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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046158/e-cigarettes-impact-of-e-liquid-components-and-device-characteristics-on-nicotine-exposure
#1
Elise E DeVito, Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) use has increased substantially in recent years. While e-cigarettes have been proposed as a potentially effective smoking cessation tool, dual-use in smokers is common and e-cigarettes are widely used by non-smokers, including youth and young-adult non-smokers. Nicotine, the primary addictive component in cigarettes, is present at varying levels in many e-liquids. E-cigarettes may lead to initiation of nicotine use in adult and youth non-smokers, re-initiation of nicotine dependence in ex-smokers or increased severity of nicotine dependence in dual-users of cigarettes and e-cigarettes...
October 16, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019446/the-role-of-the-oximes-hi-6-and-hs-6-inside-human-acetylcholinesterase-inhibited-with-nerve-agents-a-computational-study
#2
Teobaldo Cuya, Arlan da Silva Gonçalves, Jorge Alberto Valle da Silva, Teodorico C Ramalho, Kamil Kuca, Tanos C C França
Abstracts The oximes 4-carbamoyl-1-[({2-[(E)-(hydroxyimino) methyl] pyridinium-1-yl} methoxy) methyl] pyridinium (known as HI-6) and 3-carbamoyl-1-[({2-[(E)-(hydroxyimino) methyl] pyridinium-1-yl} methoxy) methyl] pyridinium (known as HS-6) are isomers differing from each other only by the position of the carbamoyl group on the pyridine ring. However this slight difference was verified to be responsible for big differences in the percentual of reactivation of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibited by the nerve agents tabun, sarin, cyclosarin and VX...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968411/the-effect-of-sucralose-on-flavor-sweetness-in-electronic-cigarettes-varies-between-delivery-devices
#3
Kathryn Rosbrook, Hanno C Erythropel, Tamara M DeWinter, Mark Falinski, Stephanie O'Malley, Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin, Paul T Anastas, Julie B Zimmerman, Barry G Green
The appeal of sweet electronic cigarette flavors makes it important to identify the chemical compounds that contribute to their sweetness. While volatile chemicals that produce sweet aromas have been identified in e-liquids, there are no published reports of sugars or artificial sweeteners in commercial e-liquids. However, the sweetener sucralose is marketed as an e-liquid additive to commercial flavors. The primary aims of the study were to determine if sucralose is delivered in sufficient concentration in the inhaled aerosol to enhance flavor sweetness, and whether the amount delivered depends on the e-liquid delivery system...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962072/stabilizing-selection-on-an-animal-weapon-in-a-wild-population
#4
Sarin Tiatragul, Jenna E Pruett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 18, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960316/genome-wide-association-study-and-meta-analysis-in-northern-european-populations-replicate-multiple-colorectal-cancer-risk-loci
#5
Tomas Tanskanen, Linda van den Berg, Niko Välimäki, Mervi Aavikko, Eivind Ness-Jensen, Kristian Hveem, Yvonne Wettergren, Elinor Bexe Lindskog, Neeme Tõnisson, Andres Metspalu, Kaisa Silander, Giulia Orlando, Philip J Law, Sari Tuupanen, Alexandra E Gylfe, Ulrika A Hänninen, Tatiana Cajuso, Johanna Kondelin, Antti-Pekka Sarin, Eero Pukkala, Pekka Jousilahti, Veikko Salomaa, Samuli Ripatti, Aarno Palotie, Heikki Järvinen, Laura Renkonen-Sinisalo, Anna Lepistö, Jan Böhm, Jukka-Pekka Mecklin, Nada A Al-Tassan, Claire Palles, Lynn Martin, Ella Barclay, Albert Tenesa, Susan M Farrington, Maria N Timofeeva, Brian F Meyer, Salma M Wakil, Harry Campbell, Christopher G Smith, Shelley Idziaszczyk, Tim S Maughan, Richard Kaplan, Rachel Kerr, David Kerr, Daniel D Buchanan, Aung K Win, John Hopper, Mark A Jenkins, Polly A Newcomb, Steve Gallinger, David Conti, Fredrick R Schumacher, Graham Casey, Jeremy P Cheadle, Malcolm G Dunlop, Ian P Tomlinson, Richard S Houlston, Kimmo Palin, Lauri A Aaltonen
Genome-wide association studies have been successful in elucidating the genetic basis of colorectal cancer (CRC), but there remains unexplained variability in genetic risk. To identify new risk variants and to confirm reported associations, we conducted a genome-wide association study in 1,701 CRC cases and 14,082 cancer-free controls from the Finnish population. A total of 9,068,015 genetic variants were imputed and tested, and 30 promising variants were studied in additional 11,647 cases and 12,356 controls of European ancestry...
September 28, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941301/cystatin-c-predicts-acute-kidney-injury-and-mortality-in-cirrhotics-a-prospective-cohort-study
#6
Rakhi Maiwall, Awinash Kumar, Ankit Bhardwaj, Guresh Kumar, Ajeet S Bhadoria, Shiv K Sarin
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Acute kidney injury is a frequent and ominous complication in cirrhosis. An episode of AKI damages the functional nephron mass, compromising the renal functional reserve. We aimed to study the incidence of AKI, probability of subsequent episodes, whether AKI itself predisposes to future AKI and the reliability of serum cystatin C(sCyC) as a biomarker in a prospective cohort of cirrhotics. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Five hundred and thirty-one cirrhotics without ongoing AKI were followed for development/resolution of AKI...
September 23, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915478/studying-the-interactive-effects-of-menthol-and-nicotine-among-youth-an-examination-using-e-cigarettes
#7
Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin, Barry G Green, Grace Kong, Dana A Cavallo, Peter Jatlow, Ralitza Gueorguieva, Eugenia Buta, Stephanie S O'Malley
BACKGROUND: Tobacco products containing menthol are widely used by youth. We used e-cigarettes to conduct an experimental evaluation of the independent and interactive effects of menthol and nicotine among youth. PROCEDURES: Pilot chemosensory experiments with fourteen e-cigarette users identified low (barely perceptible, 0.5%) and high (similar to commercial e-liquid, 3.5%) menthol concentrations. Sixty e-cigarette users were randomized to a nicotine concentration (0mg/ml, 6mg/ml, 12mg/ml) and participated in 3 laboratory sessions...
August 31, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856540/liver-failure-determines-the-outcome-in-patients-of-acute-on-chronic-liver-failure-aclf-comparison-of-apasl-aclf-research-consortium-aarc-and-clif-sofa-models
#8
A Choudhury, A Jindal, R Maiwall, M K Sharma, B C Sharma, V Pamecha, M Mahtab, S Rahman, Y K Chawla, S Taneja, S S Tan, H Devarbhavi, Z Duan, Chen Yu, Q Ning, Ji Dong Jia, D Amarapurkar, C E Eapen, A Goel, S S Hamid, A S Butt, W Jafri, D J Kim, H Ghazinian, G H Lee, Ajit Sood, L A Lesmana, Z Abbas, G Shiha, D A Payawal, A K Dokmeci, J D Sollano, G Carpio, G K Lau, F Karim, P N Rao, R Moreau, P Jain, P Bhatia, G Kumar, S K Sarin
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a progressive disease associated with rapid clinical worsening and high mortality. Early prediction of mortality and intervention can improve patient outcomes. We aimed to develop a dynamic prognostic model and compare it with the existing models. METHODS: A total of 1402 ACLF patients, enrolled in the APASL-ACLF Research Consortium (AARC) with 90-day follow-up, were analyzed. An ACLF score was developed in a derivation cohort (n = 480) and was validated (n = 922)...
August 30, 2017: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780608/sx-ella-stent-danis-effectively-controls-refractory-variceal-bleed-in-patients-with-acute-on-chronic-liver-failure
#9
Rakhi Maiwall, Kapil Dev Jamwal, Ankit Bhardwaj, Ajeet Singh Bhadoria, Jaswinder Singh Maras, Guresh Kumar, Ankur Jindal, Ashok Choudhury, Lovkesh Anand, Amrish Sahney, Awinash Kumar, Manoj Kumar Sharma, Barjesh Chander Sharma, Shiv Kumar Sarin
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Almost 10% of bleeding episodes are refractory to combination of vasoactive agent and endotherapy, and are associated with a mortality up to 50%. Severity of liver disease and high portal pressure are mainly responsible for it. TIPS cannot be used in these patients due to high MELD score. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of self-expandable DE stents for control of refractory variceal bleeds in patients with ACLF. METHODS: Acute-on-chronic liver failure patients (n = 88, mean age 47...
August 5, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762207/the-efficacy-of-antisense-based-construct-for-inducing-resistance-against-croton-yellow-vein-mosaic-virus-in-nicotiana-tabacum
#10
V Sinha, N B Sarin, D Bhatnagar
Begomoviruses have increased pathogenicity because of their adaptation to a wide host range; consequently, these viruses cause a major loss to agroeconomic crops worldwide. In this study, we designed a gene construct representing an antisense coat protein gene. We also analyzed the efficacy of the induced resistance against Croton yellow vein mosaic virus (CrYVMV) affecting papaya in Nicotiana tabacum plants. Positive control plants developed typical leaf curl symptoms, whereas transgenic plants were symptomless...
July 31, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757133/corrigendum-to-autophagy-linked-fyve-containing-protein-wdfy3-interacts-with-traf6-and-modulates-rankl-induced-osteoclastogenesis-j-autoimmun-73c-2016-73-84
#11
Dennis J Wu, Ran Gu, Ritu Sarin, Regina Zavodovskaya, Chia-Pei Chen, Blaine A Christiansen, Konstantinos S Zarbalis, Iannis E Adamopoulos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 27, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728785/operative-strategies-to-reduce-cerebral-embolic-events-during-on-and-off-pump-coronary-artery-bypass-surgery-a-stratified-prospective-randomized-trial
#12
Michael E Halkos, Aaron Anderson, Jose Nilo G Binongo, Anthony Stringer, Yi Lasanajak, Vinod H Thourani, Omar M Lattouf, Robert A Guyton, Kim T Baio, Eric Sarin, William B Keeling, N Renee Cook, Katherine Carssow, Alexis Neill, Kathryn E Glas, John D Puskas
OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of different aortic clamping strategies on the incidence of cerebral embolic events during coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). METHODS: Between 2012 and 2015, 142 patients with low-grade aortic disease (epiaortic ultrasound grade I/II) undergoing primary isolated CABG were studied. Those undergoing off-pump CABG were randomized to a partial clamp (n = 36) or clampless facilitating device (CFD; n = 36) strategy. Those undergoing on-pump CABG were randomized to a single-clamp (n = 34) or double-clamp (n = 36) strategy...
October 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678576/reliability-of-18-f-fdg-pet-metabolic-parameters-derived-using-simultaneous-pet-mri-and-correlation-with-prognostic-factors-of-invasive-ductal-carcinoma-a-feasibility-study
#13
Amarnath Jena, Sangeeta Taneja, Aru Singh, Pradeep Negi, Ramesh Sarin, Pratap K Das, Manish Singhal
OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to correlate semiquantitative PET parameters-standardized uptake value (SUV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG)-derived in simultaneous PET/MRI using MRI-based attenuation correction with clinical and histopathologic prognostic factors in patients with breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-two invasive ductal carcinomas in 69 women were included in the study. All the subjects underwent whole-body (WB) PET/MRI (supine WB mode) and dedicated PET/MRI of the breast (prone breast imaging mode) for staging on a simultaneous PET/MRI system...
September 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673485/high-resolution-crystal-structure-of-a-fluoride-inhibited-organophosphate-degrading-metallohydrolase
#14
Christopher Selleck, Luke W Guddat, David L Ollis, Gerhard Schenk, Marcelo Monteiro Pedroso
Metal ion-dependent, organophosphate-degrading enzymes (OP hydrolases) have received increasing attention due to their ability to degrade and thus detoxify commonly used pesticides and nerve agents such as sarin and VX. These enzymes thus garner strong potential as bioremediators. The OP hydrolase from Agrobacterium radiobacter (OpdA) is one of the most efficient members of this group of enzymes. Previous studies have indicated that the choice of the hydrolysis-initiating nucleophile may depend on the pH of the reaction, with a metal ion-bridging hydroxide being preferred at lower pH (i...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634886/subcortical-brain-atrophy-in-gulf-war-illness
#15
Peka Christova, Lisa M James, Brian E Engdahl, Scott M Lewis, Adam F Carpenter, Apostolos P Georgopoulos
Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a multisystem disorder that has affected a substantial number of veterans who served in the 1990-1991 Gulf War. The brain is prominently affected, as manifested by the presence of neurological, cognitive and mood symptoms. Although brain dysfunction in GWI has been well documented (EBioMedicine 12:127-32, 2016), abnormalities in brain structure have been debated. Here we report a substantial (~10%) subcortical brain atrophy in GWI comprising mainly the brainstem, cerebellum and thalamus, and, to a lesser extent, basal ganglia, amygdala and diencephalon...
June 20, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631147/the-motor-cortical-representation-of-a-muscle-is-not-homogeneous-in-brain-connectivity
#16
Jo Armour Smith, Alaa Albishi, Sarine Babikian, Skulpan Asavasopon, Beth E Fisher, Jason J Kutch
Functional connectivity patterns of the motor cortical representational area of single muscles have not been extensively mapped in humans, particularly for the axial musculature. Functional connectivity may provide a neural substrate for adaptation of muscle activity in axial muscles that have both voluntary and postural functions. The purpose of this study was to combine brain stimulation and neuroimaging to both map the cortical representation of the external oblique (EO) in primary motor cortex (M1) and supplementary motor area (SMA), and to establish the resting-state functional connectivity associated with this representation...
June 19, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500636/immune-correlates-of-hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-spontaneous-seroconversion-in-hepatitis-b-e-antigen-negative-chronic-hepatitis-b-patients
#17
Ashish Kumar Vyas, Barjesh Chander Sharma, Shiv Kumar Sarin, Nirupma Trehanpati
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) seroconversion in HBeAg-ve chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection is rare, possibly due to poor antigen processing and impaired humoral response. We investigated the role of dendritic cells (DCs), T follicular helper (TFH) cells and plasma B cells in seroconversion. METHODS: HBeAg-ve (n=135) CHB patients with raised ALT at baseline were followed-up. Patients undergoing HBsAg sero-conversion (Gr. I, n=11) were compared with non-converters with low (Gr...
May 13, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460123/use-of-electronic-cigarettes-leads-to-significant-beta2-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-occupancy-evidence-from-a-pet-imaging-study
#18
Stephen R Baldassarri, Ansel T Hillmer, Jon Mikael Anderson, Peter Jatlow, Nabeel Nabulsi, David Labaree, Kelly P Cosgrove, Stephanie S O'Malley, Thomas Eissenberg, Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin, Irina Esterlis
Background: Electronic cigarettes (ECs) can influence nicotine addiction by delivering aerosolized nicotine. We investigated if nicotine from ECs is delivered to the brain β2*-nicotinic-acetylcholine receptors (β2*-nAChR) and how this relates to the behavioral effects and nicotine delivery from cigarettes. Methods: Seven nicotine users participated in positron emission tomography (PET) studies with (-)-[18F]Flubatine before and after nicotine challenge with 0, 8 mg/ml, and 36 mg/ml nicotine in a 3...
April 29, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413835/mirna-signatures-can-predict-acute-liver-failure-in-hepatitis-e-infected-pregnant-females
#19
Nirupma Trehanpati, Rashi Sehgal, Sharda Patra, Ashish Vyas, Madavan Vasudevan, Ritu Khosla, Arshi Khanam, Guresh Kumar, Rakhi Maiwall, Gayatri Ramakrishna, Shyam Kottilil, Shiv Kumar Sarin
BACKGROUND: Acute viral hepatitis E (AVH-E) can often result in acute liver failure (ALF) during pregnancy. microRNAs serve as mediators in drug induced liver failure. We investigated their role as a biomarker in predicting ALF due to HEV (ALF-E). METHODS: We performed next generation sequencing and subsequent validation studies in PBMCs of pregnant (P) self limiting AVH-E, ALF due to HEV (ALF-E) and compared with AVH-E in non-pregnant (NP) females and healthy controls...
April 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392289/correlates-of-multiple-basal-cell-carcinoma-in-a-retrospective-cohort-study-sex-histologic-subtypes-and-anatomic-distribution
#20
LETTER
Karen Y Kuo, Prag Batra, Hyunje G Cho, Shufeng Li, Harvind S Chahal, Kerri E Rieger, Jean Y Tang, Kavita Y Sarin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
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