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Zacharias G Laoutidis, Georgia E Lekka, Kanellos T Kioulos
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to review the existing literature on clinical trials with glutamatergic agents in adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and to perform a meta-analysis to estimate the overall effect size. DATA SOURCES: We searched in MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library for eligible studies, using the following search terms: (glutamate OR glutaminergic OR glutamatergic OR NMDA OR AMPA OR kainate) AND (obsessive-compulsive disorder OR obsessive OR compulsive OR OCD)...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Jolien Teepe, Berna D L Broekhuizen, Katherine Loens, Christine Lammens, Margareta Ieven, Herman Goossens, Paul Little, Chris C Butler, Samuel Coenen, Maciek Godycki-Cwirko, Theo J M Verheij
BACKGROUND: Bacterial testing of all patients who present with acute cough is not feasible in primary care. Furthermore, the extent to which easily obtainable clinical information predicts bacterial infection is unknown. We evaluated the diagnostic value of clinical examination and testing for C-reactive protein and procalcitonin for bacterial lower respiratory tract infection. METHODS: Through a European diagnostic study, we recruited 3104 adults with acute cough (≤ 28 days) in primary care settings...
October 24, 2016: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
Tamara Thomsen, Cathleen Kappes, Laura Schwerdt, Johanna Sander, Charlotte Poller
In two experiments, we investigated observational learning in social relationships as one possible pathway to the development of goal adjustment processes. In the first experiment, 56 children (M = 9.29 years) observed their parent as a model; in the second, 50 adults (M = 32.27 years) observed their romantic partner. Subjects were randomly assigned to three groups: goal engagement (GE), goal disengagement (GD), or control group (CO) and were asked to solve (unsolvable) puzzles. Before trying to solve the puzzles by themselves, subjects observed the instructed model, who was told to continue with the same puzzle (GE) or to switch to the next puzzle (GD)...
October 23, 2016: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Jessica Quinlan-Woodward, Autumn Gode, Jeffery A Dusek, Adam S Reinstein, Jill R Johnson, Sue Sendelbach
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: To compare the effect of acupuncture to a standard-of-care (control) group on pain, nausea, anxiety, and ability to cope. 
. DESIGN: Pilot randomized, controlled trial. 
. SETTING: Abbott Northwestern Hospital, a large, urban, tertiary care hospital in Minneapolis, Minnesota.
. SAMPLE: 30 adult women undergoing surgery for breast cancer.
. METHODS: Women were randomly assigned to two hospital-based acupuncture treatments versus usual care after breast cancer surgery...
November 1, 2016: Oncology Nursing Forum
L Blonde, P Chava, T Dex, J Lin, E Nikonova, R Goldenberg
AIMS: To explore the treatment outcomes in adult patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) enrolled in the GetGoal trials of lixisenatide (LIXI), and the predictive effects of baseline characteristics on outcomes. METHODS: This study was a pooled analysis of patient-level data from LIXI GetGoal studies comparing LIXI and placebo. Patients were divided into baseline therapy groups: oral antihyperglycaemic drugs (OADs) at baseline (n = 2,760) or basal insulin at baseline (n = 1,198)...
October 21, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Lisa M Schneper, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Daniel A Notterman, Stephen J Suomi
OBJECTIVE: Child-rearing environments have been associated with morbidity in adult rhesus monkeys. We examine whether such links are also seen with leukocyte telomere length. METHODS: To determine telomere length in leukocytes, blood was collected from 11 adult female monkeys aged 7 to 10 years who had been exposed to different rearing environments between birth and 7 months. Four had been reared with their mothers in typical social groups composed of other female monkeys, their offspring, and 1 to 2 adult male monkeys...
October 19, 2016: Psychosomatic Medicine
Fabio Broglio, Edoardo Mannucci, Raffaele Napoli, Antonio Nicolucci, Francesco Purrello, Elena Nikonova, William Stager, Roberto Trevisan
AIMS: To evaluate long term efficacy and safety of lixisenatide, a short-acting, prandial GLP-1 RA (Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists) as add-on therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: A meta-analysis of 76-week results of five placebo-controlled clinical trials from the GetGoal program was performed including 3,000 inadequately controlled adult diabetic patients where lixisenatide 20 µg once-daily was administered in combination with metformin (GetGoal-M and GetGoal-F1), sulphonylurea ± metformin (GetGoal-S), basal insulin ± metformin (GetGoal-L) or pioglitazone ± metformin (GetGoal-P)...
October 20, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Wang I Wong
Spatial abilities are pertinent to mathematical competence, but evidence of the space-math link has largely been confined to older samples and intrinsic spatial abilities (e.g., mental transformation). The roles of gender and affective factors are also unclear. This study examined the correlations between counting ability, mental transformation, and targeting accuracy in 182 Hong Kong preschoolers, and whether these relationships were weaker at higher spatial anxiety levels. Both spatial abilities related with counting similarly for boys and girls...
October 20, 2016: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Sami W Rifai, José D Urquiza Muñoz, Robinson I Negrón-Juárez, Fredy R Ramírez Arévalo, Rodil Tello-Espinoza, Mark C Vanderwel, Jeremy W Lichstein, Jeffrey Q Chambers, Stephanie A Bohlman
Wind disturbance can create large forest blowdowns, which greatly reduces live biomass and adds uncertainty to the strength of the Amazon carbon sink. Observational studies from within the central Amazon have quantified blowdown size and estimated total mortality but have not determined which trees are most likely to die from a catastrophic wind disturbance. Also, the impact of spatial dependence upon tree mortality from wind disturbance has seldom been quantified, which is important because wind disturbance often kills clusters of trees due to large treefalls killing surrounding neighbors...
October 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Chris T McAllister, Donald W Duszynski, Christopher C Austin, Robert N Fisher
Between September and November 1991, 54 adult skinks from 15 species including 5 seaside skinks (Emoia atrocostata), 1 Pacific blue-tailed skink (Emoia caeroleocauda), 2 Fiji slender treeskinks (Emoia concolor), 15 white-bellied copper-striped skinks (Emoia cyanura), 1 Bulolo River forest skink (Emoia guttata), 6 dark-bellied copper-striped skinks (Emoia impar), 5 Papua five-striped skinks (Emoia jakati), 2 Papua slender treeskinks (Emoia kordoana), 3 Papua robust treeskinks (Emoia longicauda), 1 brown-backed forest skink (Emoia loveridgei), 3 Papua black-sided skinks (Emoia pallidiceps), 2 Papua white- spotted skinks (Emoia physicae), 2 Papua yellow-head skinks (Emoia popei), 1 Papua brown forest skink (Emoia submetallica), and 5 Fiji barred treeskinks (Emoia trossula) were collected by hand or blowpipe from several localities on Rarotonga, Cook Islands, Ovalau Island, Fiji, and Papua New Guinea (PNG) and their feces examined for coccidians...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Parasitology
T Zayats, K K Jacobsen, R Kleppe, C P Jacob, S Kittel-Schneider, M Ribasés, J A Ramos-Quiroga, V Richarte, M Casas, N R Mota, E H Grevet, M Klein, J Corominas, J Bralten, T Galesloot, A A Vasquez, S Herms, A J Forstner, H Larsson, G Breen, P Asherson, S Gross-Lesch, K P Lesch, S Cichon, M B Gabrielsen, O L Holmen, C H D Bau, J Buitelaar, L Kiemeney, S V Faraone, B Cormand, B Franke, A Reif, J Haavik, S Johansson
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly heritable childhood-onset neuropsychiatric condition, often persisting into adulthood. The genetic architecture of ADHD, particularly in adults, is largely unknown. We performed an exome-wide scan of adult ADHD using the Illumina Human Exome Bead Chip, which interrogates over 250 000 common and rare variants. Participants were recruited by the International Multicenter persistent ADHD CollaboraTion (IMpACT). Statistical analyses were divided into 3 steps: (1) gene-level analysis of rare variants (minor allele frequency (MAF)<1%); (2) single marker association tests of common variants (MAF⩾1%), with replication of the top signals; and (3) pathway analyses...
October 18, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
Javier López-Gómez, Ma Alejandra Salazar-Álvarez, Martin Granados-Garcia
INTRODUCTION: Thyroglosal duct cyst is a common anomaly with an incidence of 7% in adults, the rate of carcinoma in TGDC is 0.7-1.6%, and are extremely rare those originated in the hyoid bone. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 60 years old male patient, had a hard mass in the anterior neck. CT revealed a hyoid tumor. Hyoid bone resection was performed, the pathological report show a conventional papillary carcinoma in bone tissue. We rule out primary tumor in thyroid gland...
September 29, 2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Abdullah Alzaid, Samuel A M Martin, Daniel J Macqueen
The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) receptor (IGF-IR) is necessary for IGF signalling and has essential roles in cellular growth. In teleost fish, two distinct IGF-IR duplicates are conserved called IGF-IRa and IGF-IRb. However, while a salmonid-specific whole genome duplication (ssWGD) is known to have expanded several key genes within the IGF axis, its impact on the IGF-IR repertoire remains unresolved. Using bioinformatic and phylogenetic approaches, we establish that salmonids retain two IGF-IRa paralogues from ssWGD and a single IGF-IRb copy...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Margaret H Sibley, John T Mitchell, Stephen P Becker
Several studies have questioned the stability of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from childhood to adulthood. This systematic review illustrates how variability in diagnostic methods influences adult ADHD persistence estimates. Systematic database searches identified studies reporting adult ADHD persistence rates that were published in English between Jan 1, 1992, and May 31, 2016. Study inclusion criteria were systematic childhood diagnosis of attention-deficit disorder, ADHD, or a research diagnostic protocol that matched DSM-III, DSM-III-R, or DSM-IV standards; mean childhood age of younger than 12·0 years with no participants older than 18·0 years; and mean adult age of 18·0 years or older with no participants younger than 17·0 years...
October 10, 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
Jamie Kammer, Akiko S Hosler, Emily Leckman-Westin, A Gregory DiRienzo
Depression is known to increase diabetes risk and worsen glycemic control in older adults, who already experience high rates of diabetes. The independent impact of antidepressants on glucose control is less clear. Data was drawn from the Health and Retirement Study, a large nationally-representative longitudinal study of retired individuals. Crude and adjusted linear models stratified by diabetes status were used to examine the cross-sectional associations between antidepressant use categorized by subclass and continuous hemoglobin A1C...
October 11, 2016: Geriatric Nursing
Li-Jung Chen, Andrew Steptoe, Po-Wen Ku
BACKGROUND: Obesity has been associated with increased physical limitations among older adults, although few studies have adjusted for important covariates. There is limited information about the relationship between apolipoprotein E (APOE) polymorphisms and physical limitations, and the findings have been inconsistent. PURPOSE: This study examined the longitudinal associations of obesity and APOE ε4 with difficulties in activities of daily living (ADLs) over a 6-year follow-up period controlling for multiple covariates...
October 13, 2016: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
Elie G Karam, Elaine El Khoury, Lynn Itani
BACKGROUND: An essential point in evaluating the utility of measuring temperaments is the stability of the instrument used especially in the presence of mental disorders. One of the most commonly used instruments in the clinical setting is the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego Auto-questionnaire (TEMPS-A). To our knowledge, the TEMPS-A's stability in an outpatient adult clinical setting has not been evaluated. OBJECTIVE: To assess the stability of the effect of temperament, time and clinical intervention...
2016: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health: CP & EMH
Ilaria Galizia, Lucio Oldani, Karine Macritchie, Erica Amari, Dominic Dougall, Tessa N Jones, Raymond W Lam, Guido Jacopo Massei, Lakshmi N Yatham, Allan H Young
BACKGROUND: Depression is a recurrent illness with high rates of chronicity, treatment-resistance and significant economic impact. There is evidence in the literature that S-adenosyl methionine (SAMe), a naturally occurring compound in the human body, has antidepressant efficacy. This product may be an important addition to the armamentarium of antidepressant agents. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of SAMe in comparison with placebo or antidepressants for the treatment of depression in adults...
October 10, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Valeria C Colombo, Leandro R Antoniazzi, Agustín A Fasano, Pablo M Beldomenico, Santiago Nava
The aim of this communication is to report, for the first time, the occurrence of Amblyomma triste in Santa Fe province, Argentina, and to add a new isolation place for Amblyomma tigrinum. Both species of ticks are vectors of Rickettsia parkeri, a spotted fever group rickettsia. Ticks were recovered from tourists in August 2014 and December 2015 at the Federico Wildermuth Foundation (31° 59'S, 61° 24'O), San Martin Department, Santa Fe province. Five adult ticks were morphologically identified as A. tigrinum (3 females and 1 male) and A...
2016: Medicina
Raj K Kalapatapu, Maria I Ventura, Deborah E Barnes
BACKGROUND: Substance use is an important clinical issue in the older adult population. As older adults are susceptible to cognitive disorders, the intersection of the fields of substance use and cognitive neuroscience is an active area of research. Prior studies of alcohol use and cognitive performance are mixed, and inconsistencies may be due to under- or over-adjustment for confounders. AIM: This manuscript adds to this literature by conducting a secondary analysis of self-reported lifetime history of alcohol use and cognitive performance in older adults (n = 133)...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Addictive Diseases
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