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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528079/the-lateral-habenula-and-the-serotonergic-system
#1
REVIEW
Martin Metzger, Debora Bueno, Leandro B Lima
The habenula (Hb) is an epithalamic structure differentiated into two nuclear complexes, medial (MHb) and lateral habenula (LHb). After decades of relative neglect, interest in the Hb resurged when it was demonstrated that LHb neurons play a key role in encoding disappointments and expectation of punishments. Consistent with such a role, the LHb has been implicated in a broad array of functions and pathologic conditions, notably in mechanisms of stress and pain, as well as in the pathophysiology of mood disorders...
May 17, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527671/inferences-about-moral-character-moderate-the-impact-of-consequences-on-blame-and-praise
#2
Jenifer Z Siegel, Molly J Crockett, Raymond J Dolan
Moral psychology research has highlighted several factors critical for evaluating the morality of another's choice, including the detection of norm-violating outcomes, the extent to which an agent caused an outcome, and the extent to which the agent intended good or bad consequences, as inferred from observing their decisions. However, person-centered accounts of moral judgment suggest that a motivation to infer the moral character of others can itself impact on an evaluation of their choices. Building on this person-centered account, we examine whether inferences about agents' moral character shape the sensitivity of moral judgments to the consequences of agents' choices, and agents' role in the causation of those consequences...
May 17, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527504/telehealth-in-physical-medicine-and-rehabilitation-a-narrative-review
#3
REVIEW
Adam S Tenforde, Jaye E Hefner, Jodi E Kodish-Wachs, Mary A Iaccarino, Sabrina Paganoni
Telehealth refers to health care interactions that leverage telecommunication devices to provide medical care outside the traditional face-to-face, in-person medical encounter. Technology advances and research have expanded use of telehealth in health care delivery. Physical medicine and rehabilitation providers may use telehealth to deliver care to populations with neurologic and musculoskeletal conditions, commonly treated in both acute care and outpatient settings. Patients with impaired mobility and those living in locations with reduced access to care may particularly benefit...
May 2017: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527073/mindfulness-and-pharmacological-prophylaxis-have-comparable-effect-on-biomarkers-of-inflammation-and-clinical-indexes-in-chronic-migraine-with-medication-overuse-results-at-12%C3%A2-months-after-withdrawal
#4
Licia Grazzi, Domenico D'Amico, Alberto Raggi, Matilde Leonardi, Emilio Ciusani, Elena Corsini, Giovanni D'Andrea, Andrea Bolner, Francisco Salgado-García, Frank Andrasik, Emanuela Sansone
Chronic migraine (CM) is a disabling condition arising from a complex mixture of interconnected biological, psychological and social factors, and is often associated with medication overuse (MO). Mindfulness is emerging as a helpful treatment for pain, and one study showed that the longitudinal 12 months' course of CM-MO patients that attended mindfulness-based treatment alone was similar to that of patients receiving medical prophylaxis alone; in this study, we describe the course of biomarkers of inflammation...
May 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526996/improved-outcomes-with-arthroscopic-repair-of-partial-thickness-rotator-cuff-tears-a-systematic-review
#5
J Christoph Katthagen, Gabriella Bucci, Gilbert Moatshe, Dimitri S Tahal, Peter J Millett
PURPOSE: The optimum treatment strategy for the surgical management of partial-thickness rotator cuff tears (PTRCT) is evolving. In this study, two research questions were sought to be answered: "Does the repair technique for PTRCTs involving >50% of the tendon thickness have an effect on structural and functional outcomes of arthroscopic repair?" and "Is there a difference in outcomes of arthroscopically treated articular- and bursal-sided PTRCTs?". METHODS: A systematic review according to the PRISMA statement was conducted to identify all literature published reporting on outcomes of arthroscopic treatment of PTRCTs classified with the Ellman classification with minimum 2-year follow-up...
May 19, 2017: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526914/finite-element-method-simulating-temperature-distribution-in-skin-induced-by-980-nm-pulsed-laser-based-on-pain-stimulation
#6
Han Wang, Xiao-Xi Dong, Ji-Chun Yang, He Huang, Ying-Xin Li, Hai-Xia Zhang
For predicting the temperature distribution within skin tissue in 980-nm laser-evoked potentials (LEPs) experiments, a five-layer finite element model (FEM-5) was constructed based on Pennes bio-heat conduction equation and the Lambert-Beer law. The prediction results of the FEM-5 model were verified by ex vivo pig skin and in vivo rat experiments. Thirty ex vivo pig skin samples were used to verify the temperature distribution predicted by the model. The output energy of the laser was 1.8, 3, and 4.4 J. The laser spot radius was 1 mm...
May 19, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526154/an-analysis-of-new-approaches-and-drug-formulations-for-treatment-of-chronic-low-back-pain
#7
REVIEW
Karishma Patel Bhangare, Alan D Kaye, Nebojsa Nick Knezevic, Kenneth D Candido, Richard D Urman
The prevalence of chronic low back pain (CLBP) is increasing. Treatment is effective in less than 50% of patients after 1 year. This review investigates new treatments for CLBP. An extensive literature review focuses on new treatments for CLBP. Their safety and efficacy were evaluated and are described in detail in this review. The investigation identified new treatments for CLBP including chemonucleolysis, platelet-rich plasma injections, artemin, tanezumab, and stem cells. Further research and innovation are needed to implement these methods into practice and assess clinical significance...
June 2017: Anesthesiology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526046/balloon-versus-stenting-in-severe-ischaemia-of-the-leg-3-basil-3-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#8
Benjamin D Hunt, Matthew A Popplewell, Huw Davies, Lewis Meecham, Hugh Jarrett, Gareth Bate, Margaret Grant, Smitaa Patel, Catherine Hewitt, Lazaros Andronis, Jonathan J Deeks, Andrew Bradbury
BACKGROUND: Severe limb ischaemia (SLI) is defined as the presence of rest pain and/or tissue loss secondary to lower extremity atherosclerotic peripheral arterial disease. The superficial femoral and popliteal arteries are the most commonly diseased vessels in such patients and are being increasingly treated using endovascular revascularisation techniques. However, it is currently unknown whether drug-eluting stents and drug-coated balloons confer additional clinical benefits over more established techniques using plain balloons and bare metal stents, or whether they represent a cost-effective use of NHS resources...
May 19, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525984/study-protocol-evaluation-of-the-probiotic-lactobacillus-fermentum-cect5716-for-the-prevention-of-mastitis-in-breastfeeding-women-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#9
Diana M Bond, Jonathan M Morris, Natasha Nassar
BACKGROUND: Mastitis and accompanying pain have been associated with the cessation of breastfeeding. Mastitis is an inflammatory condition of the breast and may be a result of decreased immunity and a lowered resistance to infection. Mastitis affects up to one in five breastfeeding women with most episodes occurring in the first 6-8 weeks postpartum. Antibiotics are often used in the treatment of mastitis, but have not been popular or proven effective as a preventative agent. The WHO has highlighted significant concerns relating to adverse harms of antibiotic use with the production of antibiotic-resistant strains of disease organisms...
May 19, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525543/fermentable-carbohydrates-fodmaps-exacerbate-functional-gastrointestinal-symptoms-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-cross-over-re-challenge-trial
#10
Selina R Cox, Alexis C Prince, Clio E Myers, Peter M Irving, James O Lindsay, Miranda C Lomer, Kevin Whelan
Background and Aims: Preliminary evidence suggests fermentable carbohydrate restriction might ameliorate functional gastrointestinal symptoms (FGS) in quiescent inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Our aim was to determine whether fermentable carbohydrates exacerbate FGS in quiescent IBD using a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, cross-over, re-challenge trial. Methods: Patients with quiescent IBD and FGS responsive to a low FODMAP diet were allocated to a series of 3-day fermentable carbohydrate challenges in random order (fructan, 12 g/d; galacto-oligosaccharides, GOS, 6 g/d; sorbitol, 6 g/d; and glucose placebo, 12 g/d), each separated by a standardised washout period...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524909/nonpharmacologic-pain-interventions-a-review-of-evidence-based-practices-for-reducing-chronic-cancer-pain%C3%A2
#11
Linda H Eaton, Jeannine M Brant, Karen McLeod, Chao Yeh
BACKGROUND: Pain is a common issue for patients with cancer and can be challenging to manage effectively. Healthcare professionals need to be knowledgeable about evidence-based nonpharmacologic interventions.
. OBJECTIVES: This systematic review critically appraises the strength and quality of the empirical evidence for nonpharmacologic interventions in reducing chronic cancer pain.
. METHODS: Intervention studies were critically appraised and summarized by an Oncology Nursing Society Putting Evidence Into Practice team of RNs, advanced practice nurses, and nurse scientists...
June 1, 2017: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524906/chronic-and-refractory-pain-a-systematic-review-of-pharmacologic-management-in-oncology%C3%A2
#12
Jeannine M Brant, Lisa Keller, Karen McLeod, Chao Yeh, Linda H Eaton
BACKGROUND: Chronic and refractory cancer pain are significant issues and can increase patient suffering and compromise quality of life. A variety of evidence-based pharmacologic strategies can be used routinely to control cancer pain. 
. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to conduct a systematic review of the pharmacologic evidence in the management of chronic and refractory cancer pain. 
. METHODS: The Oncology Nursing Society's Putting Evidence Into Practice pain team conducted a search of 184 systematic reviews, meta-analyses, research studies, and guidelines and classified the evidence into weight-of-evidence categories...
June 1, 2017: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524782/clinical-prediction-model-and-tool-for-assessing-risk-of-persistent-pain-after-breast-cancer-surgery
#13
Tuomo J Meretoja, Kenneth Geving Andersen, Julie Bruce, Lassi Haasio, Reetta Sipilä, Neil W Scott, Samuli Ripatti, Henrik Kehlet, Eija Kalso
Purpose Persistent pain after breast cancer surgery is a well-recognized problem, with moderate to severe pain affecting 15% to 20% of women at 1 year from surgery. Several risk factors for persistent pain have been recognized, but tools to identify high-risk patients and preventive interventions are missing. The aim was to develop a clinically applicable risk prediction tool. Methods The prediction models were developed and tested using three prospective data sets from Finland (n = 860), Denmark (n = 453), and Scotland (n = 231)...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524382/an-observational-study-of-patient-care-outcomes-sensitive-to-handover-quality-in-the-post-anaesthetic-care-unit
#14
Nichole Lillibridge, Mari Botti, Beverley Wood, Bernice Redley
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To identify patient care outcome indicators sensitive to the quality of interprofessional handover between the anaesthetist and the Post-Anaesthetic Care Unit nurse. BACKGROUND: The relationship between interprofessional clinical handover when patients are transferred from the operating theatre to the Post-Anaesthetic Care Unit and patient outcomes of subsequent patient care delivery is not well understood. DESIGN: Naturalistic, exploratory descriptive design using observation...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523434/salivary-exosomal-psma7-a-promising-biomarker-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#15
Xiaowen Zheng, Feng Chen, Qian Zhang, Yulan Liu, Peng You, Shan Sun, Jiuxiang Lin, Ning Chen
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an intestinal immune-dysfunctional disease worldwide whose prevalence increasing in Asia including China. It is a chronic disease of the gastrointestinal tract with unknown cause. Exosomes are small vesicles in various body fluids. They have diameters of 40-120 nm, and one of their functions is long-distance transfer of various substances. In this study, we investigated the contents of salivary exosomes in patients with IBD and in healthy controls to explore a new biomarker in patients with IBD...
May 18, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523381/national-clinical-guidelines-for-non-surgical-treatment-of-patients-with-recent-onset-neck-pain-or-cervical-radiculopathy
#16
REVIEW
Per Kjaer, Alice Kongsted, Jan Hartvigsen, Alexander Isenberg-Jørgensen, Berit Schiøttz-Christensen, Bolette Søborg, Charlotte Krog, Christian Martin Møller, Christine Marie Bækø Halling, Henrik Hein Lauridsen, Inge Ris Hansen, Jesper Nørregaard, Karsten Juhl Jørgensen, Lars Valentin Hansen, Marie Jakobsen, Martin Bach Jensen, Martin Melbye, Peter Duel, Steffan W Christensen, Tina Myung Povlsen
PURPOSE: To summarise recommendations about 21 selected non-surgical interventions for recent onset (<12 weeks) non-specific neck pain (NP) and cervical radiculopathy (CR) based on two guidelines from the Danish Health Authority. METHODS: Two multidisciplinary working groups formulated recommendations based on the GRADE approach. RESULTS: Twelve recommendations were based on evidence and nine on consensus. Management should include information about prognosis, warning signs, and advise to remain active...
May 18, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523314/health-related-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-hallux-valgus
#17
Lavinia Maria Hogea, Bogdan Gheorghe Hogea, Laura Alexandra Nussbaum, Mirela Loredana Grigoraş, Bogdan Corneliu Andor, Codrina Mihaela Levai, Ana Cristina Bredicean
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: No deformity of the forefoot occurs more frequently than hallux valgus (HV), which is considered to be medial deviation of the first metatarsal and lateral deviation and rotation of the hallux, either with or without medial soft tissue enlargement of the metatarsal head. The HV deformity can lead to painful motion of the joint or difficulty in daily joint activity that often requires surgical correction. The aims of this study were to investigate the levels of foot pain and quality of life of patients with HV before and after surgery...
2017: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522221/comparative-efficacy-and-safety-of-different-circumcisions-for-patients-with-redundant-prepuce-or-phimosis-a-network-meta-analysis
#18
REVIEW
Chuiguo Huang, Pan Song, Changbao Xu, Ruofan Wang, Lei Wei, Xinghua Zhao
BACKGROUND: Phimosis and redundant prepuce are defined as the inability of the foreskin to be retracted behind the glans penis in uncircumcised males. To synthesize the evidence and provide the hierarchies of different circumcisions for phimosis and redundant prepuce, we performed an overall network meta-analysis (NMA) based on their comparative efficacy and safety. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Electronic databases including PubMed, Embase, Wan Fang, VIP, CNKI and CBM database were researched from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for redundant prepuce or phimosis...
May 15, 2017: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520755/neuropsychological-characteristics-of-gulf-war-illness-a-meta-analysis
#19
Patricia A Janulewicz, Maxine H Krengel, Alexis Maule, Roberta F White, Joanna Cirillo, Emily Sisson, Timothy Heeren, Kimberly Sullivan
OBJECTIVE: Gulf War illness (GWI) is a disorder related to military service in the 1991 GW. Prominent symptoms include fatigue, pain and cognitive problems. These symptoms were reported by GW Veterans (GWV) immediately after the war and were eventually incorporated into case definitions of GWI. Neuropsychological function in GW veterans has been studied both among deployed GWV and in GWV diagnosed with GWI. Results have been inconsistent between and across GW populations. The purpose of the present investigation was to better characterize neuropsychological function in this veteran population...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520654/systematic-review-of-hydrotherapy-research-does-a-warm-bath-in-labor-promote-normal-physiologic-childbirth
#20
Jenna Shaw-Battista
Health sciences research was systematically reviewed to assess randomized controlled trials of standard care versus immersion hydrotherapy in labor before conventional childbirth. Seven studies of 2615 women were included. Six trials examined hydrotherapy in midwifery care and found an effect of pain relief; of these, 2 examined analgesia and found reduced use among women who bathed in labor. One study each found that hydrotherapy reduced maternal anxiety and fetal malpresentation, increased maternal satisfaction with movement and privacy, and resulted in cervical dilation progress equivalent to standard labor augmentation practices...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Perinatal & Neonatal Nursing
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