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Chemical education

Yoann Guntzburger, Thierry C Pauchant, Philippe A Tanguy
The complexity of industrial reality, the plurality of legitimate perspectives on risks and the role of emotions in decision-making raise important ethical issues in risk management that are usually overlooked in engineering. Using a questionnaire answered by 200 engineering students from a major engineering school in Canada, the purpose of this study was to assess how their training has influenced their perceptions toward these issues. While our results challenge the stereotypical portrait of the engineer, they also suggest that the current engineering education might fail to empower engineers to engage in ethical risk management...
March 12, 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
Nastassia V Patin, Zoe A Pratte, Matthew Regensburger, Eric Hall, Kailen Gilde, Alistair D M Dove, Frank J Stewart
Artificial habitats for animals have high commercial and societal value. Microbial communities (microbiomes) in such habitats may play ecological roles similar to those in nature. However, this hypothesis remains largely untested. Georgia Aquarium's Ocean Voyager (OV) exhibit is a closed-system aquatic habitat that mimics the oligotrophic open ocean and houses thousands of large marine animals, including fish, sea turtles, and whale sharks. We present a 14-month time series characterizing the OV water column microbiome...
March 9, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Neisha Sundaram, Kathryn Duckett, Chee Fu Yung, Koh Cheng Thoon, Sucitro Sidharta, Indumathi Venkatachalam, Angela Chow, Joanne Yoong
BACKGROUND: Influenza vaccine acceptance among healthcare workers (HCWs) is a worldwide problem, but relatively little research has focussed on Asia, including Singapore. Despite widespread access and recommendations from public health authorities, influenza vaccine uptake remains suboptimal among HCWs. METHODS: Our qualitative study used focus group discussions to identify and explain factors limiting influenza vaccine acceptance among HCWs in Singapore. A total of 73 doctors, nurses, allied health and ancillary staff across three public hospitals were included...
March 5, 2018: Vaccine
Jessica K Pepper, Matthew C Farrelly, Kimberly A Watson
INTRODUCTION: Nicotine harms adolescent brain development and contributes to addiction. Some adolescents report using nicotine-free e-cigarettes, but the accuracy of their reporting is unclear. We explored adolescents' use of nicotine-free e-cigarettes and understanding of chemicals in e-cigarettes, including nicotine. METHODS: Using social media, we recruited 1589 US adolescents (aged 15-17) who reported past 30-day use of e-cigarettes in 2016. We assessed perceptions of the nicotine source in e-liquid and whether e-cigarette aerosol is just "water vapor...
February 10, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Roxanne Vandermause, Merry Fougere, Yi-Hsiu Liu, Tamara Odom-Maryon
Adolescent substance use (SU) endures as a priority concern to communities. The increasing risk of SU in young women has been a rising concern, and the needs of young women may be unique. The importance of relationships and "connectedness" as aberrant behavior protective factors has been validated extensively in the literature of several disciplines over the past decade. Less well described are the components and qualities of relational engagement among adolescents involved in SU treatment. This multimethod study was a broad analysis of the nature of relational health in adolescent girls, so as to determine whether understanding components of relational health could inform SU treatment options...
January 2018: Journal of Addictions Nursing
Mohsen Mazidi, Maciej Banach, Andre Pascal Kengne
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To assess the relationship between plasma trans-fatty acids (TFAs) levels and leucocyte telomere length (TL) in a US adult population sample. SUBJECTS/METHODS: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) database was used for this study. Gas chromatography was used to separate derivatised fatty acids (Four major TFAs [palmitelaidic acid (C16:1n-7t), trans vaccenic acid (C18:1n-7t), elaidic acid (C18:1n-9t), and linoelaidic acid (C18:2n-6t,9t)]) which were then quatified using negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry...
March 2, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Bernhard Jaun, Carlo Thilgen
e-Learning has become increasingly important in chemical education and online exams can be an attractive alternative to traditional exams written on paper, particularly in classes with a large number of students. Ten years ago, we began to set up an e-course complementing our lecture courses Organic Chemistry I and II within the open-source e-learning environment Moodle. In this article, we retrace a number of decisions we took over time, thereby illustrating the challenges one faces when creating online exercises and exams in (organic) chemistry...
February 1, 2018: Chimia
Michael W Tausch
On September 8, 2016, the Swiss Chemical Society (SCS) organized a symposium called the 'Future of Chemical Education' with lectures and workshops during the SCS Fall meeting at ETH Zurich. This article is a summary of the lecture and workshop that the author held at this event in which teachers carried out model experiments on photocatalysis and conversion of solar energy into stored chemical energy.
February 1, 2018: Chimia
Urs Leisinger, Urs Leutenegger, Roger Alberto
Photosynthesis or the storage of solar energy in chemical bonds is a process which, in its essence, goes far beyond a conversion of CO2 and water into dioxygen and glucose or other organic products. Photosynthesis is a process which comprises elementary features of most of the chemical reactions and some physical processes we are looking at in higher education; light absorption, proton transfer, redox reactions and making and breaking of bonds amongst others. Metals and main group elements are involved and the entire process is embedded in a biological environment that involves proteins and membranes...
February 1, 2018: Chimia
Thomas Flüeler
SimplyScience is an internet platform for 8 to 18 year olds and their parents and teachers, created by the scienceindustries in 2008. scienceindustries represents the chemical, pharma and biotech industries and is active in the Swiss Federal Department of Economic Affairs, Education and Research's programme 'Promotion of Science, Mathematics and Technology', the so-called 'MINT' subjects. SimplyScience presents articles, videos and podcasts on diverse scientific subjects and has the objective of interesting children and adolescents for science and technology matters and thereby encouraging them to consider a career in one of the MINT subjects...
February 1, 2018: Chimia
Hong Seng Gan, Nicholas Yee Kwang Tee, Mohammad Raziun Bin Mamtaz, Kevin Xiao, Brandon Huey-Ping Cheong, Oi Wah Liew, Tuck Wah Ng
The appreciation and understanding of gas generation through processes is vital in biochemical education. In this work, an augmented reality tool is reported to depict the redox reaction between hydrogen peroxide and sodium hypochlorite solutions, two ubiquitous oxidizing agents, to create oxygen, a combustible gas. As it operates out of smartphones or tablets, students are able to conduct the exercise collaboratively, respond in a manner similar to an actual physical experiment, and able to depict the oxygen volume changes in relation to the volume of hydrogen peroxide of different concentrations used...
February 28, 2018: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
Mayumi Kako, Karen Hammad, Satoko Mitani, Paul Arbon
OBJECTIVES: This review was conducted to explore the literature to determine the availability, content, and evaluation of existing chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) education programs for health professionals. METHODS: An integrative review of the international literature describing disaster education for CBRN (2004-2016) was conducted. The following relevant databases were searched: Proquest, Pubmed, Science Direct, Scopus, Journals @ OVID, Google Scholar, Medline, and Ichuschi ver...
February 19, 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Melissa Taitimu, John Read, Tracey McIntosh
This project explored how Māori understand experiences commonly labelled "schizophrenic" or "psychotic". Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 57 Māori participants who had either personal experiences labelled as "psychosis" or "schizophrenia", or who work with people with such experiences; including tangata whaiora (users of mental health services), tohunga (traditional healers), kaumatua/kuia (elders), Māori clinicians, cultural support workers and students...
January 1, 2018: Transcultural Psychiatry
Margarita Apatsidou, Ioanna Konstantopoulou, Eleni Foufa, Konstantinos Tsarouhas, Petros Papalexis, Ramin Rezaee, Demetrios A Spandidos, Demetrios Kouretas, Christina Tsitsimpikou
The awareness of Greek professional users and health care specialists regarding the safe use of chemicals was investigated, to be the best of our knowledge, for the first time after the introduction of Regulations (EC) 1907/2006 (REACH) and 1272/2008 (CLP) on chemicals. A total of 200 professional users and 150 health care specialists from various regions of Greece contributed to the use of a closed-ended, anonymous and validated questionnaire. The findings showed that over 85% of the responders were not aware of classification, labelling and packaging (CLP) and 67...
February 2018: Biomedical Reports
Michele Magoni, Pietro Apostoli, Francesco Donato, Ausilia Manganoni, Pietro Comba, Lucia Fazzo, Fabrizio Speziani, Lucia Leonardi, Grazia Orizio, Carmelo Scarcella, Piergiacomo Calzavara Pinton
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) have been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in Group 1 as carcinogenic to human, based on sufficient evidence in humans of an increased risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM), however few studies have been done in the general population. This study examined the relationship between PCB plasma levels and risk of CMM adjusting for sun sensitivity and sun exposure in a province of Northern Italy (Brescia), where a chemical factory produced PCBs from 1938 to 1984 causing human contamination...
January 28, 2018: Environment International
Dana Zilberman-Kravits, Naomi Meyerstein, Yones Abu-Rabia, Arnon Wiznitzer, Ilana Harman-Boehm
OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Israel is increasing in all ethnic groups but most markedly in the Bedouin population. We aimed to assess the effects of a lifestyle change intervention on risk markers for type 2 diabetes after gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). METHODS: One hundred eighty Jewish and Bedouin post-GDM women were randomly assigned to a lifestyle intervention group (IG) or a control group (CG) starting 3-4 months after delivery. The IG participated in healthy lifestyle sessions led by a dietician and a sports instructor for 24 months after delivery...
February 6, 2018: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Kristen J Polinski, Dana Dabelea, Richard F Hamman, John L Adgate, Antonia M Calafat, Xiaoyun Ye, Anne P Starling
BACKGROUND: Phthalates and phenols are suspected endocrine disrupting chemicals that may adversely impact fetal outcomes following in utero exposure. Understanding predictors of exposure to phthalates and phenols during the prenatal period is important. METHODS: We measured urinary concentrations of 15 phthalate metabolites and 11 phenols in 446 pregnant women enrolled in the Healthy Start pre-birth cohort. Creatinine-adjusted geometric means (GM) for each urinary biomarker were compared across categories of potential sociodemographic and dietary predictors...
January 30, 2018: Environmental Research
Rohit Ninan Benjamin, Thambu David, Ramya Iyadurai, K S Jacob
Background: People who deliberately ingest poisons commonly present to emergency departments of hospitals in India. However, there is a dearth of information on poisoning using nonorganophosphorus pesticides. Methods: This prospective, hospital-based study attempted to examine the nonorganophosphorus poisons used to attempt suicide. Data on sociodemographic characteristics of patients, site and source of poisons, co-ingested substances, premeditation, and reason for poisoning were collected...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
Pornpimol Kongtip, Noppanun Nankongnab, Redeerat Mahaboonpeeti, Sasivimol Bootsikeaw, Kiattisak Batsungnoen, Chalalai Hanchenlaksh, Mathuros Tipayamongkholgul, Susan Woskie
More than 11 million Thai people (38%) work in agriculture, but since most are in the informal sector, government enforcement and support are very limited. As a result, working conditions on Thai farms vary greatly, putting the health of many agricultural workers at risk. A cross-sectional study in three Thai provinces collected information on the work activities and conditions of 424 farmers representing five farm types: rice, vegetable, flower, rice/vegetable, and flower/vegetable. The agricultural workers were mainly women (60%); their average age was 53 but ranged from 18 to 87 years...
February 13, 2018: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
Daeyeop Lee, Joo-Hyon Kim, Taksoo Kim, Hyojung Yoon, Areum Jo, Byeongwoo Lee, Hyunwoo Lim, Pilje Kim, Jungkwan Seo
Reliable exposure factors are essential to determine health risks posed by chemicals in consumer products. We analyzed five risk-concerned product categories (anti-fogging, dye, disinfectant, repellent, and preservative products) for 13 products (three car anti-fogging products, a lens anti-fogging product, two car dye products, two drain disinfectants, an air conditioner disinfectant, a chlorine-based disinfectant, a fabric repellent, an insect repellent for food, and a wood preservative) considered to be of high risk in order to determine exposure factors via web surveys and estimation of amount of product...
January 30, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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