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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907338/artificial-intelligence-in-radiation-oncology-a-specialty-wide-disruptive-transformation
#1
REVIEW
Reid F Thompson, Gilmer Valdes, Clifton D Fuller, Colin M Carpenter, Olivier Morin, Sanjay Aneja, William D Lindsay, Hugo J W L Aerts, Barbara Agrimson, Curtiland Deville, Seth A Rosenthal, James B Yu, Charles R Thomas
Artificial intelligence (AI) is emerging as a technology with the power to transform established industries, and with applications from automated manufacturing to advertising and facial recognition to fully autonomous transportation. Advances in each of these domains have led some to call AI the "fourth" industrial revolution [1]. In healthcare, AI is emerging as both a productive and disruptive force across many disciplines. This is perhaps most evident in Diagnostic Radiology and Pathology, specialties largely built around the processing and complex interpretation of medical images, where the role of AI is increasingly seen as both a boon and a threat...
June 12, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896632/screening-for-cardiovascular-disease-risk-with-electrocardiography-us-preventive-services-task-force-recommendation-statement
#2
Susan J Curry, Alex H Krist, Douglas K Owens, Michael J Barry, Aaron B Caughey, Karina W Davidson, Chyke A Doubeni, John W Epling, Alex R Kemper, Martha Kubik, C Seth Landefeld, Carol M Mangione, Michael Silverstein, Melissa A Simon, Chien-Wen Tseng, John B Wong
Importance: Cardiovascular disease (CVD), which encompasses atherosclerotic conditions such as coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and peripheral arterial disease, is the most common cause of death among adults in the United States. Treatment to prevent CVD events by modifying risk factors is currently informed by CVD risk assessment with tools such as the Framingham Risk Score or the Pooled Cohort Equations, which stratify individual risk to inform treatment decisions. Objective: To update the 2012 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on screening for coronary heart disease with electrocardiography (ECG)...
June 12, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29857814/how-the-warburg-effect-supports-aggressiveness-and-drug-resistance-of-cancer-cells
#3
Philippe Icard, Seth Shulman, Diana Farhat, Jean-Marc Steyaert, Marco Alifano, Hubert Lincet
Cancer cells employ both conventional oxidative metabolism and glycolytic anaerobic metabolism. However, their proliferation is marked by a shift towards increasing glycolytic metabolism even in the presence of O2 (Warburg effect). HIF1, a major hypoxia induced transcription factor, promotes a dissociation between glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle, a process limiting the efficient production of ATP and citrate which otherwise would arrest glycolysis. The Warburg effect also favors an intracellular alkaline pH which is a driving force in many aspects of cancer cell proliferation (enhancement of glycolysis and cell cycle progression) and of cancer aggressiveness (resistance to various processes including hypoxia, apoptosis, cytotoxic drugs and immune response)...
May 2018: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29849723/antidepressant-potentials-of-components-from-trichilia-monadelpha-thonn-j-j-de-wilde-in-murine-models
#4
Kennedy Kwami Edem Kukuia, Jeffrey Amoako Mensah, Patrick Amoateng, Seth Kwabena Amponsah, Benoit Banga N'Guessan, Isaac Julius Asiedu-Gyekye
Trichilia monadelpha is a common medicinal plant used traditionally in treating central nervous system conditions such as epilepsy, depression, pain, and psychosis. In this study, the antidepressant-like effect of crude extracts of the stem bark of T. monadelpha was investigated using two classical murine models, forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST). The extracts, petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, and hydroethanolic extracts (30-300 mg/kg, p.o. ), standard drug (imipramine; fluoxetine, 3-30 mg/kg, p...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29801017/screening-for-prostate-cancer-us-preventive-services-task-force-recommendation-statement
#5
David C Grossman, Susan J Curry, Douglas K Owens, Kirsten Bibbins-Domingo, Aaron B Caughey, Karina W Davidson, Chyke A Doubeni, Mark Ebell, John W Epling, Alex R Kemper, Alex H Krist, Martha Kubik, C Seth Landefeld, Carol M Mangione, Michael Silverstein, Melissa A Simon, Albert L Siu, Chien-Wen Tseng
Importance: In the United States, the lifetime risk of being diagnosed with prostate cancer is approximately 13%, and the lifetime risk of dying of prostate cancer is 2.5%. The median age of death from prostate cancer is 80 years. Many men with prostate cancer never experience symptoms and, without screening, would never know they have the disease. African American men and men with a family history of prostate cancer have an increased risk of prostate cancer compared with other men. Objective: To update the 2012 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-based screening for prostate cancer...
May 8, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710141/interventions-to-prevent-falls-in-community-dwelling-older-adults-us-preventive-services-task-force-recommendation-statement
#6
David C Grossman, Susan J Curry, Douglas K Owens, Michael J Barry, Aaron B Caughey, Karina W Davidson, Chyke A Doubeni, John W Epling, Alex R Kemper, Alex H Krist, Martha Kubik, Seth Landefeld, Carol M Mangione, Michael Pignone, Michael Silverstein, Melissa A Simon, Chien-Wen Tseng
Importance: Falls are the leading cause of injury-related morbidity and mortality among older adults in the United States. In 2014, 28.7% of community-dwelling adults 65 years or older reported falling, resulting in 29 million falls (37.5% of which needed medical treatment or restricted activity for a day or longer) and an estimated 33 000 deaths in 2015. Objective: To update the 2012 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on the prevention of falls in community-dwelling older adults...
April 24, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677309/vitamin-d-calcium-or-combined-supplementation-for-the-primary-prevention-of-fractures-in-community-dwelling-adults-us-preventive-services-task-force-recommendation-statement
#7
David C Grossman, Susan J Curry, Douglas K Owens, Michael J Barry, Aaron B Caughey, Karina W Davidson, Chyke A Doubeni, John W Epling, Alex R Kemper, Alex H Krist, Martha Kubik, Seth Landefeld, Carol M Mangione, Michael Silverstein, Melissa A Simon, Chien-Wen Tseng
Importance: Because of the aging population, osteoporotic fractures are an increasingly important cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Approximately 2 million osteoporotic fractures occurred in the United States in 2005, and annual incidence is projected to increase to more than 3 million fractures by 2025. Within 1 year of experiencing a hip fracture, many patients are unable to walk independently, more than half require assistance with activities of daily living, and 20% to 30% of patients will die...
April 17, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560782/early-l2-spoken-word-recognition-combines-input-based-and-knowledge-based-processing
#8
Seth Wiener, Kiwako Ito, Shari R Speer
This study examines the perceptual trade-off between knowledge of a language's statistical regularities and reliance on the acoustic signal during L2 spoken word recognition. We test how early learners track and make use of segmental and suprasegmental cues and their relative frequencies during non-native word recognition. English learners of Mandarin were taught an artificial tonal language in which a tone's informativeness for word identification varied according to neighborhood density. The stimuli mimicked Mandarin's uneven distribution of syllable+tone combinations by varying syllable frequency and the probability of particular tones co-occurring with a particular syllable...
March 1, 2018: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558558/behavioral-counseling-to-prevent-skin-cancer-us-preventive-services-task-force-recommendation-statement
#9
David C Grossman, Susan J Curry, Douglas K Owens, Michael J Barry, Aaron B Caughey, Karina W Davidson, Chyke A Doubeni, John W Epling, Alex R Kemper, Alex H Krist, Martha Kubik, Seth Landefeld, Carol M Mangione, Michael Silverstein, Melissa A Simon, Chien-Wen Tseng
Importance: Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer in the United States. Although invasive melanoma accounts for only 2% of all skin cancer cases, it is responsible for 80% of skin cancer deaths. Basal and squamous cell carcinoma, the 2 predominant types of nonmelanoma skin cancer, represent the vast majority of skin cancer cases. Objective: To update the 2012 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on behavioral counseling for the primary prevention of skin cancer and the 2009 recommendation on screening for skin cancer with skin self-examination...
March 20, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517233/when-do-strongly-coupled-diradicals-show-strongly-coupled-reactivity-thermodynamics-and-kinetics-of-hydrogen-atom-transfer-reactions-of-palladium-and-platinum-bis-iminosemiquinone-complexes
#10
Kyle M Conner, AnnaMaria C Arostegui, Daniel D Swanson, Seth N Brown
The 2,2'-biphenylene-bridged bis(iminosemiquinone) complexes ( t BuClip)M [ t BuClipH4 = 4,4'-di- tert-butyl- N, N'-bis(3,5-di- tert-butyl-2-hydroxyphenyl)-2,2'-diaminobiphenyl; M = Pd, Pt] can be reduced to the bis(aminophenoxide) complexes ( t BuClipH2 )M by reaction with hydrazobenzene (M = Pd) or by catalytic hydrogenation (M = Pt). The palladium complex with one aminophenoxide ligand and one iminosemiquinone ligand, ( t BuClipH)Pd, is generated by comproportionation of ( t BuClip)Pd with ( t BuClipH2 )Pd in a process that is both slow (0...
March 8, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450531/screening-for-ovarian-cancer-us-preventive-services-task-force-recommendation-statement
#11
David C Grossman, Susan J Curry, Douglas K Owens, Michael J Barry, Karina W Davidson, Chyke A Doubeni, John W Epling, Alex R Kemper, Alex H Krist, Ann E Kurth, C Seth Landefeld, Carol M Mangione, Maureen G Phipps, Michael Silverstein, Melissa A Simon, Chien-Wen Tseng
Importance: With approximately 14 000 deaths per year, ovarian cancer is the fifth most common cause of cancer death among US women and the leading cause of death from gynecologic cancer. More than 95% of ovarian cancer deaths occur among women 45 years and older. Objective: To update the 2012 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on screening for ovarian cancer. Evidence Review: The USPSTF reviewed the evidence on the benefits and harms of screening for ovarian cancer in asymptomatic women not known to be at high risk for ovarian cancer (ie, high risk includes women with certain hereditary cancer syndromes that increase their risk for ovarian cancer)...
February 13, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420389/variability-and-reliability-of-punching-impact-kinetics-in-untrained-participants-and-experienced-boxers
#12
Seth Lenetsky, Matt Brughelli, Roy J Nates, Matt R Cross, Anna V Lormier
Striking impact kinetics are central to performance in combat sports. Despite a multitude of assessment, few in the literature have explored the variability and reliability of punching force assessment. Consequently, this study assessed the variability and reliability of measured punching impact kinetics in untrained and experienced boxers, using a recently developed and validated method of striking dynamometry. Intra-session (both cohorts) and inter-session (untrained only) measures of impulse, peak and mean force were determined across four punch types (jabs, crosses, lead and rear hand hooks) using coefficient of variation (CV), intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC), and typical error of measurement (TEM)...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390647/simultaneous-measurement-of-triboelectrification-and-triboluminescence-of-crystalline-materials
#13
Adam L Collins, Carlos G Camara, Eli Van Cleve, Seth J Putterman
Triboelectrification has been studied for over 2500 years, yet there is still a lack of fundamental understanding as to its origin. Given its utility in areas such as xerography, powder spray painting, and energy harvesting, many devices have been made to investigate triboelectrification at many length-scales, though few seek to additionally make use of triboluminescence: the emission of electromagnetic radiation immediately following a charge separation event. As devices for measuring triboelectrification became smaller and smaller, now measuring down to the atomic scale with atomic force microscope based designs, an appreciation for the collective and multi-scale nature of triboelectrification has perhaps abated...
January 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358397/potential-for-western-us-seasonal-snowpack-prediction
#14
Sarah B Kapnick, Xiaosong Yang, Gabriel A Vecchi, Thomas L Delworth, Rich Gudgel, Sergey Malyshev, P C D Milly, Elena Shevliakova, Seth Underwood, Steven A Margulis
Western US snowpack-snow that accumulates on the ground in the mountains-plays a critical role in regional hydroclimate and water supply, with 80% of snowmelt runoff being used for agriculture. While climate projections provide estimates of snowpack loss by the end of the century and weather forecasts provide predictions of weather conditions out to 2 weeks, less progress has been made for snow predictions at seasonal timescales (months to 2 years), crucial for regional agricultural decisions (e.g., plant choice and quantity)...
February 6, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318284/screening-for-adolescent-idiopathic-scoliosis-us-preventive-services-task-force-recommendation-statement
#15
David C Grossman, Susan J Curry, Douglas K Owens, Michael J Barry, Karina W Davidson, Chyke A Doubeni, John W Epling, Alex R Kemper, Alex H Krist, Ann E Kurth, C Seth Landefeld, Carol M Mangione, Maureen G Phipps, Michael Silverstein, Melissa A Simon, Chien-Wen Tseng
Importance: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, a lateral curvature of the spine of unknown cause with a Cobb angle of at least 10°, occurs in children and adolescents aged 10 to 18 years. Idiopathic scoliosis is the most common form and usually worsens during adolescence before skeletal maturity. Severe spinal curvature may be associated with adverse long-term health outcomes (eg, pulmonary disorders, disability, back pain, psychological effects, cosmetic issues, and reduced quality of life)...
January 9, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315497/health-care-disparities-among-octogenarians-and-nonagenarians-with-stage-iii-lung-cancer
#16
Richard J Cassidy, Xinyan Zhang, Jeffrey M Switchenko, Pretesh R Patel, Joseph W Shelton, Sibo Tian, Ronica H Nanda, Conor E Steuer, Rathi N Pillai, Taofeek K Owonikoko, Suresh S Ramalingam, Felix G Fernandez, Seth D Force, Theresa W Gillespie, Walter J Curran, Kristin A Higgins
BACKGROUND: To the authors' knowledge, the practice patterns for patients aged more than 80 years with stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is not well known. The purpose of the current study was to investigate factors predictive of and the impact on overall survival (OS) after concurrent chemoradiation (CRT) among patients aged ≥80 years with American Joint Committee on Cancer stage III NSCLC in the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB). METHODS: In the NCDB, patients aged ≥80 years who were diagnosed with stage III NSCLC from 2004 to 2013 with complete treatment records were identified...
February 15, 2018: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285401/multifunctional-stimuli-responsive-polymer-gated-iron-and-gold-embedded-silica-nano-golf-balls-nanoshuttles-for-targeted-on-demand-theranostics
#17
Liping Wang, Grace Jang, Deependra Kumar Ban, Vrinda Sant, Jay Seth, Sami Kazmi, Nirav Patel, Qingqing Yang, Joon Lee, Woraphong Janetanakit, Shanshan Wang, Brian P Head, Gennadi Glinsky, Ratneshwar Lal
Multi-functional nanoshuttles for remotely targeted and on-demand delivery of therapeutic molecules and imaging to defined tissues and organs hold great potentials in personalized medicine, including precise early diagnosis, efficient prevention and therapy without toxicity. Yet, in spite of 25 years of research, there are still no such shuttles available. To this end, we have designed magnetic and gold nanoparticles (NP)-embedded silica nanoshuttles (MGNSs) with nanopores on their surface. Fluorescently labeled Doxorubicin (DOX), a cancer drug, was loaded in the MGNSs as a payload...
2017: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273802/multiple-cryptic-binding-sites-are-necessary-for-robust-fibronectin-assembly-an-in-silico-study
#18
Christopher A Lemmon, Seth H Weinberg
The mechanism of assembly of the extracellular matrix protein fibronectin (FN) into elastic, insoluble fibrils is still poorly understood. FN fibrillogenesis requires cell-generated forces, which expose cryptic FN-FN binding sites buried in FN Type III domains. The number and location of cryptic binding sites have been debated, but experimental evidence suggests multiple domains may contain FN-FN binding sites. The requirement of cell-dependent forces to generate FN fibrils restricts investigation of the mechanism of assembly...
December 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259253/industrial-age-doubling-of-snow-accumulation-in-the-alaska-range-linked-to-tropical-ocean-warming
#19
Dominic Winski, Erich Osterberg, David Ferris, Karl Kreutz, Cameron Wake, Seth Campbell, Robert Hawley, Samuel Roy, Sean Birkel, Douglas Introne, Michael Handley
Future precipitation changes in a warming climate depend regionally upon the response of natural climate modes to anthropogenic forcing. North Pacific hydroclimate is dominated by the Aleutian Low, a semi-permanent wintertime feature characterized by frequent low-pressure conditions that is influenced by tropical Pacific Ocean temperatures through the Pacific-North American (PNA) teleconnection pattern. Instrumental records show a recent increase in coastal Alaskan precipitation and Aleutian Low intensification, but are of insufficient length to accurately assess low frequency trends and forcing mechanisms...
December 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234814/hormone-therapy-for-the-primary-prevention-of-chronic-conditions-in-postmenopausal-women-us-preventive-services-task-force-recommendation-statement
#20
David C Grossman, Susan J Curry, Douglas K Owens, Michael J Barry, Karina W Davidson, Chyke A Doubeni, John W Epling, Alex R Kemper, Alex H Krist, Ann E Kurth, C Seth Landefeld, Carol M Mangione, Maureen G Phipps, Michael Silverstein, Melissa A Simon, Chien-Wen Tseng
Importance: Menopause occurs at a median age of 51.3 years, and the average US woman who reaches menopause is expected to live another 30 years. The prevalence and incidence of most chronic conditions, such as coronary heart disease, dementia, stroke, fractures, and breast cancer, increase with age; however, the excess risk for these conditions that can be attributed to menopause alone is uncertain. Since the publication of findings from the Women's Health Initiative that hormone therapy use is associated with serious adverse health effects in postmenopausal women, use of menopausal hormone therapy has declined...
December 12, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
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