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Drug Impairment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230778/caffeic-acid-expands-anti-tumor-effect-of-metformin-in-human-metastatic-cervical-carcinoma-htb-34-cells-implications-of-ampk-activation-and-impairment-of-fatty-acids-de-novo-biosynthesis
#1
Malgorzata Tyszka-Czochara, Pawel Konieczny, Marcin Majka
The efficacy of cancer treatments is often limited and associated with substantial toxicity. Appropriate combination of drug targeting specific mechanisms may regulate metabolism of tumor cells to reduce cancer cell growth and to improve survival. Therefore, we investigated the effects of anti-diabetic drug Metformin (Met) and a natural compound caffeic acid (trans-3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid, CA) alone and in combination to treat an aggressive metastatic human cervical HTB-34 (ATCC CRL-1550) cancer cell line...
February 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230456/off-label-prescribing-for-children-with-migraines-in-u-s-ambulatory-care-settings
#2
L Leanne Lai, Leroy Koh, Jane Ai-Chen Ho, Alexander Ting, Augustine Obi
BACKGROUND: Migraines, Which Affect About 10% Of School-Age Children In The United States, Can Significantly Impair Quality Of Life. Despite Potential Disability, Many Children Do Not Receive Treatment Or Prophylaxis, Since Medications Specifically Approved For Children Are Significantly Less Than For Adults. There Is Also Controversy Surrounding The Apparent Widespread Practice Of Prescribing Off-Label Medications For Children With Migraines. However, Little Research Has Been Done To Identify Physician-Prescribing Patterns Of Migraine Medication For Children...
March 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230072/improved-social-interaction-recognition-and-working-memory-with-cannabidiol-treatment-in-a-prenatal-infection-poly-i-c-rat-model
#3
Ashleigh L Osborne, Nadia Solowij, Ilijana Babic, Xu-Feng Huang, Katrina Weston-Green
Neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia are associated with cognitive impairment, including learning, memory and attention deficits. Antipsychotic drugs are limited in their efficacy to improve cognition; therefore, new therapeutic agents are required. Cannabidiol (CBD), the non-intoxicating component of cannabis, has anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and antipsychotic-like properties, however, its ability to improve the cognitive deficits of schizophrenia remains unclear. Using a prenatal infection model, we examined the effect of chronic CBD treatment on cognition and social interaction...
February 23, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229375/clinical-pharmacokinetics-of-ombitasvir
#4
REVIEW
Prajakta S Badri, Diana L Shuster, Sandeep Dutta, Rajeev M Menon
Ombitasvir is a potent, nonstructural protein 5A inhibitor of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) that is used in combination with other direct-acting antivirals for the treatment of chronic HCV infection. Ombitasvir is predominantly metabolized by amide hydrolysis followed by oxidative metabolism and is a substrate of P-glycoprotein. Ombitasvir displays linear pharmacokinetics with minimal accumulation and is eliminated via metabolism and biliary excretion. A negligible amount of unchanged drug is excreted in urine...
February 22, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229178/the-consummatory-and-motivational-behaviors-for-natural-rewards-following-long-term-withdrawal-from-morphine-no-anhedonia-but-persistent-maladaptive-behaviors-for-high-value-rewards
#5
Yingying Li, Xigeng Zheng, Na Xu, Yue Zhang, Zhengkui Liu, Yunjing Bai
RATIONALE: The negative affective state, e.g., anhedonia, emerges after abstinence from abused drugs may be linked to the motivational processes of drug craving and relapse. Although anhedonia diminishes over time with drug abstinence, it is not yet rather explicit whether anhedonia exists or not following protracted withdrawal. OBJECTIVES: The behavioral responses to natural rewards were examined after 2 to 3 weeks withdrawal from morphine. Male rats were pretreated with either a binge-like morphine paradigm or daily saline injection for 5 days...
February 22, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228373/statins-and-fibrates-for-diabetic-retinopathy-protocol-for-a-systematic-review
#6
Vania Mozetic, Carolina Gomes Freitas, Rachel Riera
BACKGROUND: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a common microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus, and more than 75% of patients who have had diabetes for more than 20 years will have some degree of DR. This disease is highly destructive to self-esteem and puts a high burden on public health and pension systems due to the effects that it has on people of working age. The current mainstay of treatment is laser photocoagulation, which causes impairment of vision and discomfort to patients...
February 22, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228317/short-term-therapy-with-combination-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitor-saxagliptin-metformin-extended-release-xr-is-superior-to-saxagliptin-or-metformin-xr-monotherapy-in-prediabetic-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-a-single-blind-randomized-pilot-study
#7
Karen E Elkind-Hirsch, Martha S Paterson, Ericka L Seidemann, Hanh C Gutowski
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate efficacy with the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor saxagliptin (SAXA), metformin extended release (MET), and combination (SAXA-MET) in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and impaired glucose regulation. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, single-blind drug study. SETTING: Outpatient clinic. PATIENT(S): Patients (n = 38) with PCOS (aged 18-42 years) and prediabetic hyperglycemia determined by a 75-gram oral glucose tolerance test...
January 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226770/a-multiscale-model-based-analysis-of-the-multi-tissue-interplay-underlying-blood-glucose-regulation-in-type-i-diabetes
#8
Federico Wadehn, Stephan Schaller, Thomas Eissing, Markus Krauss, Lars Kupfer, Federico Wadehn, Stephan Schaller, Thomas Eissing, Markus Krauss, Lars Kupfer, Federico Wadehn, Markus Krauss, Lars Kupfer, Stephan Schaller, Thomas Eissing
A multiscale model for blood glucose regulation in diabetes type I patients is constructed by integrating detailed metabolic network models for fat, liver and muscle cells into a whole body physiologically-based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (pBPK/PD) model. The blood glucose regulation PBPK/PD model simulates the distribution and metabolization of glucose, insulin and glucagon on an organ and whole body level. The genome-scale metabolic networks in contrast describe intracellular reactions. The developed multiscale model is fitted to insulin, glucagon and glucose measurements of a 48h clinical trial featuring 6 subjects and is subsequently used to simulate (in silico) the influence of geneknockouts and drug-induced enzyme inhibitions on whole body blood glucose levels...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225193/human-neural-progenitor-transplantation-rescues-behavior-and-reduces-%C3%AE-synuclein-in-a-transgenic-model-of-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#9
Natalie R S Goldberg, Samuel E Marsh, Joseph Ochaba, Brandon C Shelley, Hayk Davtyan, Leslie M Thompson, Joan S Steffan, Clive N Svendsen, Mathew Blurton-Jones
Synucleinopathies are a group of neurodegenerative disorders sharing the common feature of misfolding and accumulation of the presynaptic protein α-synuclein (α-syn) into insoluble aggregates. Within this diverse group, Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) is characterized by the aberrant accumulation of α-syn in cortical, hippocampal, and brainstem neurons, resulting in multiple cellular stressors that particularly impair dopamine and glutamate neurotransmission and related motor and cognitive function. Recent studies show that murine neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation can improve cognitive or motor function in transgenic models of Alzheimer's and Huntington's disease, and DLB...
February 22, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225086/uvrag-deficiency-exacerbates-doxorubicin-induced-cardiotoxicity
#10
Lin An, Xiao-Wen Hu, Shasha Zhang, Xiaowen Hu, Zongpei Song, Amber Naz, Zhenguo Zi, Jian Wu, Can Li, Yunzeng Zou, Lin He, Hongxin Zhu
Doxorubicin (DOX) is an effective chemotherapeutic drug in the treatment of various types of cancers. However, its clinical application has been largely limited by potential development of cardiotoxicity. Previously we have shown that ultra-violet radiation resistance-associated gene (UVRAG), an autophagy-related protein, is essential for the maintenance of autophagic flux in the heart under physiological conditions. Here, we sought to determine the role of UVRAG-mediated autophagy in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224930/incidence-of-severe-renal-dysfunction-among-individuals-taking-warfarin-and-implications-for-non-vitamin-k-oral-anticoagulants
#11
Christina L Fanola, Deirdre Mooney, Andrew J Cowan, Darae Ko, Emily K Sisson, Lori E Henault, Yorghos Tripodis, Elaine M Hylek
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to assess incidence and risk factors for severe renal dysfunction in patients requiring oral anticoagulation to help guide initial drug choice and provide a rational basis for interval monitoring of renal function for patients prescribed non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants. METHODS: Patients on warfarin for atrial fibrillation or venous thromboembolism were consecutively enrolled from January 2007 to December 2010. Baseline kidney function was assessed, and patients were followed to their first decline of kidney function to creatinine clearance<30 mL/min...
February 2017: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224699/comparison-of-four-criteria-for-potentially-inappropriate-medications-in-brazilian-community-dwelling-older-adults
#12
Priscila Horta Novaes, Danielle Teles da Cruz, Alessandra Lamas Granero Lucchetti, Isabel Cristina Gonçalves Leite, Giancarlo Lucchetti
AIM: To compare four potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) criteria from different regions of the world in terms of their characteristics, concordance, sensitivity, specificity and predictive values in a community-dwelling sample. METHODS: A cross-sectional, observational, epidemiological study was carried out by a door-to-door survey in a Brazilian city. The following PIM criteria were applied: Beers-2015, Screening Tool of Older People's Potentially Inappropriate Prescriptions (STOPP)-2015, The European Union (EU)(7)-PIM list and Taiwan criteria...
February 22, 2017: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224633/gluteal-compartment-syndrome-with-neurologic-impairment-report-of-two-cases-and-review-of-the-literature
#13
Greg D Kuhlman, Kelly G Gwathmey
INTRODUCTION: We describe two patients who developed gluteal compartment syndrome (GCS) in the context of drug overdose. One patient developed a sciatic neuropathy and one patient a lumbosacral plexopathy. METHODS: We reviewed the literature of atraumatic GCS and resultant neurological impairment. RESULTS: We review 26 cases (our two and 24 previously published) of GCS and neurological impairment. All patients developed GCS in the context of drug or alcohol overdose...
February 22, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223868/assessment-of-novel-oral-anticoagulant-use-within-a-community-teaching-hospital
#14
Sultan Alghadeer, Lori Hornsby
: Background: Novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are considered to be at least as effective and safe as warfarin with several advantages such as predictable pharmacokinetics, allowing for standardized dosing without monitoring, a lack of food interactions and fewer drug interactions; however, their misuse could potentially result in patient harm. Objective: To evaluate the appropriate use of the NOACs within a community teaching hospital. SETTING: A community teaching hospital in the United States...
January 2017: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223728/levothyroxine-therapy-and-impaired-clearance-are-the-strongest-contributors-to-small-intestinal-bacterial-overgrowth-results-of-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#15
Thorsten Brechmann, Andre Sperlbaum, Wolff Schmiegel
AIM: To identify a set of contributors, and weight and rank them on a pathophysiological basis. METHODS: Patients who have undergone a lactulose or glucose hydrogen breath test to rule out small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) for various clinical symptoms, including diarrhoea, weight loss, abdominal pain, cramping or bloating, were seen as eligible for inclusion in a retrospective single-centre study. Clinical data such as co-morbidities, medication, laboratory parameters and other possible risk factors have been identified from the electronic data system...
February 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223671/-analysis-of-nedaplatin-dose-in-patients-with-impaired-renal-function
#16
Risa Araki, Hidetaka Iwamizu, Tomomi Kataoka, Yasuo Kumakura, Masayuki Miyazaki, Taku Nagai, Yuichi Ando, Kiyofumi Yamada
Nedaplatin(NDP)is a platinum derivative anticancer drug.An NDP dose of 100mg/m2 every 4 weeks is recommended in non-elderly Japanese patient because a higher dose may lead to myelosuppression, such as thrombocytopenia.In a pharmacokinetic analysis, thrombocytopenia was significantly correlated with renal function.However, the correct dose in patients with impaired renal function remains unclear.To evaluate the usefulness of dose reduction in patients with renal dysfunction, we conducted a retrospective study...
February 2017: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223475/reduced-first-phase-ejection-fraction-and-sustained-myocardial-wall-stress-in-hypertensive-patients-with-diastolic-dysfunction-a-manifestation-of-impaired-shortening-deactivation-that-links-systolic-to-diastolic-dysfunction-and-preserves-systolic-ejection-fraction
#17
Haotian Gu, Ye Li, Henry Fok, John Simpson, Jonathan C Kentish, Ajay M Shah, Philip J Chowienczyk
Impaired shortening deactivation of cardiac myocytes could sustain myocardial contraction, preserving ejection fraction at the expense of diastolic dysfunction. We examined the relationship between first-phase ejection fraction (EF1), the fraction of left ventricular volume ejected from the start of systole to the time of the first peak in left ventricular pressure (corresponding to the time of maximal ventricular shortening) to the duration of myocardial contraction and diastolic function in patients with hypertension (n=163), and varying degrees of diastolic dysfunction...
February 21, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223427/calcium-dependent-enhancement-by-extracellular-acidity-of-the-cytotoxicity-of-mitochondrial-inhibitors-against-melanoma
#18
Fumihito Noguchi, Shigeki Inui, Clare Fedele, Mark Shackleton, Satoshi Itami
Extracellular acidity is a hallmark of cancers and is independent of hypoxia. Since acidity potentiates malignant phenotypes, therapeutic strategies that enhance the targeting of oncogenic mechanisms in an acidic microenvironment should be effective. We report here that drugs which abrogate mitochondrial respiration show enhanced cytotoxicity against melanoma cells in a normoxic but acidic extracellular pH, independent from P53 mutations, BRAF (V600E) mutations and/or resistance against BRAF inhibitors. Conversely, the cytotoxicity against melanoma cells of mitochondrial inhibitors is impaired by a neutral or alkaline extracellular pH and in vivo systemic alkalinization with NaHCO3 enhanced subcutaneous tumor growth and lung metastasis of B16F10 cells in mice treated with the mitochondrial inhibitor phenformin...
February 21, 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223223/berberine-improves-cognitive-impairment-by-promoting-autophagic-clearance-and-inhibiting-production-of-%C3%AE-amyloid-in-app-tau-ps1-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Min Huang, Xin Jiang, Yubin Liang, Qiong Liu, Siyan Chen, Yi Guo
This study investigates the neuroprotective properties of berberine (a natural isoquinoline alkaloid isolated from the Rhizoma coptidis) and finds that berberine could promote β-amyloid (Aβ) clearance and inhibit Aβ production in the triple-transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (3×Tg-AD). During the study, berberine was first administrated to treat 3×Tg-AD mice and primary neurons. Morris water maze assay, western blotting, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunofluorescence staining and histological analysis, transmission electron microscopic analysis were then used to evaluate the effects of the berberine administration...
February 20, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223210/a-novel-glp-1-gip-dual-receptor-agonist-protects-from-6-ohda-lesion-in-a-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#20
Jaishree Jalewa, Mohit Kumar Sharma, Simon Gengler, Christian Hölscher
The incretins glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are growth factors that have shown neuroprotective effects in animal models of Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. In addition, the GLP-1 mimetic exendin-4 has shown protective effects in a clinical trial in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. GLP-1 analogues are currently on the market as treatments for type II diabetes. We previously showed that the novel dual agonist (DA-JC1) was effective in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of PD...
February 20, 2017: Neuropharmacology
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