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Anesthesia research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326553/hypoxemia-after-single-shot-anesthesia-in-common-marmosets
#1
Naho Konoike, Miki Miwa, Akiyo Ishigami, Katsuki Nakamura
BACKGROUND: It remains unknown how single-shot anesthesia influences physical parameters, especially respiratory function and blood oxygen level of common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) which came to be used for laboratory research. METHODS: We measured blood oxygen levels, both before and after oxygenation, in 13 common marmosets under two single-shot anesthesia conditions: ketamine/xylazine/atropine and alphaxalone. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: We found that SpO2 values decreased to about 80% in the ketamine/xylazine/atropine protocol and fell just below 90% in the alphaxalone protocol...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Medical Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321549/a-preoperative-medical-history-and-physical-should-not-be-a-requirement-for-all-cataract-patients
#2
Oliver D Schein, Peter J Pronovost
Cataract surgery poses minimal systemic medical risk, yet a preoperative general medical history and physical is required by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services and other regulatory bodies within 1 month of cataract surgery. Based on prior research and practice guidelines, there is professional consensus that preoperative laboratory testing confers no benefit when routinely performed on cataract surgical patients. Such testing remains commonplace. Although not yet tested in a large-scale trial, there is also no evidence that the required history and physical yields a benefit for most cataract surgical patients above and beyond the screening performed by anesthesia staff on the day of surgery...
March 20, 2017: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315653/techniques-for-nonterminal-blood-sampling-in-black-tailed-prairie-dogs-cynomys-ludovicianus
#3
Valerie Head, David Eshar, Melissa R Nau
Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) are used as an animal model for research on gallbladder stones and several infectious diseases. A comprehensive, instructive resource regarding the appropriate techniques for venipuncture and collection of nonterminal blood samples in this species has not yet been published. Blood samples (1 mL or larger) were readily obtained from the jugular vein, femoral vein, or cranial vena cava, whereas peripheral sites, such as the cephalic vein, saphenous vein, and tarsal vein, mainly were useful for obtaining smaller volumes...
March 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315643/benefits-of-21-oxygen-compared-with-100-oxygen-for-delivery-of-isoflurane-to-mice-mus-musculus-and-rats-rattus-norvegicus
#4
Laura A Wilding, Joe A Hampel, Basma M Khoury, Stacey Kang, David Machado-Aranda, Krishnan Raghavendran, Jean A Nemzek
At research institutions, isoflurane delivered by precision vaporizer to a face mask is the standard for rodent surgery and for procedures with durations that exceed a few minutes. Pure oxygen is often used as the carrier gas for isoflurane anesthesia, despite documented complications from long-term 100% oxygen use in humans and known occupational safety risks. We therefore examined the effect of anesthetic delivery gas on physiologic variables in mice and rats. Rodents were anesthetized for 60 min with isoflurane delivered in either 21% or 100% oxygen by means of a nose cone...
March 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315459/dynamic-reorganization-of-intrinsic-functional-networks-in-the-mouse-brain
#5
Joanes Grandjean, Maria Giulia Preti, Thomas Aw Bolton, Michaela Buerge, Erich Seifritz, Christopher R Pryce, Dimitri Van De Ville, Markus Rudin
Functional connectivity (FC) derived from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) allows for the integrative study of neuronal processes at a macroscopic level. The majority of studies to date have assumed stationary interactions between brain regions, without considering the dynamic aspects of network organization. Only recently has the latter received increased attention, predominantly in human studies. Applying dynamic FC (dFC) analysis to mice is attractive given the relative simplicity of the mouse brain and the possibility to explore mechanisms underlying network dynamics using pharmacological, environmental or genetic interventions...
March 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306737/alcohol-consumption-and-the-risk-of-postoperative-mortality-and-morbidity-after-primary-hip-or-knee-arthroplasty-a-register-based-cohort-study
#6
Torill A Rotevatn, Henrik Bøggild, Christinna R Olesen, Christian Torp-Pedersen, Rikke N Mortensen, Per F Jensen, Charlotte Overgaard
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the implications of low and moderate preoperative alcohol consumption on postoperative mortality and morbidity after primary hip and knee arthroplasty. METHODS: A total of 30,799 patients who underwent primary hip or knee arthroplasty between January 1st, 2005 and October 8th, 2011 with information on preoperative alcohol consumption (0 grams of pure alcohol/week, >0-168 g/week, >168-252 g/week, and >252 g/week) were identified through the Danish Anesthesia Database...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299589/respiratory-variation-in-peak-aortic-velocity-accurately-predicts-fluid-responsiveness-in-children-undergoing-neurosurgery-under-general-anesthesia
#7
Kavita G Morparia, Srijaya K Reddy, Laura J Olivieri, Michael C Spaeder, Jennifer J Schuette
The determination of fluid responsiveness in the critically ill child is of vital importance, more so as fluid overload becomes increasingly associated with worse outcomes. Dynamic markers of volume responsiveness have shown some promise in the pediatric population, but more research is needed before they can be adopted for widespread use. Our aim was to investigate effectiveness of respiratory variation in peak aortic velocity and pulse pressure variation to predict fluid responsiveness, and determine their optimal cutoff values...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298791/amyloidosis-and-anesthesia
#8
Zara Wani, Dev Kumar Harkawat, Meenaxi Sharma
AIM: The aim of this article is to provide a view of amyloidosis and discuss implications for the anesthetic management of patients with this condition. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Urine samples from patients with plasma cell dyscrasias were obtained from a urine bank that gathers urine samples from patients who gave research use consent for specimens that would otherwise be considered waste. RESULTS: Patients with amyloidosis may present to the anesthesiologist for procedures relating to diagnosis, surgery relating to the underlying condition (e...
January 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298780/effects-of-inhaled-nitrous-oxide-on-the-induction-dose-and-time-requirements-of-propofol-a-prospective-randomized-double-blind-study
#9
Kavita Jain, Surendra Kumar Sethi, Mamta Damor, Neena Jain
CONTEXT: Propofol is a commonly used induction agent during general anesthesia. As a sole agent, it does not provide any strong analgesic effect. The nitrous oxide (N2O) used along with propofol for induction of anesthesia augments the induction characteristics and reduces the dose of propofol. AIMS: To study the effects of inhaled N2O on the induction dose and time of propofol during general anesthesia and also its hemodynamic response and adverse effects. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: The present research is a prospective, randomized, double-blind comparative study...
January 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298244/frailty-related-to-anesthesia-guided-by-the-index-bispectral-frail-study-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Morgan Le Guen, Marie Herr, Antoine Bizard, Caroline Bichon, Nathalie Boichut, Thierry Chazot, Ngai Liu, Joel Ankri, Marc Fischler
BACKGROUND: Currently, patients older than 60 years of age represent 25% of the population and are at an increased risk during surgery. Therefore, reducing postoperative morbidity and mortality is a major concern in medical research and practice. Dependence on caregivers and cognitive impairment represent two major risk factors in the elderly, especially in frail patients after surgery under general anesthesia. In this context, continuous monitoring of the depth of anesthesia using a bispectral index (BIS) sensor may reduce the occurrence of impairments by gaining better control of the anesthetic depth...
March 16, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287525/echocardiographic-approaches-and-protocols-for-comprehensive-phenotypic-characterization-of-valvular-heart-disease-in-mice
#11
Grace Casaclang-Verzosa, Maurice Enriquez-Sarano, Hector R Villaraga, Jordan D Miller
The aim of this manuscript and accompanying video is to provide an overview of the methods and approaches used for imaging heart valve function in rodents, with detailed descriptions of the appropriate methods for anesthesia, the echocardiographic windows used, the imaging planes and probe orientations for image acquisition, the methods for data analysis, and the limitations of emerging technologies for the evaluation of cardiac and valvular function. Importantly, we also highlight several future areas of research in cardiac and heart valve imaging that may be leveraged to gain insights into the pathogenesis of valve disease in preclinical animal models...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285897/arthrofibrosis-associated-with-total-knee-arthroplasty
#12
REVIEW
Victor A Cheuy, Jared R H Foran, Roger J Paxton, Michael J Bade, Joseph A Zeni, Jennifer E Stevens-Lapsley
The purpose of this article is to review the etiology, economic burden, treatment strategies, and future research directions of arthrofibrosis after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Arthrofibrosis is a debilitating postoperative complication of TKA. This condition is one of the leading causes of hospital readmission and a predominant reason for TKA failure. The prevalence of arthrofibrosis will increase as the annual incidence of TKA in the United States rises into the millions. Characterized by the excessive proliferation of scar tissue during an impaired wound healing response, the resulting stiffness of arthrofibrosis causes functional deficits in activities of daily living, such as walking, stair climbing, and standing from a chair...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283552/anaesthetic-considerations-for-surgery-in-newborns
#13
Constance S Houck, Amy E Vinson
Almost 30 years ago, the American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Fetus and Newborn coauthored a policy statement strongly advocating for the use of anaesthesia in all neonates stating 'local or systemic pharmacologic agents now available permit relatively safe administration of anesthesia or analgesia to neonates undergoing surgical procedures and that such administration is indicated according to the usual guidelines for the administration of anesthesia to high-risk, potentially unstable patients'. With current techniques and advanced monitoring, preterm and full-term infants routinely undergo surgical procedures under general anaesthesia to repair congenital defects that were lethal in years past...
March 10, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281366/artificial-pneumothorax-a-safe-and-simple-method-to-relieve-pain-during-microwave-ablation-of-subpleural-lung-malignancy
#14
Xiaowei Hou, Xingjun Zhuang, Haiwen Zhang, Kai Wang, Yuanxin Zhang
BACKGROUND: Microwave ablation has been extensively used for eliminating pulmonary tumors; however, it is usually associated with severe pain under local anesthesia. Decreasing the power and shortening the ablation time can help to relieve the pain; however, this leads to incomplete ablation and an increasing recurrence rate. This research aims to employ an artificial pneumothorax to increase both the curative effect and pain relief during the ablation procedure. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From July 2013 to January 2015, nine patients presenting with 10 subpleural lung tumors (age: 44-78 years) with a high possibility of severe pain underwent the artificial pneumothorax during microwave ablation...
February 14, 2017: Minimally Invasive Therapy & Allied Technologies: MITAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277382/current-applications-of-big-data-in-obstetric-anesthesiology
#15
Thomas T Klumpner, Melissa E Bauer, Sachin Kheterpal
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The narrative review aims to highlight several recently published 'big data' studies pertinent to the field of obstetric anesthesiology. RECENT FINDINGS: Big data has been used to study rare outcomes, to identify trends within the healthcare system, to identify variations in practice patterns, and to highlight potential inequalities in obstetric anesthesia care. Big data studies have helped define the risk of rare complications of obstetric anesthesia, such as the risk of neuraxial hematoma in thrombocytopenic parturients...
March 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277380/update-on-developmental-anesthesia-neurotoxicity
#16
Laszlo Vutskits, Andrew Davidson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Adverse long-term impact of general anesthesia on the developing brain is a widely discussed and controversial issue with potential public health relevance. The goal of this article is to give insights into the most recent experimental and clinical observations aimed to advance our understanding in this field. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent investigations demonstrate long-term behavioral consequences of early-life anesthesia exposure in nonhuman primates under experimental conditions that are translationally relevant to human clinical practice...
March 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277379/anesthesia-and-concussion
#17
Robert C Tasker
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As clinicians preparing patients for general anesthesia, should we consider the possibility of concussion in our elective operative patients? If so, why is this necessary? Is it possible that exposure to an anesthetic is detrimental to recovery from concussion? If so, what should we do about the imperative/urgency for surgery? No answers are promised in this review. Rather, the focus is on the questions and approaches taken in the recent literature, as well as highlighting a need for more research...
March 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275890/a-survey-of-auditory-display-in-image-guided-interventions
#18
REVIEW
David Black, Christian Hansen, Arya Nabavi, Ron Kikinis, Horst Hahn
PURPOSE: This article investigates the current state of the art of the use of auditory display in image-guided medical interventions. Auditory display is a means of conveying information using sound, and we review the use of this approach to support navigated interventions. We discuss the benefits and drawbacks of published systems and outline directions for future investigation. METHODS: We undertook a review of scientific articles on the topic of auditory rendering in image-guided intervention...
March 8, 2017: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266283/biochemical-histopathologic-physiologic-and-behavioral-effects-of-nonsteroidal-antiinflammatory-drugs-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#19
Amy L Rizzo Gregory A Wooster Luce E Guanzini Christine M Peterson Karryssa S Fenderson Hollis N Erb Paul R Bowser And Mary E Martin
Because the number of fish being used in research is increasing rapidly, evaluating the analgesic and pathologic effects of NSAIDin fish is essential. To determine the biochemical, histopathologic, physiologic and behavioral effects of 3 NSAID, 48 rainbow trout underwent anesthesia with tricaine methanesulfonate and exploratory celiotomy and were randomly assigned to receive flunixin(0.5 mg/kg IM), ketorolac (0.5 mg/kg IM), ketoprofen (2 mg/kg IM), or saline. Clinical pathologic variables were assessed 1 wk before surgery and 48 h after surgery...
March 6, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258838/ultrasound-guided-axillary-nerve-block-for-emergency-department-incision-and-drainage-of-deltoid-abscess
#20
Claire Lyons, Andrew A Herring
Deltoid abscesses are common and painful, often a consequence of injection drug use and seen frequently in emergency departments (EDs). The required incision and drainage can be completed successfully with effective pain relief using a peripheral nerve block. The brachial plexus nerve block works well, however it is technically complex with a low, but potentially serious, risk of complications such as phrenic nerve paralysis. Selective blockade of the axillary nerve eliminates the risks associated with a brachial plexus block, while providing more specific anesthesia for the deltoid region...
February 1, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
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