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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606853/proteomic-analysis-of-the-kissing-bug-rhodnius-prolixus-antenna
#1
Daniele S Oliveira, Nathalia F Brito, Fabio C S Nogueira, Monica F Moreira, Walter S Leal, Marcia R Soares, Ana C A Melo
Reception of odorants is essential in insects' life since the chemical signals in the environment (=semiochemicals) convey information about availability of hosts for a blood meal, mates for reproduction, sites for oviposition and other relevant information for fitness in the environment. Once they reach the antennae, these semiochemicals bind to odorant-binding proteins and are transported through the sensillar lymph until reach the odorant receptors. Such perireceptor events, particularly the interactions with transport proteins, are the liaison between the external environment and the entire neuroethological system and, therefore, a potential target to disrupt insect chemical communication...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600222/taste-bud-derived-bdnf-maintains-innervation-of-a-subset-of-trkb-expressing-gustatory-nerve-fibers
#2
Tao Tang, Jennifer Rios-Pilier, Robin Krimm
Taste receptor cells transduce different types of taste stimuli and transmit this information to gustatory neurons that carry it to the brain. Taste receptor cells turn over continuously in adulthood, requiring constant new innervation from nerve fibers. Therefore, the maintenance of innervation to taste buds is an active process mediated by many factors, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Specifically, 40% of taste bud innervation is lost when Bdnf is removed during adulthood. Here we speculated that not all gustatory nerve fibers express the BDNF receptor, TrkB, resulting in subsets of neurons that vary in their response to BDNF...
June 6, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571710/identification-of-odorant-binding-proteins-in-carpomya-vesuviana-and-their-binding-affinity-to-the-male-borne-semiochemicals-and-host-plant-volatiles
#3
Yawei Li, Ping Zhou, Junhua Zhang, Ding Yang, Zhihong Li, Xianglin Zhang, Shuifang Zhu, Yanxue Yu, Naizhong Chen
Carpomya vesuviana (Costa; Diptera: Tephritidae) is an agricultural pest that causes serious damage to jujube fruits. However, the mechanism of olfaction, which is critical for host identification, is not well understood in this pest. In this study, we have identified for the first time five protein types involved in the olfactory signal transduction of C. vesuviana by using transcriptome sequencing. These include 6 odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), 15 odorant receptors (ORs), 22 gustatory receptors (GRs), 2 chemosensory proteins (CSPs), and 2 sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs)...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535667/involvement-of-a-gr2a-expressing-drosophila-pharyngeal-gustatory-receptor-neuron-in-regulation-of-aversion-to-high-salt-foods
#4
Haein Kim, Yong Taek Jeong, Min Sung Choi, Jaekyun Choi, Seok Jun Moon, Jae Young Kwon
Regulation of feeding is essential for animal survival. The pharyngeal sense organs can act as a second checkpoint of food quality, due to their position between external taste organs such as the labellum which initially assess food quality, and the digestive tract. Growing evidence provides support that the pharyngeal sensory neurons regulate feeding, but much is still unknown. We found that a pair of gustatory receptor neurons in the LSO, a Drosophila adult pharyngeal organ which expresses four gustatory receptors, is involved in feeding inhibition in response to high concentrations of sodium ions...
May 31, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507513/appetitive-olfactory-learning-and-long-term-associative-memory-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#5
Saori Nishijima, Ichiro N Maruyama
Because of the relative simplicity of its nervous system, Caenorhabditis elegans is a useful model organism to study learning and memory at cellular and molecular levels. For appetitive conditioning in C. elegans, food has exclusively been used as an unconditioned stimulus (US). It may be difficult to analyze neuronal circuits for associative memory since food is a multimodal combination of olfactory, gustatory, and mechanical stimuli. Here, we report classical appetitive conditioning and associative memory in C...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485430/contact-chemosensation-of-phytochemicals-by-insect-herbivores
#6
REVIEW
Stefan Pentzold, Antje Burse, Wilhelm Boland
Contact chemosensation, or tasting, is a complex process governed by nonvolatile phytochemicals that tell host-seeking insects whether they should accept or reject a plant. During this process, insect gustatory receptors (GRs) contribute to deciphering a host plant's metabolic code. GRs recognise many different classes of nonvolatile compounds; some GRs are likely to be narrowly tuned and others, broadly tuned. Although primary and/or secondary plant metabolites influence the insect's feeding choice, their decoding by GRs is challenging, because metabolites in planta occur in complex mixtures that have additive or inhibitory effects; in diverse forms composed of structurally unrelated molecules; and at different concentrations depending on the plant species, its tissue and developmental stage...
May 10, 2017: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468001/sensory-neurons-in-the-human-geniculate-ganglion
#7
Tadasu Sato, Yu Yamaguma, Yu Sasaki, Noriyuki Kanda, Nobuyuki Sasahara, Souichi Kokubun, Takehiro Yajima, Hiroyuki Ichikawa
The geniculate ganglion (GG) contains visceral and somatic sensory neurons of the facial nerve. In this study, the number and cell size of sensory neurons in the human GG were investigated. The estimated number of GG neurons ranged from 1,580 to 2,561 (mean ± SD = 1,960 ± 364.6). The cell size of GG neurons ranged from 393.0 to 2,485.4 μm2 (mean ± SD = 1,067.4 ± 99.5 μm2). Sensory neurons in the GG were significantly smaller in size than those in the dorsal root (range = 326.6-5343.4 μm2, mean ± SD = 1,683...
May 4, 2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467517/anti-cancer-stemness-and-anti-invasive-activity-of-bitter-taste-receptors-tas2r8-and-tas2r10-in-human-neuroblastoma-cells
#8
Yoona Seo, Yoo-Sun Kim, Kyung Eun Lee, Tai Hyun Park, Yuri Kim
Neuroblastoma (NB) originates from immature neuronal cells and currently has a poor clinical outcome. NB cells possess cancer stem cells (CSCs) characteristics that facilitate the initiation of a tumor, as well as its metastasis. Human bitter taste receptors, referred to as TAS2Rs, are one of five types of basic taste receptors and they belong to a family of G-protein coupled receptors. The recent finding that taste receptors are expressed in non-gustatory tissues suggest that they mediate additional functions distinct from taste perception...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460028/evolutionary-history-of-chemosensory-related-gene-families-across-the-arthropoda
#9
Seong-Il Eyun, Ho Young Soh, Marijan Posavi, James B Munro, Daniel S T Hughes, Shwetha C Murali, Jiaxin Qu, Shannon Dugan, Sandra L Lee, Hsu Chao, Huyen Dinh, Yi Han, HarshaVardhan Doddapaneni, Kim C Worley, Donna M Muzny, Eun-Ok Park, Joana C Silva, Richard A Gibbs, Stephen Richards, Carol Eunmi Lee
Chemosensory-related gene (CRG) families have been studied extensively in insects, but their evolutionary history across the Arthropoda had remained relatively unexplored. Here, we address current hypotheses and prior conclusions on CRG family evolution using a more comprehensive dataset. In particular, odorant receptors (ORs) were hypothesized to have proliferated during terrestrial colonization by insects (hexapods), but their association with other pancrustacean clades and with independent terrestrial colonizations in other arthropod subphyla have been unclear...
April 29, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445613/neuronal-distribution-of-tyramine-and-the-tyramine-receptor-amtar1-in-the-honeybee-brain
#10
Markus Thamm, Christina Scholl, Tina Reim, Kornelia Grübel, Karin Möller, Wolfgang Rössler, Ricarda Scheiner
Tyramine is an important neurotransmitter, neuromodulator, and neurohormone in insects. In honeybees, it is assumed to have functions in modulating sensory responsiveness and controlling motor behavior. Tyramine can bind to two characterized receptors in honeybees, both of which are coupled to intracellular cAMP pathways. How tyramine acts on neuronal, cellular and circuit levels is unclear. We investigated the spatial brain expression of the tyramine receptor AmTAR1 using a specific antibody. This antibody detects a membrane protein of the expected molecular weight in western blot analysis...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423037/identification-of-candidate-chemosensory-genes-by-transcriptome-analysis-in-loxostege-sticticalis-linnaeus
#11
Hong-Shuang Wei, Ke-Bin Li, Shuai Zhang, Ya-Zhong Cao, Jiao Yin
Loxostege sticticalis Linnaeus is an economically important agricultural pest, and the larvae cause great damage to crops, especially in Northern China. However, effective and environmentally friendly chemical methods for controlling this pest have not been discovered to date. In the present study, we performed HiSeq2500 sequencing of transcriptomes of the male and female adult antennae, adult legs and third instar larvae, and we identified 54 candidate odorant receptors (ORs), including 1 odorant receptor coreceptor (Orco) and 5 pheromone receptors (PRs), 18 ionotropic receptors (IRs), 13 gustatory receptors (GRs), 34 odorant binding proteins (OBPs), including 1 general odorant binding protein (GOBP1) and 3 pheromone binding proteins (PBPs), 10 chemosensory proteins (CSPs) and 2 sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409324/generation-and-characterization-of-polyclonal-and-monoclonal-antibodies-to-human-ntpdase2-including-a-blocking-antibody
#12
Julie Pelletier, Hervé Agonsanou, Ninotchska Delvalle, Michel Fausther, Mabrouka Salem, Brian Gulbransen, Jean Sévigny
Nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase-2 (NTPDase2) is an ectonucleotidase that modulates P2 receptor activation by hydrolyzing ATP to ADP. In rodents, NTPDase2 is expressed by several specialized cell types such as vascular adventitial cells, neuroglial cells, hepatic portal fibroblasts, gustatory type I cells, and cells within the connective tissues of reproductive and gastrointestinal organs. Much less is known regarding the expression and function of NTPDase2 in humans. Here, we developed specific research tools to study human NTPDase2...
April 13, 2017: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407077/chemosensory-responses-to-the-repellent-nepeta-essential-oil-and-its-major-component-nepetalactone-by-aedes-aegypti-diptera-culicidae-a-vector-of-zika-virus
#13
Jackson T Sparks, Jonathan D Bohbot, Mihailo Ristic, Danijela Mišic, Marijana Skoric, Autar Mattoo, Joseph C Dickens
Nepeta essential oil (Neo; catnip) and its major component, nepetalactone, have long been known to repel insects including mosquitoes. However, the neural mechanisms through which these repellents are detected by mosquitoes, including the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti (L.), an important vector of Zika virus, were poorly understood. Here we show that Neo volatiles activate olfactory receptor neurons within the basiconic sensilla on the maxillary palps of female Ae. aegypti. A gustatory receptor neuron sensitive to the feeding deterrent quinine and housed within sensilla on the labella of females was activated by both Neo and nepetalactone...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403157/effects-of-age-and-nutritional-state-on-the-expression-of-gustatory-receptors-in-the-honeybee-apis-mellifera
#14
Nicola K Simcock, Luisa A Wakeling, Dianne Ford, Geraldine A Wright
Gustatory receptors (Grs) expressed in insect taste neurons signal the presence of carbohydrates, sugar alcohols, CO2, bitter compounds and oviposition stimulants. The honeybee (Apis mellifera) has one of the smallest Gr gene sets (12 Gr genes) of any insect whose genome has been sequenced. Honeybees live in eusocial colonies with a division of labour and perform age-dependent behavioural tasks, primarily food collection. Here, we used RT-qPCR to quantify Gr mRNA in honeybees at two ages (newly-emerged and foraging-age adults) to examine the relationship between age-related physiology and expression of Gr genes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395238/de-novo-analysis-of-the-oriental-armyworm-mythimna-separata-antennal-transcriptome-and-expression-patterns-of-odorant-binding-proteins
#15
Xiang-Qian Chang, Xiao-Pei Nie, Zan Zhang, Fang-Fang Zeng, Liang Lv, Shu Zhang, Man-Qun Wang
To better understand the olfactory mechanisms in the oriental armyworm Mythimna separate, one of the most serious pests of cereals, an antennal transcriptome was constructed in this study. A total of 130 olfactory related transcripts were identified. These transcripts were predicted to encode 32 odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), 16 chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 71 olfactory receptors (ORs), 8 ionotropic receptors (IRs), 1 gustatory receptor (GR) and 2 sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs). Q-PCR analysis of the temporal expression profiles of seven OBPs in different tissues indicated that, except for MsepOBP19 which was highly expressed in the wings of 0-day-old adult and MsepOBP20 which was low expressed in all tissues, other tested MsepOBPs were significantly more highly expressed in the antenna than in the head (antenna excluded), thorax, abdomen, legs and wings...
March 20, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393162/human-cell-based-taste-perception-a-bittersweet-job-for-industry
#16
REVIEW
K Riedel, D Sombroek, B Fiedler, K Siems, M Krohn
Covering: 2000 to 2016On the molecular level humans sense food by a variety of specialized tissues which express sensory receptors to handle nutritive value. In general, this means the interplay of gustatory, olfactory, trigeminal and haptic sensation is translated into perception and leads, in terms of taste, to descriptions like sweet, bitter, salty, sour and umami. Further perceptions include astringent, cool, hot, prickle, lingering, kokumi and fatty to name predominant characterizations. It is still not fully understood how this plethora of impressions can be perceived by quite a limited number of receptors obviously being the initial compilers to judge palatability...
May 10, 2017: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387246/sensory-genes-identification-with-head-transcriptome-of-the-migratory-armyworm-mythimna-separata
#17
Zhenxing Liu, Xiaoyun Wang, Chaoliang Lei, Fen Zhu
Sensory system plays important roles in a wide array of insect's behavior and physiological events, including the host landing and locating, feeding, flying, sex responding, mating and oviposition which happen independently and in sequence. The armyworm Mythimna separata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) of migratory insect is destructive for alimentarn crop and economic crop throughout the world. Here we present the high throughput sequencing of the head transcriptome and identify members of the major sensory genes which are crucial for armyworm's success worldwide, including 8 opsins, 22 chemosensory proteins, 50 odorant binding proteins, 60 odorant receptors, 8 gustatory receptors, 24 ionotropic receptors, and 2 sensory neuron membrane proteins...
April 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359935/a-large-increase-of-sour-taste-receptor-cells-in-skn-1-deficient-mice-does-not-alter-the-number-of-their-sour-taste-signal-transmitting-gustatory-neurons
#18
Naohiro Maeda, Masataka Narukawa, Yoshiro Ishimaru, Kurumi Yamamoto, Takumi Misaka, Keiko Abe
The connections between taste receptor cells (TRCs) and innervating gustatory neurons are formed in a mutually dependent manner during development. To investigate whether a change in the ratio of cell types that compose taste buds influences the number of innervating gustatory neurons, we analyzed the proportion of gustatory neurons that transmit sour taste signals in adult Skn-1a(-/-) mice in which the number of sour TRCs is greatly increased. We generated polycystic kidney disease 1 like 3-wheat germ agglutinin (pkd1l3-WGA)/Skn-1a(+/+) and pkd1l3-WGA/Skn-1a(-/-) mice by crossing Skn-1a(-/-) mice and pkd1l3-WGA transgenic mice, in which neural pathways of sour taste signals can be visualized...
March 28, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331183/differential-expression-of-chemosensory-protein-genes-in-midguts-in-response-to-diet-of-spodoptera-litura
#19
Xin Yi, Jiangwei Qi, Xiaofan Zhou, Mei Ying Hu, Guo Hua Zhong
While it has been well characterized that chemosensory receptors in guts of mammals have great influence on food preference, much remains elusive in insects. Insect chemosensory proteins (CSPs) are soluble proteins that could deliver chemicals to olfactory and gustatory receptors. Recent studies have identified a number of CSPs expressed in midgut in Lepidoptera insects, which started to reveal their roles in chemical recognition and stimulating appetite in midgut. In this study, we examined expression patterns in midgut of 21 Spodoptera litura CSPs (SlitCSPs) characterized from a previously reported transcriptome, and three CSPs were identified to be expressed highly in midgut...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316078/5-ht3a-driven-green-fluorescent-protein-delineates-gustatory-fibers-innervating-sour-responsive-taste-cells-a-labeled-line-for-sour-taste
#20
J M Stratford, E D Larson, R Yang, E Salcedo, T E Finger
Taste buds contain multiple cell types with each type expressing receptors and transduction components for a subset of taste qualities. The sour sensing cells, Type III cells, release serotonin (5-HT) in response to the presence of sour (acidic) tastants and this released 5-HT activates 5-HT3 receptors on the gustatory nerves. We show here, using 5-HT3A GFP mice, that 5-HT3 -expressing nerve fibers preferentially contact and receive synaptic contact from Type III taste cells. Further, these 5-HT3 -expressing nerve fibers terminate in a restricted central-lateral portion of the nucleus of the solitary tract (nTS)-the same area that shows increased c-Fos expression upon presentation of a sour tastant (30 mM citric acid)...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
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