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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434153/machine-learning-xgboost-analysis-of-language-networks-to-classify-patients-with-epilepsy
#1
L Torlay, M Perrone-Bertolotti, E Thomas, M Baciu
Our goal was to apply a statistical approach to allow the identification of atypical language patterns and to differentiate patients with epilepsy from healthy subjects, based on their cerebral activity, as assessed by functional MRI (fMRI). Patients with focal epilepsy show reorganization or plasticity of brain networks involved in cognitive functions, inducing 'atypical' (compared to 'typical' in healthy people) brain profiles. Moreover, some of these patients suffer from drug-resistant epilepsy, and they undergo surgery to stop seizures...
April 22, 2017: Brain Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434104/mullerian-dysgenesis-a-critical-review-of-the-literature
#2
REVIEW
Souzana Choussein, Dimitrios Nasioudis, Dimitrios Schizas, Konstantinos P Economopoulos
PURPOSE: To present an update of the genetic, clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic aspects of Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome. METHODS: Studies were considered eligible if they have evaluated patients with MRKH syndrome. Eligible articles were identified by a search of MEDLINE bibliographical database from 1950 to August 2016. A purely descriptive approach was adopted concerning all outcomes examined by the individual studies. RESULTS: MRKH syndrome is defined as congenital aplasia of the upper vagina and impairment of uterine development in normal 46XX females...
April 22, 2017: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434076/%C3%AE-synuclein-nonhuman-primate-models-of-parkinson-s-disease
#3
REVIEW
David J Marmion, Jeffrey H Kordower
Proper understanding of the mechanism(s) by which α-synuclein misfolds and propagates may hold the key to unraveling the complex pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease. A more complete understanding of the disease itself, as well as establishing animal models that fully recapitulate pathological and functional disease progression, are needed to develop treatments that will delay, halt or reverse the disease course. Traditional neurotoxin-based animal models fail to mimic crucial aspects of Parkinson's and thus are not relevant for the study of neuroprotection and disease-modifying therapies...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434074/adipose-derived-stem-cells-ameliorate-experimental-murine-colitis-via-tsp-1-dependent-activation-of-latent-tgf-%C3%AE
#4
Hiroshi Takeyama, Tsunekazu Mizushima, Mamoru Uemura, Naotsugu Haraguchi, Junichi Nishimura, Taishi Hata, Chu Matsuda, Ichiro Takemasa, Masakazu Ikenaga, Kohei Murata, Hirofumi Yamamoto, Yuichiro Doki, Masaki Mori
BACKGROUND: Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) have been investigated as therapeutic tools for a variety of autoimmune diseases, including inflammatory diseases. However, the mechanisms underlying the immunomodulatory properties of ASCs are not well understood. Here, we investigated the mechanism of regulatory T cell (Treg) induction in ASC therapy in a murine model of inflammatory bowel disease. METHODS: Acute colitis was induced in mice using dextran sulfate sodium and ASCs administered intraperitoneally...
April 22, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434032/diabetes-bone-and-glucose-lowering-agents-basic-biology
#5
REVIEW
Beata Lecka-Czernik
Skeletal fragility often accompanies diabetes and does not appear to correlate with low bone mass or trauma severity in individuals with diabetes. Instead (and in contrast to those with osteoporotic bone disease), bone remodelling and bone turnover are compromised in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, contributing to defective bone material quality. This review is one of a pair discussing the relationship between diabetes, bone and glucose-lowering agents; an accompanying review is provided in this issue of Diabetologia by Ann Schwartz (DOI: 10...
April 22, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434031/fkbp51s-signature-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-of-melanoma-patients-as-a-possible-predictive-factor-for-immunotherapy
#6
Simona Romano, Ester Simeone, Anna D'Angelillo, Paolo D'Arrigo, Michele Russo, Mario Capasso, Vito Alessandro Lasorsa, Nicola Zambrano, Paolo A Ascierto, Maria Fiammetta Romano
The inhibitory immune checkpoint PD-L1/PD1 promotes the alternative splicing of the FKBP5 gene, resulting in increased expression of its variant 4 in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of melanoma patients. The variant 4 transcript is translated into the truncated FKBP51s protein. Given the importance of co-inhibitory signalling in tumour immune escape, here we tested the potential for using FKBP51s expression to predict immunotherapy outcomes. To do this, we immunophenotyped PBMCs from 118 melanoma patients and 77 age- and sex-matched healthy controls...
April 22, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434002/in-situ-hearing-tests-for-the-purpose-of-a-self-fit-hearing-aid
#7
Monique Boymans, Wouter A Dreschler
This study investigated the potential and limitations of a self-fit hearing aid. This can be used in the "developing" world or in countries with large distances between the hearing-impaired subjects and the professional. It contains an on-board tone generator for in situ user-controlled, automated audiometry, and other tests for hearing aid fitting. Twenty subjects with mild hearing losses were involved. In situ audiometry showed a test-retest reliability (SD <3.7 dB) that compared well with the precision of diagnostic audiometry using headphones...
April 22, 2017: Audiology & Neuro-otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433997/argon-delays-initiation-of-liver-regeneration-after-partial-hepatectomy-in-rats
#8
Tom Florian Ulmer, Athanassious Fragoulis, Henriette Dohmeier, Andreas Kroh, Anne Andert, Christian Stoppe, Hamid Alizai, Christian Klink, Mark Coburn, Ulf Peter Neumann
BACKGROUND: The liver can heal up to restitutio ad integrum following damage resulting from various causes. Different studies have demonstrated the protective effect of argon on various cells and organs. To the best of our knowledge, the organ-protective effects of the noble gas argon on the liver have not yet been investigated, although argon appears to influence signal paths that are well-known mediators of liver regeneration. We hypothesized that argon inhalation prior to partial hepatectomy (70%) has a positive effect on the initiation of liver regeneration in rats...
April 22, 2017: European Surgical Research. Europäische Chirurgische Forschung. Recherches Chirurgicales Européennes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433974/hypoactive-hypoalert-behaviour-and-thalamic-hypometabolism-due-to-intracranial-hypotension
#9
Seamus Kearney, Peter Flynn, Simon Hughes, Wendy Spence, Mark Owen McCarron
A 47-year-old man presented with a 9-year history of a hypoalert hypoactive behaviour syndrome, caused by the deep brain swelling variant of spontaneous intracranial hypotension. Along with apathy with retained cognition, he had stable ataxia, impaired upgaze and episodes of central apnoea. MRI brain showed a sagging brainstem, pointed ventricles and reduced angle between the vein of Galen and the straight sinus, but no meningeal enhancement or subdural collections. A dopamine transporter scan showed preganglionic dopamine receptor deficiency; a fluorodeoxy glucose positron emission tomography scan showed bilateral hypothalamic hypometabolism...
April 22, 2017: Practical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433855/the-electrophysiology-of-neurohiv-a-systematic-review-of-eeg-and-meg-studies-in-people-with-hiv-infection-since-the-advent-of-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy
#10
Ana Lucia Fernández-Cruz, Lesley K Fellows
OBJECTIVE: The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) has an impact on the brain, even when the infection is well-controlled with modern highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). While dementia is rare in those on HAART, milder cognitive impairment is common. The causes, patterns, and evolution of brain dysfunction in people living with HIV remain uncertain. We evaluate whether electrophysiological methods provide informative measures of brain dysfunction in this population. METHODS: A systematic literature search identified studies that used EEG or MEG to evaluate persons living with HIV published between 1996 (when HAART became available) and 2016...
March 31, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433816/l-carnitine-prevents-memory-impairment-induced-by-chronic-rem-sleep-deprivation
#11
Karem H Alzoubi, Abeer M Rababah, Amani Owaisi, Omar F Khabour
Sleep deprivation (SD) negatively impacts memory, which was related to oxidative stress induced damage. L-carnitine is a naturally occurring compound, synthesized endogenously in mammalian species and known to possess antioxidant properties. In this study, the effect of L-carnitine on learning and memory impairment induced by rapid eye movement sleep (REM-sleep) deprivation was investigated. REM-sleep deprivation was induced using modified multiple platform model (8hrs/day, for 6 weeks). Simultaneously, L-carnitine was administered (300mg/kg/day) intraperitoneally for 6 weeks...
April 19, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433792/a-pilot-study-examining-a-computer-based-intervention-to-improve-recognition-and-understanding-of-emotions-in-young-children-with-communication-and-social-deficits
#12
Neri L Romero
BACKGROUND: A common social impairment in individuals with ASD is difficulty interpreting and or predicting emotions of others. To date, several interventions targeting teaching emotion recognition and understanding have been utilized both by researchers and practitioners. The results suggest that teaching emotion recognition is possible, but that the results do not generalize to non-instructional contexts. This study sought to replicate earlier findings of a positive impact of teaching emotion recognition using a computer-based intervention and to extend it by testing for generalization on live models in the classroom setting...
April 20, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433745/hypoxia-augments-lps-induced-inflammation-and-triggers-high-altitude-cerebral-edema-in-mice
#13
Yanzhao Zhou, Xin Huang, Tong Zhao, Meng Qiao, Xingnan Zhao, Ming Zhao, Lun Xu, Yongqi Zhao, Liying Wu, Kuiwu Wu, Ruoli Chen, Ming Fan, Lingling Zhu
High altitude cerebral edema (HACE) is a life-threatening illness that develops during the rapid ascent to high altitudes, but its underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Growing evidence has implicated inflammation in the susceptibility to and development of brain edema. In the present study, we investigated the inflammatory response and its roles in HACE in mice following high altitude hypoxic injury. We report that acute hypobaric hypoxia induced a slight inflammatory response or brain edema within 24 h in mice...
April 19, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433741/loss-of-the-neurodevelopmental-gene-zswim6-alters-striatal-morphology-and-motor-regulation
#14
David J Tischfield, Dave K Saraswat, Andrew Furash, Stephen C Fowler, Marc V Fuccillo, Stewart A Anderson
The zinc-finger SWIM domain-containing protein 6 (ZSWIM6) is a protein of unknown function that has been associated with schizophrenia and limited educational attainment by three independent genome-wide association studies. Additionally, a putatively causal point mutation in ZSWIM6 has been identified in several cases of acromelic frontonasal dysostosis with severe intellectual disability. Despite the growing number of studies implicating ZSWIM6 as an important regulator of brain development, its role in this process has never been examined...
April 19, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433712/common-phox2b-poly-alanine-contractions-impair-ret-gene-transcription-predisposing-to-hirschsprung-disease
#15
Eleonora Di Zanni, Annalisa Adamo, Elga Belligni, Margherita Lerone, Giuseppe Martucciello, Girolamo Mattioli, Alessio Pini Prato, Roberto Ravazzolo, Margherita Silengo, Tiziana Bachetti, Isabella Ceccherini
HSCR is a congenital disorder of the enteric nervous system, characterized by the absence of neurons along a variable length of the gut resulting from loss-of-function RET mutations. Congenital Central Hypoventilation Syndrome (CCHS) is a rare neurocristopathy characterized by impaired response to hypercapnia and hypoxemia caused by heterozygous mutations of the PHOX2B gene, mostly polyalanine (polyA) expansions but also missense, nonsense, and frameshift mutations, while polyA contractions are common in the population and believed neutral...
April 19, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433669/environmental-enrichment-reverses-memory-impairment-induced-by-toluene-in-mice
#16
Sergio Montes, Rocío Del Carmen Solís-Guillen, David García-Jácome, Nayeli Páez-Martínez
Toluene is the main component of a variety of inhalants that are used for intoxication purposes. Alterations in memory have been reported in inhalant users; however, it is unclear whether these impairments could be reversed, and the mechanisms involved in the putative recovery. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to model the deleterious effects of toluene on memory in mice and to evaluate the effect of environmental enrichment on that response. In the second part of the study, the concentrations of glutamate and GABA, following chronic toluene exposure and after environmental enrichment treatment, were evaluated...
April 19, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433667/cognitive-impairment-and-heart-failure-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
REVIEW
Jane A Cannon, Peter Moffitt, Ana Cristina Perez-Moreno, Matthew R Walters, Niall M Broomfield, John J V McMurray, Terence J Quinn
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment and dementia are associated with a range of cardiovascular conditions including hypertension, coronary artery disease and atrial fibrillation. We aimed to describe the association with heart failure, summarising published data to give estimates around prevalence, incidence and relative risk of cognitive impairment/dementia in heart failure. METHODS: We searched multidisciplinary databases including MEDLINE (OVID), EMBASE (OVID), CINAHL (EBSCO), PsychINFO (EBSCO), Web of Science (Thomson Reuters) and CENTRAL (Cochrane Library) from inception until 31(st) May 2015...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Cardiac Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433656/impaired-endothelium-derived-hyperpolarization-type-relaxation-in-superior-mesenteric-arteries-isolated-from-female-otsuka-long-evans-tokushima-fatty-rats
#18
Takayuki Matsumoto, Shota Kobayashi, Makoto Ando, Shun Watanabe, Maika Iguchi, Kumiko Taguchi, Tsuneo Kobayashi
Endothelium-derived hyperpolarization (EDH) is an important signaling mechanism of endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation, and little attention has been paid to the EDH-type responses in female metabolic syndrome such as that observed with type-2 diabetes. We previously reported that EDH-type relaxation was impaired in superior mesenteric arteries from male Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat, a model of type-2 diabetes, however, the response was unclear in female OLETF rat. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine if EDH-type relaxation was altered in superior mesenteric arteries isolated from female OLETF rats compared to age-matched, control female Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats at age 50-59 weeks...
April 19, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433653/self-awareness-and-the-medial-temporal-lobe-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Chantal Chavoix, Ricardo Insausti
Accurate self-awareness is essential for adapting one's behaviour to one's actual abilities, to avoid risky behaviour. Impaired self-awareness of deficits is common in neurodegenerative diseases. Numerous studies show an involvement of midline cortical areas in impaired self-awareness. Among the other brain regions implicated stand the medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures (i.e. hippocampus, amygdala, and temporopolar, entorhinal, perirhinal and posterior parahippocampal cortices). This review aims at evaluating the role of those structures in self-awareness in neurodegenerative diseases...
April 19, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433649/chronic-nicotine-attenuates-behavioral-and-synaptic-plasticity-impairments-in-a-streptozotocin-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
Esteves Im, Lopes-Aguiar C, Rossignoli Mt, Ruggiero Rn, Broggini Acs, Bueno-Junior Ls, Kandratavicius L, Monteiro Mr, Romcy-Pereira Rn, Leite Jp
Brain glucose metabolism is altered in sporadic Alzheimer's disease (sAD), whose pathologies are reproduced in rodents by intracerebroventricular (icv) infusion of streptozotocin (STZ) in subdiabetogenic doses. The icv-STZ model also culminates in central cholinergic dysfunctions, which in turn are known to underlie both the sAD cognitive decline, and synaptic plasticity impairments. Considering the cognitive-enhancing potential of chronic nicotine (Nic), we investigated whether it attenuates icv-STZ-induced impairments in recognition memory and synaptic plasticity in a cognition-relevant substrate: the hippocampal CA1-medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) pathway...
April 19, 2017: Neuroscience
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