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Drug Impairment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528185/simvastatin-ameliorate-memory-deficits-and-inflammation-in-clinical-and-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-via-modulating-the-expression-of-mir-106b
#1
Wenzhong Huang, Zhenyu Li, Liandong Zhao, Wei Zhao
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) as a neurodegenerative brain disorder is a devastating pathology leading to disastrous cognitive impairments and dementia, and several studies have shown that AD is closely related to the inflammation, so anti-inflammatory treatment may provide therapeutic benefits. In this study, the effect of simvastatin on inflammation was investigated and the underlying mechanisms were explored. METHODS: First, we tested the effect of simvastatin on AD in clinical research...
May 18, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527690/testing-cognitive-functions-in-rodent-disease-models-present-pitfalls-and-future-perspectives
#2
REVIEW
Heikki Tanila
Testing of cognitive functions in rodent disease models constitutes a substantial sector of behavioral neuroscience. It is most often needed in phenotyping genetically modified new rodent (usually mouse) lines or in preclinical testing of cognitive effects of new CNS drugs. This review concerns present pitfalls and future perspectives in this large field, with an emphasis on memory testing in CNS disease models and their preclinical drug testing. It is important to realize that no behavioral test is specific for a single cognitive domain...
May 17, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527668/imaging-mass-spectrometry-ims-of-cortical-lipids-from-preclinical-to-severe-stages-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
E Gónzalez de San Román, I Manuel, M T Giralt, I Ferrer, R Rodríguez-Puertas
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease affecting millions of patients worldwide. Previous studies have demonstrated alterations in the lipid composition of lipid extracts from plasma and brain samples of AD patients. However, there is no consensus regarding the qualitative and quantitative changes of lipids in brains from AD patients. In addition, the recent developments in imaging mass spectrometry methods are leading to a new stage in the in situ analysis of lipid species in brain tissue slices from human postmortem samples...
May 17, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527278/-drug-rash-with-eosinophilia-and-systemic-symptoms-syndrome-induced-by-carbamazepine-case-report
#4
Jorge Alonso Marín, Mayra Alexandra Ortega, Isaura Pilar Sánchez, José Armando Pacheco
Drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is a hypersensitivity reaction associated with a variety of drugs, mainly anticonvulsants, which is characterized by systemic symptoms and erythematous lesions, common to other toxicodermas. It is an uncommon clinical entity that requires a high suspicion by clinical staff given its varied initial presentation, and the fact that symptoms can overlap with those of other adverse cutaneous reactions to drugs. Without early diagnosis and appropriate treatment, mortality increases...
June 1, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527160/study-of-bone-mineral-density-bmd-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-and-its-co-relation-with-severity-of-the-disease
#5
Liyakat Ali Gauri, Qadir Fatima, Sharanbasu Diggi, Asim Khan, Ambreen Liyakat, B R Ajay
INTRODUCTION: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease of unknown etiology marked by a symmetric, peripheral polyarthritis.1-3 People with rheumatoid arthritis are at increased risk of osteoporosis. Hence this article intends to highlight the importance of BMD measurement in patients with RA as a tool for assessment of disease activity and severity. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate Bone Mineral Density in patients of Rheumatoid Arthritis and Co-relate it with severity of disease...
April 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527159/efficacy-of-betahistine-by-patient-reported-outcomes-and-its-tolerability-profile-in-indian-patients-with-vestibular-vertigo
#6
M V Kirtane, Anirban Biswas
OBJECTIVE: Patients with vestibular vertigo suffer from disabling symptoms which affect their quality of life. This article presents the efficacy and safety profile of betahistine hydrochloride in Indian patients suffering from vestibular vertigo (OSVaLD study). METHODS: Study included patients suffering from vertigo, who were prescribed betahistine (48 mg/day) according to local label. Safety and efficacy populations of this study included 80 and 75 subjects respectively...
April 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527109/erratum-to-clinical-pharmacokinetics-of-sacubitril-valsartan-lcz696-a-novel-angiotensin-receptor-neprilysin-inhibitor
#7
Surya Ayalasomayajula, Thomas Langenickel, Parasar Pal, Sreedevi Boggarapu, Gangadhar Sunkara
Sacubitril/valsartan (LCZ696) is indicated for the treatment of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Absorption of sacubitril/valsartan and conversion of sacubitril (prodrug) to sacubitrilat (neprilysin inhibitor) was rapid with maximum plasma concentrations of sacubitril, sacubitrilat, and valsartan (angiotensin receptor blocker) reaching within 0.5, 1.5-2.0, and 2.0-3.0 h, respectively. With a twofold increase in dose, an increase in the area under the plasma concentration-time curve was proportional for sacubitril, ~1...
May 19, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527091/raven-coloured-progressive-matrices-in-migraine-without-aura-patients
#8
Giovanna Viticchi, Lorenzo Falsetti, Marco Bartolini, Laura Buratti, Lara Pistelli, Leandro Provinciali, Mauro Silvestrini
Conflicting results emerged from studies investigating cognitive performances in migraine patients. Based on clinical and neuroradiological aspects, the possible involvement of executive functions has been especially taken into consideration. The aim of this study was to evaluate, in a population of subjects affected by migraine without aura (MwoA), frontal lobe cognitive functions. We enrolled all the consecutive patients affected by MwoA referred to our headache centre for a first evaluation. Each patient underwent a neuropsychological evaluation including Raven coloured progressive matrices (CPM)...
May 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526743/systematic-identification-of-functional-residues-of-artemisia-annua-amorpha-4-11-diene-synthase
#9
Xin Fang, Jian-Xu Li, Jin-Quan Huang, You-Li Xiao, Peng Zhang, Xiao-Ya Chen
Terpene synthases (TPSs) are responsible for the extremely diversified and complex structure of terpenoids. Amorpha-4,11-diene synthase (ADS) has a high (90%) fidelity in generating the sesquiterpene precursor for biosynthesis of artemisinin, an antimalarial drug, however, little is known about how active site residues of ADS involved in the carbocation rearrangement and cyclization reactions. Here, we identify seven residues that are key to most of the catalytic steps in ADS. By structural modeling and amino acid sequence alignments of ADS with two functionally relevant sesquiterpene synthases from Artemisia annua, we performed site-directed mutagenesis and found that a single substitution, T296V, impaired the ring closure activity almost completely, and tetra-substitutions (L374Y/L404V/L405I/G439S) led to an enzyme generating 80% monocyclic bisabolyl-type sesquiterpenes, whereas a double mutant (T399L/T447G) showed compromised activity in regioselective deprotonation to yield 34...
May 19, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526719/management-of-treatment-related-adverse-events-with-agents-targeting-the-mapk-pathway-in-patients-with-metastatic-melanoma
#10
Adil Daud, Katy Tsai
Tremendous progress has been made in the clinical landscape of advanced-stage BRAF V600-mutant melanoma treatment over the past 5 years. Targeted therapies that inhibit specific steps of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway have been shown to provide significant overall treatment benefit in patients with this difficult-to-treat disease. Combination therapy with BRAF and MEK inhibitors (dabrafenib plus trametinib or vemurafenib plus cobimetinib, respectively) has become standard of care. These agents are administered until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity occurs; thus, some patients may remain on maintenance therapy for an extended period of time, while toxicities may result in early discontinuation in other patients...
May 18, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526340/unfolding-the-pathogenesis-of-scleroderma-through-genomics-and-epigenomics
#11
REVIEW
Pei-Suen Tsou, Amr H Sawalha
With unknown etiology, scleroderma (SSc) is a multifaceted disease characterized by immune activation, vascular complications, and excessive fibrosis in internal organs. Genetic studies, including candidate gene association studies, genome-wide association studies, and whole-exome sequencing have supported the notion that while genetic susceptibility to SSc appears to be modest, SSc patients are genetically predisposed to this disease. The strongest genetic association for SSc lies within the MHC region, with loci in HLA-DRB1, HLA-DQB1, HLA-DPB1, and HLA-DOA1 being the most replicated...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526094/patients-with-community-acquired-bacteremia-of-unknown-origin-clinical-characteristics-and-usefulness-of-microbiological-results-for-therapeutic-issues-a-single-center-cohort-study
#12
Johan Courjon, Elisa Demonchy, Nicolas Degand, Karine Risso, Raymond Ruimy, Pierre-Marie Roger
Bacteremia of unknown origin (BUO) are associated with increased mortality compared to those with identified sources. Microbiological data of those patients could help to characterize an appropriate empirical antibiotic treatment before bloodcultures results are available during sepsis of unknown origin. Based on the dashboard of our ward that prospectively records several parameters from each hospitalization, we report 101 community-acquired BUO selected among 1989 bacteremic patients from July 2005 to April 2016, BUO being defined by the absence of clinical and paraclinical infectious focus and no other microbiological samples retrieving the bacteria isolated from blood cultures...
May 19, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526024/protective-effect-on-the-coronary-microcirculation-of-patients-with-diabetes-by-clopidogrel-or-ticagrelor-predict-study-rationale-and-design-a-randomized-multicenter-clinical-trial-using-intracoronary-multimodal-physiology
#13
Enrico Cerrato, Alicia Quirós, Mauro Echavarría-Pinto, Hernan Mejia-Renteria, Andres Aldazabal, Nicola Ryan, Nieves Gonzalo, Pilar Jimenez-Quevedo, Luis Nombela-Franco, Pablo Salinas, Iván J Núñez-Gil, José Ramón Rumoroso, Antonio Fernández-Ortiz, Carlos Macaya, Javier Escaned
BACKGROUND: In diabetic patients a predisposed coronary microcirculation along with a higher risk of distal particulate embolization during primary percutaneous intervention (PCI) increases the risk of peri-procedural microcirculatory damage. However, new antiplatelet agents, in particular Ticagrelor, may protect the microcirculation through its adenosine-mediated vasodilatory effects. METHODS: PREDICT is an original, prospective, randomized, multicenter controlled study designed to investigate the protective effect of Ticagrelor on the microcirculation during PCI in patient with diabetes mellitus type 2 or pre-diabetic status...
May 19, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525429/anogenital-and-physical-injuries-in-adolescent-sexual-assault-patients-the-role-of-victim-offender-relationship-alcohol-use-and-memory-impairment
#14
Hannah Feeney, Danielle Chiaramonte, Rebecca Campbell, Megan R Greeson, Giannina Fehler-Cabral
Prior research has documented high rates of anogenital and physical injuries among adolescent sexual assault patients. Although a number of factors related to rates of injury detection in adolescents have been identified, there may be additional features of the assault that are disclosed in the patient history that could be important indicators of injury risk. The purpose of the current study was to expand this literature by examining whether factors that are salient in sexual assaults committed against adolescents-victim-offender relationship, substance use, and memory impairment-are associated with documented anogenital and physical injury rates...
April 2017: Journal of Forensic Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524223/-infantile-epileptic-encephalopathies-what-matters-is-genetics
#15
J J Garcia-Penas, M Jimenez-Legido
INTRODUCTION: Epileptic encephalopathies in infancy are defined as conditions where the sustained epileptic activity itself may contribute to the severe neurological and cognitive impairment. These epileptic encephalopathies include Ohtahara syndrome, early myoclonic epileptic encephalopathy, West syndrome, Dravet syndrome, and malignant migrating epilepsy in infancy. These syndromes result from identifiable primary causes, such as structural, neurodegenerative, metabolic, or genetic defects...
May 17, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524005/rivaroxaban-metabolism-pharmacologic-properties-and-drug-interactions
#16
Tomas Kvasnicka, Ivana Malikova, Zuzana Zenahlikova, Karolína Kettnerova, Radka Brzezkova, Tomas Zima, Jan Ulrych, Jan Briza, Ivan Netuka, Jan Kvasnicka
BACKGROUND: Rivaroxaban represents a selective direct inhibitor of activated coagulation factor X (FXa) having peroral bioavailability and prompt onset of action. OBJECTIVE: The absorbtion of rivaroxaban is quick, reaching maximum plasma concentration 2-4 hours following its administration. Peroral bioavailability is high (80-100 %) and pharmacokinetic variability is considered to be moderate (coefficient of variation 30-40 %). This review discusses the properties, drug interactions, pharmacokinetics and clinical indications of rivaroxaban...
May 18, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523226/interpersonal-early-life-trauma-alters-amygdala-connectivity-and-sustained-attention-performance
#17
Francesca C Fortenbaugh, Vincent Corbo, Victoria Poole, Regina McGlinchey, William Milberg, David Salat, Joseph DeGutis, Michael Esterman
INTRODUCTION: Interpersonal early life trauma (I-ELT) is associated with a myriad of functional impairments in adulthood, increased risk of drug addiction, and neuropsychiatric disorders. While deficits in emotional regulation and amygdala functioning are well characterized, deficits in general cognitive functioning have also been documented. However, the neural underpinnings of cognitive dysfunction in adults with a history of I-ELT and the potential relationship between amygdala-based functional connectivity and behavioral performance are currently poorly understood...
May 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522405/challenges-and-opportunities-for-the-development-of-new-antipsychotic-drugs
#18
REVIEW
Carlos Forray, Raimund Buller
In spite of the significant impact that the serendipitous discovery of drugs with antipsychotic properties had on the care of patients with psychotic disorders, there are significant challenges when aiming at therapeutic goals such as remission, recovery, improved health-related quality of life and functioning. The efficacy and effectiveness of existing antipsychotic drugs fail to address the full spectrum of symptoms and functional deficits that currently prevent patients with psychotic disorders from achieving fulfilling lives...
May 15, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521790/unintentional-drowning-role-of-medicinal-drugs-and-alcohol
#19
Tuulia Pajunen, Erkki Vuori, Frank F Vincenzi, Pirjo Lillsunde, Gordon Smith, Philippe Lunetta
BACKGROUND: Alcohol is a well-known risk factor in unintentional drownings. Whereas psychotropic drugs, like alcohol, may cause psychomotor impairment and affect cognition, no detailed studies have focused on their association with drowning. Finland provides extensive post-mortem toxicological data for studies on drowning because of its high medico-legal autopsy rates. METHODS: Drowning cases, 2000 through 2009, for which post-mortem toxicological analysis was performed, came from the database of the Toxicological Laboratory, Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Helsinki, using the ICD-10 nature-of-injury code T75...
May 19, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521396/inhibition-of-mmp-9-expression-by-ritonavir-or-saquinavir-is-associated-with-inactivation-of-the-akt-fra-1-pathway-in-cervical-intraepithelial-neoplasia-cells
#20
Ilaria Bacigalupo, Clelia Palladino, Patrizia Leone, Elena Toschi, Cecilia Sgadari, Barbara Ensoli, Giovanni Barillari
A reduced incidence and decreased clinical progression of uterine cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) has been observed in women infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treated with HIV-protease inhibitors (PIs). The HIV-PIs saquinavir (SQV) and ritonavir (RTV) have been demonstrated to efficiently inhibit invasion of human primary CIN cells by downregulating the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9. The present study further investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the activity of SQV and RTV in CIN...
May 2017: Oncology Letters
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