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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643854/the-role-of-quinine-responsive-taste-receptor-family-2-in-airway-immune-defense-and-chronic-rhinosinusitis
#1
Alan D Workman, Ivy W Maina, Steven G Brooks, Michael A Kohanski, Beverly J Cowart, Corrine Mansfield, David W Kennedy, James N Palmer, Nithin D Adappa, Danielle R Reed, Robert J Lee, Noam A Cohen
Background: Bitter (T2R) and sweet (T1R) taste receptors in the airway are important in innate immune defense, and variations in taste receptor functionality in one T2R (T2R38) correlate with disease status and disease severity in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Quinine is a bitter compound that is an agonist for several T2Rs also expressed on sinonasal cells, but not for T2R38. Because of this property, quinine may stimulate innate immune defense mechanisms in the airway, and functional differences in quinine perception may be reflective of disease status in CRS...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643828/lateralization-of-sucrose-responsiveness-and-non-associative-learning-in-honeybees
#2
David Baracchi, Elisa Rigosi, Gabriela de Brito Sanchez, Martin Giurfa
Lateralization is a fundamental property of the human brain that affects perceptual, motor, and cognitive processes. It is now acknowledged that left-right laterality is widespread across vertebrates and even some invertebrates such as fruit flies and bees. Honeybees, which learn to associate an odorant (the conditioned stimulus, CS) with sucrose solution (the unconditioned stimulus, US), recall this association better when trained using their right antenna than they do when using their left antenna. Correspondingly, olfactory sensilla are more abundant on the right antenna and odor encoding by projection neurons of the right antennal lobe results in better odor differentiation than those of the left one...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628206/odorant-receptor-might-be-related-to-sperm-dna-integrity-in-apis-cerana-cerana
#3
Lina Guo, Huiting Zhao, Bing Xu, Yusuo Jiang
Olfactory receptors (ORs) are important for insects to recognize and discriminate odorants in the environment and are mainly expressed in olfactory and gustatory organs. Little is known about the potential OR functions in non-olfactory tissues. In the present study, we evaluated the possibility of odorant receptors AcerOr1 and AcerOr2 (AcerOr2 is orthologous to the co-receptor) mediating sperm DNA integrity, and the relationship between sperm DNA integrity and semen parameters in Apis cerana cerana. Based on previous findings in mammals, we speculated that the Ca2+ /calmodulin (CaM)/CaM-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) signaling pathway might be involved in the regulation of sperm motility in A...
March 31, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625111/insect-taste-receptors-relevant-to-host-identification-by-recognition-of-secondary-metabolite-patterns-of-non-host-plants
#4
Mayu Kasubuchi, Fumika Shii, Kana Tsuneto, Takayuki Yamagishi, Satomi Adegawa, Haruka Endo, Ryoichi Sato
The taste sensing system is crucial for food recognition in insects and other animals. It is commonly believed that insect gustatory receptors (Grs) expressed in gustatory organs are indispensable for host plant selection. Many behavioral studies have shown that mono- or oligo-phagous lepidopteran insects use the balance between feeding attractants and feeding deterrents in host plants and that these are sensed by taste organs for host plant recognition. However, the molecular mechanism underlying taste recognition, especially of feeding deterrents, remains to be elucidated...
April 7, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610329/hybridization-and-gene-flow-in-the-mega-pest-lineage-of-moth-helicoverpa
#5
Craig J Anderson, John G Oakeshott, Wee Tek Tay, Karl H J Gordon, Andreas Zwick, Tom K Walsh
Within the mega-pest lineage of heliothine moths are a number of polyphagous, highly mobile species for which the exchange of adaptive traits through hybridization would affect their properties as pests. The recent invasion of South America by one of the most significant agricultural pests, Helicoverpa armigera , raises concerns for the formation of novel combinations of adaptive genes following hybridization with the closely related Helicoverpa zea To investigate the propensity for hybridization within the genus Helicoverpa , we carried out whole-genome resequencing of samples from six species, focusing in particular upon H...
April 2, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576440/evolution-of-dietary-preferences-and-the-innate-urge-to-heal-drug-discovery-lessons-from-ayurveda
#6
REVIEW
Akhila Hosur Shrungeswara, Mazhuvancherry Kesavan Unnikrishnan
Highly specialized and functionally integrated cognitive systems facilitate hedonistic and healthy food preferences. Guided by survival needs, flavor preferences not only select safe, nutritious dietary components, but also those with negligible calorific value but significant health benefits, for example, spices. Feeding behavior, both innate and acquired, is guided not only by taste receptors on the tongue but also visceral organs. The gustatory cortex receives information from all senses, not just taste, suggesting multiple checkpoints in predicting and evaluating healthy foods...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566459/enormous-expansion-of-the-chemosensory-gene-repertoire-in-the-omnivorous-german-cockroach-blattella-germanica
#7
Hugh M Robertson, Rachel L Baits, Kimberly K O Walden, Ayako Wada-Katsumata, Coby Schal
The acquisition of genome sequences from a wide range of insects and other arthropods has revealed a broad positive correlation between the complexity of their chemical ecology and the size of their chemosensory gene repertoire. The German cockroach Blattella germanica is an extreme omnivore and has the largest chemosensory gene repertoire known for an arthropod, exceeding even the highly polyphagous spider mite Tetranychus urticae. While the Odorant Receptor family is not particularly large, with 123 genes potentially encoding 134 receptors (105 intact), the Gustatory Receptor family is greatly expanded to 431 genes potentially encoding 545 receptors (483 intact), the largest known for insects and second only to the spider mite...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556329/overcoming-chemoresistance-in-pancreatic-cancer-cells-role-of-the-bitter-taste-receptor-t2r10
#8
Louisa Stern, Nathalia Giese, Thilo Hackert, Oliver Strobel, Peter Schirmacher, Klaus Felix, Matthias M Gaida
Bitter taste receptors (T2Rs) are G-protein coupled transmembrane proteins initially identified in the gustatory system as sensors for the taste of bitter. Recent evidence on expression of these receptors outside gustatory tissues suggested alternative functions, and there is growing interest of their potential role in cancer biology. In this study, we report for the first time, expression and functionality of the bitter receptor family member T2R10 in both human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) tissue and PDAC derived cell lines...
2018: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542232/molecular-characterization-and-evolution-of-a-chemosensory-receptor-gene-family-in-three-notorious-rice-planthoppers-nilaparvata-lugens-sogatella-furcifera-and-laodelphax-striatellus-based-on-genome-and-transcriptome-analyses
#9
Peng He, Patamarerk Engsontia, Guang-Lei Chen, Qian Yin, Jun Wang, Xu Lu, Ya-Nan Zhang, Zhao-Qun Li, Ming He
BACKGROUND: The white-backed planthopper (WBPH) Sogatella furcifera Horváth, the brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens, and the small brown planthopper (SBPH) Laodelphax striatellus (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) are rice pests that damage rice plants by sap-sucking and by transmitting viruses. Host-seeking behavior involves chemosensory receptor genes, which include odorant receptors (ORs), ionotropic receptors (IRs) and gustatory receptors (GRs). RESULTS: We used genome and transcriptome data to identify 141 ORs, 28 GRs and 25 IRs in BPH, 135 ORs, 18 GRs and 16 IRs in WBPH and 37 ORs, 14 GRs and 6 IRs in SBPH...
March 15, 2018: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502953/identification-of-a-single-pair-of-interneurons-for-bitter-taste-processing-in-the-drosophila-brain
#10
Ali Asgar Bohra, Benjamin R Kallman, Heinrich Reichert, K VijayRaghavan
Drosophila has become an excellent model system for investigating the organization and function of the gustatory system due to the relatively simple neuroanatomical organization of its brain and the availability of powerful genetic and transgenic technology. Thus, at the molecular and cellular levels, a great deal of insight into the peripheral detection and coding of gustatory information has already been attained. In contrast, much less is known about the central neural circuits that process this information and induce behaviorally appropriate motor output...
February 21, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497384/identification-and-expression-patterns-of-anoplophora-chinensis-forster-chemosensory-receptor-genes-from-the-antennal-transcriptome
#11
Long Sun, Ya-Nan Zhang, Jia-Li Qian, Ke Kang, Xiao-Qing Zhang, Jun-Dan Deng, Yan-Ping Tang, Cheng Chen, Laura Hansen, Tian Xu, Qing-He Zhang, Long-Wa Zhang
The citrus long-horned beetle (CLB), Anoplophora chinensis (Forster) is a destructive native pest in China. Chemosensory receptors including odorant receptors (ORs), gustatory receptors (GRs), and ionotropic receptors (IRs) function to interface the insect with its chemical environment. In the current study, we assembled the antennal transcriptome of A. chinensis by next-generation sequencing. We assembled 44,938 unigenes from 64,787,784 clean reads and annotated their putative gene functions based on gene ontology (GO) and Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COG)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484829/taste-sensitivity-and-divergence-in-host-plant-acceptance-between-adult-females-and-larvae-of-papilio-hospiton
#12
Giorgia Sollai, Maurizio Biolchini, Roberto Crnjar
On the island of Sardinia the lepidopteran Papilio hospiton uses Ferula communis as exclusive host-plant. However, on the small island of Tavolara, adult females lay eggs on Seseli tortuosum, a plant confined to the island. When raised in captivity on Seseli only few larvae grew beyond the first-second instar. Host specificity of lepidopterans is determined by female oviposition preferences, but also by larval food acceptance, and adult and larval taste sensitivity may be related to host selection in both cases...
February 27, 2018: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475396/insulin-signaling-in-female-drosophila-links-diet-and-sexual-attractiveness
#13
Wei-Sheng Lin, Sheng-Rong Yeh, Shou-Zen Fan, Liang-Yu Chen, Jui-Hung Yen, Tsai-Feng Fu, Ming-Shiang Wu, Pei-Yu Wang
Appropriate sexual selection or individual sexual attractiveness is closely associated with the reproductive success of a species. Here, we report that young male flies exhibit innate courtship preference for female flies that are raised on higher-yeast diets and that have greater body weight and fecundity, but reduced locomotor activity and shortened lifespan. Male flies discriminate among females that have been fed diets that contain 3 different yeast concentrations-1, 5, and 20% yeast- via gustatory, but not visual or olfactory, perception...
February 16, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454611/taste-receptor-plasticity-in-relation-to-feeding-history-in-two-congeneric-species-of-papilionidae-lepidoptera
#14
Giorgia Sollai, Maurizio Biolchini, Roberto Crnjar
In the peripheral taste system of insects, the responsiveness of gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) depends on several factors, such as larval instar, feeding history, physiological state and time of day. To study the role of the feeding history, the spike activity of the maxillary taste chemosensilla in the larvae of two related species of Lepidoptera (Papilio machaon L. and Papilio hospiton Géné) raised on different host plants, was recorded with electrophysiological techniques after stimulation with simple stimuli (sugars, bitters and inorganic salt) and host plant saps, with the aim of cross-comparing their response patterns and evaluating any effects of different feeding histories...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449902/sers-fluorescence-bimodal-nanoprobes-for-in-vitro-imaging-of-fatty-acid-responsive-receptor-gpr120
#15
Lifu Xiao, Abdul K Parchur, Timothy A Gilbertson, Anhong Zhou
G-protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120), as a member of the rhodopsin family of G-protein-coupled receptors, has been shown to function as a sensor for dietary fat in the gustatory and digestive systems. Its specific role in the chemoreception of fatty acids, which is thought to be crucial in understanding the mechanism surrounding the control of fat intake and, accordingly, in the treatment of obesity, remains unclear. Here we report a novel surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS)-fluorescence bimodal microscopic technique for detection and imaging of GPR120 in single living cells...
2018: Analytical Methods: Advancing Methods and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393045/internal-amino-acid-state-modulates-yeast-taste-neurons-to-support-protein-homeostasis-in-drosophila
#16
Kathrin Steck, Samuel J Walker, Pavel M Itskov, Célia Baltazar, José-Maria Moreira, Carlos Ribeiro
To optimize fitness, animals must dynamically match food choices to their current needs. For drosophilids, yeast fulfills most dietary protein and micronutrient requirements. While several yeast metabolites activate known gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) in Drosophila melanogaster , the chemosensory channels mediating yeast feeding remain unknown. Here we identify a class of proboscis GRNs required for yeast intake. Within this class, taste peg GRNs are specifically required to sustain yeast feeding. Sensillar GRNs, however, mediate feeding initiation...
February 2, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391908/obesity-and-brain-positron-emission-tomography
#17
REVIEW
Kyoungjune Pak, Seong-Jang Kim, In Joo Kim
Obesity, an increasingly common problem in modern societies, results from energy intake chronically exceeding energy expenditure. This imbalance of energy can be triggered by the internal state of the caloric equation (homeostasis) and non-homeostatic factors, such as social, cultural, psychological, environmental factors or food itself. Nowadays, positron emission tomography (PET) radiopharmaceuticals have been examined to understand the cerebral control of food intake in humans. Using 15O-H2 PET, changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) coupled to neuronal activity were reported in states of fasting, satiation after feeding, and sensory stimulation...
February 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386578/a-model-species-for-agricultural-pest-genomics-the-genome-of-the-colorado-potato-beetle-leptinotarsa-decemlineata-coleoptera-chrysomelidae
#18
Sean D Schoville, Yolanda H Chen, Martin N Andersson, Joshua B Benoit, Anita Bhandari, Julia H Bowsher, Kristian Brevik, Kaat Cappelle, Mei-Ju M Chen, Anna K Childers, Christopher Childers, Olivier Christiaens, Justin Clements, Elise M Didion, Elena N Elpidina, Patamarerk Engsontia, Markus Friedrich, Inmaculada García-Robles, Richard A Gibbs, Chandan Goswami, Alessandro Grapputo, Kristina Gruden, Marcin Grynberg, Bernard Henrissat, Emily C Jennings, Jeffery W Jones, Megha Kalsi, Sher A Khan, Abhishek Kumar, Fei Li, Vincent Lombard, Xingzhou Ma, Alexander Martynov, Nicholas J Miller, Robert F Mitchell, Monica Munoz-Torres, Anna Muszewska, Brenda Oppert, Subba Reddy Palli, Kristen A Panfilio, Yannick Pauchet, Lindsey C Perkin, Marko Petek, Monica F Poelchau, Éric Record, Joseph P Rinehart, Hugh M Robertson, Andrew J Rosendale, Victor M Ruiz-Arroyo, Guy Smagghe, Zsofia Szendrei, Gregg W C Thomas, Alex S Torson, Iris M Vargas Jentzsch, Matthew T Weirauch, Ashley D Yates, George D Yocum, June-Sun Yoon, Stephen Richards
The Colorado potato beetle is one of the most challenging agricultural pests to manage. It has shown a spectacular ability to adapt to a variety of solanaceaeous plants and variable climates during its global invasion, and, notably, to rapidly evolve insecticide resistance. To examine evidence of rapid evolutionary change, and to understand the genetic basis of herbivory and insecticide resistance, we tested for structural and functional genomic changes relative to other arthropod species using genome sequencing, transcriptomics, and community annotation...
January 31, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383951/gustatory-function-in-patients-with-chronic-rhinosinusitis
#19
Axel Wolf, Bertold Renner, Peter V Tomazic, Christian A Mueller
OBJECTIVES: Recent research has shown that taste receptors in airway epithelial cells are involved in defending against upper respiratory tract infection. The aim of the present study was to investigate gustatory function in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). METHODS: Taste function was assessed using the extended "taste strip" test in 37 patients with CRS (20 males, 17 females; mean age = 32.1 years; range, 20-82 years) and 135 healthy controls (70 males, 65 females; mean age = 29...
January 1, 2018: Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367405/diversity-of-internal-sensory-neuron-axon-projection-patterns-is-controlled-by-the-pou-domain-protein-pdm3-in-drosophila-larvae
#20
Cheng Sam Qian, Margarita Kaplow, Jennifer K Lee, Wesley B Grueber
Internal sensory neurons innervate body organs and provide information about internal state to the central nervous system to maintain physiological homeostasis. Despite their conservation across species, the anatomy, circuitry, and development of internal sensory systems are still relatively poorly understood. A largely unstudied population of larval Drosophila sensory neurons, termed tracheal dendrite (td) neurons, innervate internal respiratory organs and may serve as a model for understanding the sensing of internal states...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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