao
BACKGROUND: Age-related cataract is the principal cause of blindness and visual impairment in the world. Phacoemulsification is the main surgical procedure used to treat cataract. The comparative effectiveness and safety of different-sized incisions for phacoemulsification has not been determined. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this systematic review was to assess the effectiveness and safety of smaller versus larger incisions for phacoemulsification in age-related cataract...
September 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931102/-areas-and-challenges-of-oncopsychological-rehabilitation
#2
Péter Kovács, Zsuzsa Koncz, Julianna Peti, Anna Gõdény, Dóra Horváth, Csilla Gerlinger, Katalin Lacsán, Petra Molnár, Ágnes Riskó
Patients with cancer present a number of different difficulties that adversely affect their health care and recovery (e.g. poor communication with physicians, lack of knowledge about their illness and its management, financial problems). Furthermore, mental health problems, such as distress, depression and anxiety, are common amongst patients with cancer. These mental health problems are additional contributors to functional impairment in carrying out family, work, and other social roles, poor adherence to medical treatments, and adverse medical outcomes...
September 20, 2017: Magyar Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931075/excitability-is-increased-in-hippocampal-ca1-pyramidal-cells-of-fmr1-knockout-mice
#3
M Angeles Luque, Pablo Beltran-Matas, M Carmen Marin, Blas Torres, Luis Herrero
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is caused by a failure of neuronal cells to express the gene encoding the fragile mental retardation protein (FMRP). Clinical features of the syndrome include intellectual disability, learning impairment, hyperactivity, seizures and anxiety. Fmr1 knockout (KO) mice do not express FMRP and, as a result, reproduce some FXS behavioral abnormalities. While intrinsic and synaptic properties of excitatory cells in various part of the brain have been studied in Fmr1 KO mice, a thorough analysis of action potential characteristics and input-output function of CA1 pyramidal cells in this model is lacking...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931037/assessment-of-renal-function-in-routine-care-of-people-living-with-hiv-on-art-in-a-resource-limited-setting-in-urban-zambia
#4
Andreas Deckert, Florian Neuhann, Christina Klose, Thomas Bruckner, Claudia Beiersmann, John Haloka, Mannie Nsofwa, Greg Banda, Maik Brune, Helmut Reutter, Dietrich Rothenbacher, Martin Zeier
INTRODUCTION: Data on renal impairment in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) remains scarce, determination of renal function is not part of routine assessments. We evaluated renal function and blood pressure in a cohort of people living with HIV (PLWH) on antiretroviral treatment (ART) in the Renal Care Zambia project (ReCaZa). METHODS: Using routine data from an HIV outpatient clinic from 2011-2013, we retrospectively estimated the glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, CKD-Epi formula) of PLWH on ART in Lusaka, Zambia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930839/a-novel-use-of-hill-function-and-utility-of-99mtc-mibi-scintigraphy-to-detect-earlier-lower-extremity-microvascular-perfusion-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#5
Yingsha Li, Qiang Li, Shenju Liang, Xia Liang, Wen Zhou, Hongbo He, Rongbing Jin, Kaifa Wang, Zhiming Zhu, Zhencheng Yan
We use the Hill function to analyze the dynamics of Tc-99m 2 methoxy-isobutyl-isonitrile (Tc-MIBI) scintigraphy data and to examine the earlier lower extremity microvascular perfusion of diabetic patients without typical clinical symptoms and with the preserved normal ankle-brachial index (ABI).Eighty-eight participants (30 healthy control, 34 diabetic patients, and 24 diabetic patients with peripheral arterial disease [PAD]) were recruited and applied Tc-MIBI scintigraphy. Fourteen diabetic patients with PAD also underwent computed tomography angiography (CTA) examination and were performed endovascular interventions...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930799/characterizing-the-interrelationships-of-prescription-opioid-and-benzodiazepine-drugs-with-worker-health-and-workplace-hazards
#6
Michele Kowalski-McGraw, Judith Green-McKenzie, Sudha P Pandalai, Paul A Schulte
OBJECTIVE: Prescription opioid and benzodiazepine drug use, which has risen significantly, can affect worker health. Exploration of the scientific literature assessed (1) interrelationships of such drug use, occupational risk factors, and illness and injury, and (2) occupational and personal risk factor combinations that can affect their use. METHODS: The scientific literature from 2000 to 2015 was searched to determine any interrelationships. RESULTS: Evidence for eight conceptual models emerged based on the search yield of 133 articles...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930756/dynamics-of-glucose-metabolism-after-kidney-transplantation
#7
Martina Guthoff, Robert Wagner, Karoline Weichbrodt, Silvio Nadalin, Alfred Königsrainer, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Andreas Fritsche, Nils Heyne
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Posttransplantation diabetes mellitus (PTDM) impacts patient and allograft survival after kidney transplantation. Prediabetes, which is an independent risk factor for PTDM, is modifiable also in a post-transplant setting. Understanding the risks and dynamics of impaired glucose metabolism after transplantation is a key component for targeted intervention. METHODS: A retrospective chart analysis of all adult non-diabetic renal allograft recipients (n=251, 2007-2014) was performed...
September 20, 2017: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930750/tauroursodeoxycholic-acid-reduces-arterial-stiffness-and-improves-endothelial-dysfunction-in-type-2-diabetic-mice
#8
Micah L Battson, Dustin M Lee, Dillon K Jarrell, Shoufei Hou, Kayl E Ecton, Anna B Phan, Christopher L Gentile
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has emerged as a potential mechanism contributing to diabetes and its comorbidities. However, the importance of ER stress in diabetic vascular dysfunction is unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the ER stress inhibitor, tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), on arterial stiffness and endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetic mice. METHODS: Carotid and mesenteric artery endothelial function were assessed via ex vivo pressure myography, and arterial stiffness was measured by aortic pulse wave velocity...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Vascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930704/holding-ashley-x-bestowing-identity-through-caregiving-in-profound-intellectual-disability
#9
Lisa Freitag, Joan Liaschenko
The controversy over the so-called Ashley Treatment (AT), a series of medical procedures that inhibited both growth and sexual development in the body of a profoundly intellectually impaired girl, usually centers either on Ashley's rights, including a right to an intact, unaltered body, or on Ashley's parents' rights to make decisions for her. The claim made by her parents, that the procedure would improve their ability to care for her, is often dismissed as inappropriate or, at best, irrelevant. We argue, however, that caregiving is a central issue in the controversy, as Ashley's need for caregiving is a defining characteristic of her life...
2017: Journal of Clinical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930703/nine-lessons-from-ashley-and-her-parents
#10
Edmund G Howe
Parents' love for their child, even a child who has severe impairments, may give them much joy and quality in their life. This is also the case for caregivers of adults with severe cognitive impairments, such as end-stage dementia. How can clinicians work with these parents and caregivers and help them?
2017: Journal of Clinical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930695/metabolomics-assessment-of-the-effects-of-diclofenac-exposure-on-mytilus-galloprovincialis-potential-effects-on-osmoregulation-and-reproduction
#11
Bénilde Bonnefille, Elena Gomez, Mellis Alali, David Rosain, Hélène Fenet, Frédérique Courant
The presence of pharmaceutically active compounds in aquatic environments has become a major concern over the past 20years. Elucidation of their mode of action and effects in non-target organisms is thus now a major ecotoxicological challenge. Diclofenac (DCF) is among the pharmaceutical compounds of interest based on its inclusion in the European Union Water Framework Directive Watch List. In this study, our goal was to investigate the potential of a metabolomic approach to acquire information without any a priori hypothesis about diclofenac effects on marine mussels...
September 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930689/integrating-enhancer-mechanisms-to-establish-a-hierarchical-blood-development-program
#12
Charu Mehta, Kirby D Johnson, Xin Gao, Irene M Ong, Koichi R Katsumura, Skye C McIver, Erik A Ranheim, Emery H Bresnick
Hematopoietic development requires the transcription factor GATA-2, and GATA-2 mutations cause diverse pathologies, including leukemia. GATA-2-regulated enhancers increase Gata2 expression in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells and control hematopoiesis. The +9.5-kb enhancer activates transcription in endothelium and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), and its deletion abrogates HSC generation. The -77-kb enhancer activates transcription in myeloid progenitors, and its deletion impairs differentiation. Since +9...
September 19, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930681/parkin-independent-mitophagy-controls-chemotherapeutic-response-in-cancer-cells
#13
Elodie Villa, Emma Proïcs, Camila Rubio-Patiño, Sandrine Obba, Barbara Zunino, Jozef P Bossowski, Romain M Rozier, Johanna Chiche, Laura Mondragón, Joel S Riley, Sandrine Marchetti, Els Verhoeyen, Stephen W G Tait, Jean-Ehrland Ricci
Mitophagy is an evolutionarily conserved process that selectively targets impaired mitochondria for degradation. Defects in mitophagy are often associated with diverse pathologies, including cancer. Because the main known regulators of mitophagy are frequently inactivated in cancer cells, the mechanisms that regulate mitophagy in cancer cells are not fully understood. Here, we identified an E3 ubiquitin ligase (ARIH1/HHARI) that triggers mitophagy in cancer cells in a PINK1-dependent manner. We found that ARIH1/HHARI polyubiquitinates damaged mitochondria, leading to their removal via autophagy...
September 19, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930672/histone-h3-methylated-at-arginine-17-is-essential-for-reprogramming-the-paternal-genome-in-zygotes
#14
Yuki Hatanaka, Takeshi Tsusaka, Natsumi Shimizu, Kohtaro Morita, Takehiro Suzuki, Shinichi Machida, Manabu Satoh, Arata Honda, Michiko Hirose, Satoshi Kamimura, Narumi Ogonuki, Toshinobu Nakamura, Kimiko Inoue, Yoshihiko Hosoi, Naoshi Dohmae, Toru Nakano, Hitoshi Kurumizaka, Kazuya Matsumoto, Yoichi Shinkai, Atsuo Ogura
At fertilization, the paternal genome undergoes extensive reprogramming through protamine-histone exchange and active DNA demethylation, but only a few maternal factors have been defined in these processes. We identified maternal Mettl23 as a protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT), which most likely catalyzes the asymmetric dimethylation of histone H3R17 (H3R17me2a), as indicated by in vitro assays and treatment with TBBD, an H3R17 PRMT inhibitor. Maternal histone H3.3, which is essential for paternal nucleosomal assembly, is unable to be incorporated into the male pronucleus when it lacks R17me2a...
September 19, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930664/aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-controls-monocyte-differentiation-into-dendritic-cells-versus-macrophages
#15
Christel Goudot, Alice Coillard, Alexandra-Chloé Villani, Paul Gueguen, Adeline Cros, Siranush Sarkizova, Tsing-Lee Tang-Huau, Mylène Bohec, Sylvain Baulande, Nir Hacohen, Sebastian Amigorena, Elodie Segura
After entering tissues, monocytes differentiate into cells that share functional features with either macrophages or dendritic cells (DCs). How monocyte fate is directed toward monocyte-derived macrophages (mo-Macs) or monocyte-derived DCs (mo-DCs) and which transcription factors control these differentiation pathways remains unknown. Using an in vitro culture model yielding human mo-DCs and mo-Macs closely resembling those found in vivo in ascites, we show that IRF4 and MAFB were critical regulators of monocyte differentiation into mo-DCs and mo-Macs, respectively...
September 19, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930619/asiatic-acid-nullified-aluminium-toxicity-in-in-vitro-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
Mashoque Ahmad Rather, Arokiasamy Justin Thenmozhi, Thamilarasan Manivasagam, Jegadeesan Nataraj, Musthafa Mohamed Essa, Saravana Babu Chidambaram
Aluminium (Al) is a ubiquitously distributed environmental toxicant that lacks biological functions; however, its accumulation in the brain has been demonstrated to be linked to several neuropathological conditions particularly Alzheimer's disease (AD). Asiatic acid (AA), a triterpene extracted from Centella asiatica, has been reported to cross the blood brain barrier and also displayed antioxidant and neuroprotective activities. The present study was aimed to explore the neuroprotective effect of AA against aluminium maltolate (Al(mal)3) induced neurotoxicity by assessing cell viability, mitochondrial membrane potential, levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA damage and apoptosis (Hoechst and dual staining, comet assay; expressions of pro-apoptotic, anti-apoptotic and signaling indices) via AKT/GSK-3β signaling pathway in SH-SY 5Y  neuroblastoma cells...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930550/strategies-for-reducing-inflammation-and-promoting-bone-repair-in-arthritis
#17
Manoel Figueiredo Neto, Hiroki Yokota, Marxa L Figueiredo
Chronic forms of arthritis encompass many joint inflammatory disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), an autoimmune inflammatory disease, and osteoarthritis (OA), typically a 'wear and tear' condition that is now known to also have an inflammatory etiology. The impact of inflammation in the disease prognosis and joint degradation due to impaired repair mechanisms has long been recognized for RA, and now also for OA. Both forms of arthritis are prevalent chronic health conditions, and despite recent advances, their treatment still represents an unmet medical need because of safety and efficacy concerns with currently prescribed drugs...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930532/neuroprotective-role-of-asiatic-acid-in-aluminium-chloride-induced-rat-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Mashoque Ahmad Rather, Arokiasamy Justin Thenmozhi, Thamilarasan Manivasagam, Mathiyazahan Dhivya Bharathi, Musthafa Mohamed Essa, Gilles J Guillemin
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, characterized by memory loss, cognitive impairment and personality disorders accompanied by diffuse structural abnormalities in the brain of elderly people. The current investigation explored the neuroprotective potential of asiatic acid (AA), a natural triterpene of Centella asiatica on aluminium chloride (AlCl3) induced rat model of AD. Oral administration of AlCl3 (100 mg/kg b.w.) for 42 days significantly elevated the levels of Al, activity of acetyl cholinesterase and expressions of amyloid precursor protein, amyloid beta1-42, beta and gamma secretases, glial fibrillary acidic protein, ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1, interleukins -1β, 6, 4, 2, tumor necrosis factor alpha, inducible nitric oxide synthase, nuclear factor- k beta and cyclooxygenase-2 in the hippocampus and cortex  compared to the control group...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930190/oligonol-a-low-molecular-weight-polyphenol-derived-from-lychee-alleviates-muscle-loss-in-diabetes-by-suppressing-atrogin-1-and-murf1
#19
Hung-Wen Liu, Yen-Ju Chen, Yun-Ching Chang, Sue-Joan Chang
Stimulation of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway-especially E3 ubiquitin ligases Atrogin-1 and MuRF1-is associated with muscle loss in diabetes. Elevated lipid metabolites impair myogenesis. Oligonol, a low molecular weight polyphenol derived from lychee, exhibited anti-diabetic and anti-obesity properties, suggesting it could be a proper supplement for attenuating muscle loss. Dietary (10 weeks) oligonol supplementation (20 or 200 mg/kg diet) on the skeletal muscle loss was investigated in diabetic db/db mice...
September 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930162/lean-body-mass-harbors-sensing-mechanisms-that-allow-safeguarding-of-methionine-homeostasis
#20
REVIEW
Yves Ingenbleek
Protein-depleted states generate allosteric inhibition of liver cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), which governs the first enzymatic step of the transsulfuration cascade, resulting in upstream accretion of homocysteine (Hcy) in body fluids. A similar Hcy increase may arise from normal hepatocytes undergoing experimentally-induced impairment of betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHTM) activity or from components of lean body mass (LBM) submitted to any inflammatory disorder. LBM comprises a composite agglomeration of extrarenal tissues characterized by naturally occurring BHTM inactivity...
September 20, 2017: Nutrients
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