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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332271/biodegradation-of-plastics-current-scenario-and-future-prospects-for-environmental-safety
#1
Temoor Ahmed, Muhammad Shahid, Farrukh Azeem, Ijaz Rasul, Asad Ali Shah, Muhammad Noman, Amir Hameed, Natasha Manzoor, Irfan Manzoor, Sher Muhammad
Plastic is a general term used for a wide range of high molecular weight organic polymers obtained mostly from the various hydrocarbon and petroleum derivatives. There is an ever-increasing trend towards the production and consumption of plastics due to their extensive industrial and domestic applications. However, a wide spectrum of these polymers is non-biodegradable with few exceptions. The extensive use of plastics, lack of waste management, and casual community behavior towards their proper disposal pose a significant threat to the environment...
January 13, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330132/an-overview-of-the-safety-pharmacology-society-strategic-plan
#2
M K Pugsley, S Authier, J E Koerner, W S Redfern, C G Markgraf, T Brabham, K Correll, M V Soloviev, A Botchway, M Engwall, M Traebert, J-P Valentin, T J Mow, A Greiter-Wilke, D J Leishman, H M Vargas
Safety Pharmacology studies are conducted to characterize the confidence by which biologically active new chemical entities (NCE) may be anticipated as safe. Non-clinical safety pharmacology studies aim to detect and characterize potentially undesirable pharmacodynamic activities using an array of in silico, in vitro and in vivo animal models. While a broad spectrum of methodological innovation and advancement of the science occurs within the Safety Pharmacology Society, the society also focuses on partnerships with health authorities and technology providers and facilitates interaction with organizations of common interest such as pharmacology, physiology, neuroscience, cardiology and toxicology...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317593/loneliness-5-years-ante-mortem-is-associated-with-disease-related-differential-gene-expression-in-postmortem-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex
#3
Turhan Canli, Lei Yu, Xiaoqing Yu, Hongyu Zhao, Debra Fleischman, Robert S Wilson, Philip L De Jager, David A Bennett
Subjective social isolation, loneliness, is associated with poor mental and physical health, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we analyzed loneliness data collected on average 5 years ante-mortem and RNA gene expression at death in postmortem dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) from 181 participants in the Rush Memory and Aging Project (MAP), a longitudinal, prospective cohort study of common chronic conditions of aging. Our analytic protocol controlled for biographical variables (age, sex, education), psychological and health variables (depressive symptoms, interval between assessment and autopsy, slope of cognitive decline, AD pathology, presence of infarcts) and RNA integrity...
January 10, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316641/neighborhood-perceptions-and-cumulative-impacts-of-low-level-chronic-exposure-to-fine-particular-matter-pm2-5-on-cardiopulmonary-health
#4
Kristen M C Malecki, Amy A Schultz, Rachel S Bergmans
Adverse perceptions of neighborhood safety, aesthetics and quality including access to resources can induce stress and may make individuals more sensitive to cardiopulmonary effects of air pollution exposure. Few studies have examined neighborhood perceptions as important and modifiable non-chemical stressors of the built environment that may exacerbate effects of air pollution on cardiopulmonary health outcomes, particularly among general population based cohorts. This study examined associations between low-level chronic exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2...
January 6, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284028/a-microfluidic-thermometer-precise-temperature-measurements-in-microliter-and-nanoliter-scale-volumes
#5
Brittney A McKenzie, William H Grover
Measuring the temperature of a sample is a fundamental need in many biological and chemical processes. When the volume of the sample is on the microliter or nanoliter scale (e.g., cells, microorganisms, precious samples, or samples in microfluidic devices), accurate measurement of the sample temperature becomes challenging. In this work, we demonstrate a technique for accurately determining the temperature of microliter volumes using a simple 3D-printed microfluidic chip. We accomplish this by first filling "microfluidic thermometer" channels on the chip with substances with precisely known freezing/melting points...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258624/a-selenium-species-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-predicts-conversion-to-alzheimer-s-dementia-in-persons-with-mild-cognitive-impairment
#6
Marco Vinceti, Annalisa Chiari, Marcel Eichmüller, Kenneth J Rothman, Tommaso Filippini, Carlotta Malagoli, Jennifer Weuve, Manuela Tondelli, Giovanna Zamboni, Paolo F Nichelli, Bernhard Michalke
BACKGROUND: Little is known about factors influencing progression from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's dementia. A potential role of environmental chemicals and specifically of selenium, a trace element of nutritional and toxicological relevance, has been suggested. Epidemiologic studies of selenium are lacking, however, with the exception of a recent randomized trial based on an organic selenium form. METHODS: We determined concentrations of selenium species in cerebrospinal fluid sampled at diagnosis in 56 participants with mild cognitive impairment of nonvascular origin...
December 19, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251431/the-10th-joint-meeting-on-medicinal-chemistry-jmmc%C3%A2-2017-held-in-dubrovnik-croatia
#7
Ivana Perković, Višnja Stepanić, Vesna Gabelica Marković
The Croatian Chemical Society was established in 1926 and has developed over the decades into a society that actively supports all chemical activities in Croatia. The Society has eight divisions, the youngest of which, the Division of Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, was established in 2012 and immediately became a member of the European Federation of Medicinal Chemistry (EFMC). The mission of the Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry Division is the promotion and development of scientific, professional, and educational activities within the medicinal chemistry community in Croatia, as well as to build partnerships and collaborations with other primarily EU-based medicinal chemistry societies...
December 18, 2017: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241065/associations-between-maternal-triclosan-concentrations-in-early-pregnancy-and-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-impaired-glucose-tolerance-gestational-weight-gain-and-fetal-markers-of-metabolic-function
#8
Gabriel D Shapiro, Tye E Arbuckle, Jillian Ashley-Martin, William D Fraser, Mandy Fisher, Maryse F Bouchard, Patricia Monnier, Anne-Sophie Morisset, Adrienne S Ettinger, Linda Dodds
BACKGROUND: Triclosan is a phenolic biocide used in a multitude of consumer products and in health care settings. It is widely detected in the American and Canadian populations and has been shown in animal models to act as an endocrine disrupting agent. However, there has been little examination to date of the effects of triclosan exposure in pregnancy on perinatal metabolic outcomes in human populations. METHODS: Using data from the Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) Study, a Canadian pregnancy cohort, we measured associations of first-trimester urinary triclosan concentrations with total gestational weight gain, gestational diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in pregnancy, and fetal markers of metabolic function...
December 11, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223775/association-between-prenatal-bisphenol-a-and-phthalate-exposures-and-fetal-metabolic-related-biomarkers-the-hokkaido-study-on-environment-and-children-s-health
#9
Machiko Minatoya, Atsuko Araki, Chihiro Miyashita, Yu Ait Bamai, Sachiko Itoh, Jun Yamamoto, Yu Onoda, Kazuki Ogasawara, Toru Matsumura, Reiko Kishi
Bisphenol A and phthalates are widely detected in human urine, blood, breast milk, and amniotic fluid. Both bisphenol A and phthalates have been suggested as playing a role in obesity epidemics. Exposure to these chemicals during fetal development, and its consequences should be concerning because they can cross the placenta. Thus, this study aimed to assess the association between prenatal exposure to bisphenol A and phthalates, and cord blood metabolic-related biomarkers. Maternal serum was used during the first trimester, to determine prenatal exposure to bisphenol A and phthalates...
December 7, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223086/perceived-versus-actual-water-quality-community-studies-in-rural-oaxaca-mexico
#10
Lewis Stetson Rowles, Reinaldo Alcalde, Francisca Bogolasky, Soyoon Kum, Farith A Diaz-Arriaga, Craig Ayres, Anne M Mikelonis, Luis Javier Toledo-Flores, Manuel Gerardo Alonso-Gutiérrez, Maria Eufemia Pérez-Flores, Desmond F Lawler, Peter M Ward, Juana Yolanda Lopez-Cruz, Navid B Saleh
Compromised water quality risks public health, which becomes particularly acute in economically marginalized communities. Although the majority of the clean-water-deprived population resides in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia, a significant portion (32 million) lives in Meso- and Latin-America. Oaxaca is one of the marginalized southern states of Mexico, which has experienced high morbidity from infectious diseases and also has suffered from a high rate of infant mortality. However, there has been a paucity of reports on the status of water quality of culturally diverse rural Oaxaca...
December 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214119/interested-consumers-awareness-of-harmful-chemicals-in-everyday-products
#11
Sabrina Hartmann, Ursula Klaschka
Background: Everyday products can contain a multitude of harmful substances unnoticed by most consumers, because established risk communication channels reach only part of the society. The question is, whether at least interested and informed consumers are able to use risk communication tools and assess harmful chemicals in products. Results: An online survey investigated the awareness of 1030 consumers on harmful substances in everyday items. Participating consumers' education level, knowledge in chemistry, and motivation were above society's average...
2017: Environmental Sciences Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206161/ethnobotanical-survey-preliminary-physico-chemical-and-phytochemical-screening-of-salvia-argentea-l-used-by-herbalists-of-the-sa%C3%A3-da-province-in-algeria
#12
Yasmina Benabdesslem, Kadda Hachem, Khaled Kahloula, Miloud Slimani
An ethnobotanical study was carried out in the Saïda region among herbalists to evaluate the use of Salvia argentea (L.), a plant species native from North Africa belonging to the Lamiaceae family. Forty-two herbalists were interviewed individually, aged between 30 and 70 years, all males, 52.38% of them having received a secondary education level and having performing their duties for more than a decade. This study showed that Salvia argentea is used specifically in the treatment of diseases of the respiratory system...
December 5, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203025/demographic-determinants-of-chemical-safety-information-recall-in-workers-and-consumers-in-south-africa-a-cross-sectional-study
#13
Farzana Sathar, Mohamed Aqiel Dalvie, Hanna-Andrea Rother, Leslie London
BACKGROUND: Chemical hazard communication is intended to alert users of the potential hazards of chemicals. Hazard information needs to be understood and recalled. Recall of hazard communication is critical when the written form of the information is not available at the time it is required. METHODS: A cross-sectional study investigating associations between recall of chemical safety information on labels amongst 402 participants including 315 workers and 87 consumers in two provinces of South Africa...
December 2017: Journal of Safety Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202097/targeted-community-based-interventions-improved-malaria-management-competencies-in-rural-ghana
#14
Isabella A Quakyi, George O Adjei, David J Sullivan, Judith K Stephens, Amos Laar, Vivian N Ama Aubyn, Richmond Owusu, Kwame S Sakyi, Nathaniel Coleman, Francis D Krampa, Linda Vanotoo, Julliette Tuakli, Bernard B Bortei, Edward Essuman, Felix Sorvor, Isaac A Boateng, Constance Bart-Plange, Ebenezer A Addison, Peter Winch, Andrew A Adjei
Background: Malaria is one of the most challenging public health concerns in the developing world. To address its impact in endemic regions, several interventions are implemented by stakeholders. The Affordable Medicine Facility-malaria (AMFm) is an example of such interventions. Its activities include communication interventions to enhance the knowledge of caregivers of children under five years, licensed chemical sellers (LCS) and prescribers on malaria management with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT)...
2017: Global Health Research and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198963/prenatal-phthalate-exposure-and-language-development-in-toddlers-from-the-odense-child-cohort
#15
Trine Staak Olesen, Dorthe Bleses, Helle Raun Andersen, Philippe Grandjean, Hanne Frederiksen, Fabio Trecca, Niels Bilenberg, Henriette Boye Kyhl, Louise Dalsager, Inge Kjær Jensen, Anna-Maria Andersson, Tina Kold Jensen
BACKGROUND: Phthalates are a group of chemicals found in a variety of consumer products. They have anti-androgenic properties and human studies have reported associations between prenatal phthalate exposure and neuropsychological development in the offspring despite different cognitive tests, different ages and varying timing of exposure. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between prenatal phthalate exposure and language development in children aged 20-36months...
November 30, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192757/innovations-in-undergraduate-chemical-biology-education
#16
Aaron R Van Dyke, Daniel H Gatazka, Mariah M Hanania
Chemical biology derives intellectual vitality from its scientific interface: applying chemical strategies and perspectives to biological questions. There is a growing need for chemical biologists to synergistically integrate their research programs with their educational activities to become holistic teacher-scholars. This review examines how course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) are an innovative method to achieve this integration. Because CUREs are course-based, the review first offers strategies for creating a student-centered learning environment, which can improve students' outcomes...
December 1, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186834/urinary-phthalate-concentrations-in-mothers-and-their-children-in-ireland-results-of-the-democophes-human-biomonitoring-study
#17
Elizabeth Cullen, David Evans, Chris Griffin, Padraig Burke, Rory Mannion, Damien Burns, Andrew Flanagan, Ann Kellegher, Greet Schoeters, Eva Govarts, Pierre Biot, Ludwine Casteleyn, Argelia Castaño, Marike Kolossa-Gehring, Marta Esteban, Gerda Schwedler, Holger M Koch, Jürgen Angerer, Lisbeth E Knudsen, Reinhard Joas, Anke Joas, Birgit Dumez, Ovnair Sepai, Karen Exley, Dominique Aerts
Background: Phthalates are chemicals which are widespread in the environment. Although the impacts on health of such exposure are unclear, there is evidence of a possible impact on the incidence of a diverse range of diseases. Monitoring of human exposure to phthalates is therefore important. This study aimed to determine the extent of phthalate exposure among mothers and their children in both rural and urban areas in Ireland, and to identify factors associated with elevated concentrations. It formed part of the 'Demonstration of a study to Co-ordinate and Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale' (DEMOCOPHES) pilot biomonitoring study...
November 25, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160464/use-of-medicines-by-patients-of-the-primary-health-care-of-the-brazilian-unified-health-system
#18
Clarisse Melo Franco Neves Costa, Micheline Rosa Silveira, Francisco de Assis Acurcio, Augusto Afonso Guerra, Ione Aquemi Guibu, Karen Sarmento Costa, Margô Gomes de Oliveira Karnikowski, Orlando Mario Soeiro, Silvana Nair Leite, Ediná Alves Costa, Renata Cristina Rezende Macedo do Nascimento, Vânia Eloísa de Araújo, Juliana Álvares
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the use of medicines by patients of the primary health care of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS). METHODS: This is a cross-sectional, exploratory, and descriptive study, part of the Pesquisa Nacional sobre Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos - Serviços, 2015 (PNAUM - National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines - Services, 2015). Interviews were carried out with patients present in the services by semi-structured questionnaires...
November 13, 2017: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146137/the-impact-of-additives-on-the-phosphorus-potassium-and-sodium-content-of-commonly-consumed-meat-poultry-and-fish-products-among-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#19
Arti Sharma Parpia, Mary L'Abbé, Marc Goldstein, Joanne Arcand, Bernadene Magnuson, Pauline Darling
OBJECTIVE: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are advised to limit their dietary intake of phosphorus and potassium as hyperphosphatemia and hyperkalemia are both associated with an increased risk of mortality. There is uncertainty concerning the actual content of these minerals in the Canadian food supply, as phosphorus and potassium are increasingly being used as food additives. This study aimed to determine the impact of food additives on the chemically analyzed content of phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and protein in commonly consumed meat, poultry, and fish products (MPFs)...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Renal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142003/disparities-in-environmental-exposures-to-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-and-diabetes-risk-in-vulnerable-populations
#20
Daniel Ruiz, Marisol Becerra, Jyotsna S Jagai, Kerry Ard, Robert M Sargis
Burgeoning epidemiological, animal, and cellular data link environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) to metabolic dysfunction. Disproportionate exposure to diabetes-associated EDCs may be an underappreciated contributor to disparities in metabolic disease risk. The burden of diabetes is not uniformly borne by American society; rather, this disease disproportionately affects certain populations, including African Americans, Latinos, and low-income individuals. The purpose of this study was to review the evidence linking unequal exposures to EDCs with racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic diabetes disparities in the U...
November 15, 2017: Diabetes Care
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