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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454611/taste-receptor-plasticity-in-relation-to-feeding-history-in-two-congeneric-species-of-papilionidae-lepidoptera
#1
Giorgia Sollai, Maurizio Biolchini, Roberto Crnjar
In the peripheral taste system of insects, the responsiveness of gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) depends on several factors, such as larval instar, feeding history, physiological state and time of day. To study the role of the feeding history, the spike activity of the maxillary taste chemosensilla in the larvae of two related species of Lepidoptera (Papilio machaon L. and Papilio hospiton Géné) raised on different host plants, was recorded with electrophysiological techniques after stimulation with simple stimuli (sugars, bitters and inorganic salt) and host plant saps, with the aim of cross-comparing their response patterns and evaluating any effects of different feeding histories...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449902/sers-fluorescence-bimodal-nanoprobes-for-in-vitro-imaging-of-fatty-acid-responsive-receptor-gpr120
#2
Lifu Xiao, Abdul K Parchur, Timothy A Gilbertson, Anhong Zhou
G-protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120), as a member of the rhodopsin family of G-protein-coupled receptors, has been shown to function as a sensor for dietary fat in the gustatory and digestive systems. Its specific role in the chemoreception of fatty acids, which is thought to be crucial in understanding the mechanism surrounding the control of fat intake and, accordingly, in the treatment of obesity, remains unclear. Here we report a novel surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS)-fluorescence bimodal microscopic technique for detection and imaging of GPR120 in single living cells...
2018: Analytical Methods: Advancing Methods and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393045/internal-amino-acid-state-modulates-yeast-taste-neurons-to-support-protein-homeostasis-in-drosophila
#3
Kathrin Steck, Samuel J Walker, Pavel M Itskov, Célia Baltazar, José-Maria Moreira, Carlos Ribeiro
To optimize fitness, animals must dynamically match food choices to their current needs. For drosophilids, yeast fulfills most dietary protein and micronutrient requirements. While several yeast metabolites activate known gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) in Drosophila melanogaster , the chemosensory channels mediating yeast feeding remain unknown. Here we identify a class of proboscis GRNs required for yeast intake. Within this class, taste peg GRNs are specifically required to sustain yeast feeding. Sensillar GRNs, however, mediate feeding initiation...
February 2, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391908/obesity-and-brain-positron-emission-tomography
#4
REVIEW
Kyoungjune Pak, Seong-Jang Kim, In Joo Kim
Obesity, an increasingly common problem in modern societies, results from energy intake chronically exceeding energy expenditure. This imbalance of energy can be triggered by the internal state of the caloric equation (homeostasis) and non-homeostatic factors, such as social, cultural, psychological, environmental factors or food itself. Nowadays, positron emission tomography (PET) radiopharmaceuticals have been examined to understand the cerebral control of food intake in humans. Using 15O-H2 PET, changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) coupled to neuronal activity were reported in states of fasting, satiation after feeding, and sensory stimulation...
February 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386578/a-model-species-for-agricultural-pest-genomics-the-genome-of-the-colorado-potato-beetle-leptinotarsa-decemlineata-coleoptera-chrysomelidae
#5
Sean D Schoville, Yolanda H Chen, Martin N Andersson, Joshua B Benoit, Anita Bhandari, Julia H Bowsher, Kristian Brevik, Kaat Cappelle, Mei-Ju M Chen, Anna K Childers, Christopher Childers, Olivier Christiaens, Justin Clements, Elise M Didion, Elena N Elpidina, Patamarerk Engsontia, Markus Friedrich, Inmaculada García-Robles, Richard A Gibbs, Chandan Goswami, Alessandro Grapputo, Kristina Gruden, Marcin Grynberg, Bernard Henrissat, Emily C Jennings, Jeffery W Jones, Megha Kalsi, Sher A Khan, Abhishek Kumar, Fei Li, Vincent Lombard, Xingzhou Ma, Alexander Martynov, Nicholas J Miller, Robert F Mitchell, Monica Munoz-Torres, Anna Muszewska, Brenda Oppert, Subba Reddy Palli, Kristen A Panfilio, Yannick Pauchet, Lindsey C Perkin, Marko Petek, Monica F Poelchau, Éric Record, Joseph P Rinehart, Hugh M Robertson, Andrew J Rosendale, Victor M Ruiz-Arroyo, Guy Smagghe, Zsofia Szendrei, Gregg W C Thomas, Alex S Torson, Iris M Vargas Jentzsch, Matthew T Weirauch, Ashley D Yates, George D Yocum, June-Sun Yoon, Stephen Richards
The Colorado potato beetle is one of the most challenging agricultural pests to manage. It has shown a spectacular ability to adapt to a variety of solanaceaeous plants and variable climates during its global invasion, and, notably, to rapidly evolve insecticide resistance. To examine evidence of rapid evolutionary change, and to understand the genetic basis of herbivory and insecticide resistance, we tested for structural and functional genomic changes relative to other arthropod species using genome sequencing, transcriptomics, and community annotation...
January 31, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383951/gustatory-function-in-patients-with-chronic-rhinosinusitis
#6
Axel Wolf, Bertold Renner, Peter V Tomazic, Christian A Mueller
OBJECTIVES: Recent research has shown that taste receptors in airway epithelial cells are involved in defending against upper respiratory tract infection. The aim of the present study was to investigate gustatory function in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). METHODS: Taste function was assessed using the extended "taste strip" test in 37 patients with CRS (20 males, 17 females; mean age = 32.1 years; range, 20-82 years) and 135 healthy controls (70 males, 65 females; mean age = 29...
January 1, 2018: Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367405/diversity-of-internal-sensory-neuron-axon-projection-patterns-is-controlled-by-the-pou-domain-protein-pdm3-in-drosophila-larvae
#7
Cheng Sam Qian, Margarita Kaplow, Jennifer K Lee, Wesley B Grueber
Internal sensory neurons innervate body organs and provide information about internal state to the central nervous system to maintain physiological homeostasis. Despite their conservation across species, the anatomy, circuitry, and development of internal sensory systems are still relatively poorly understood. A largely unstudied population of larval Drosophila sensory neurons, termed tracheal dendrite (td) neurons, innervate internal respiratory organs and may serve as a model for understanding the sensing of internal states...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363231/wiring-taste-receptor-cells-to-the-central-gustatory-system
#8
Andrew I Spielman, Joseph G Brand
Taste receptor cells in the tongue are epithelial in nature and turnover frequently. Taste receptor cell-associated neurons carrying bitter, sweet or sour signals never turnover and are hardwired to specific gustatory centers in the brain. How can ever-changing bitter or sweet receptors find never-changing neurons that must match the specificity of the signal? This article reviews a recent paper published in Nature (Lee et al., 2017, 548:330-333) that identified two molecules belonging to the semaphorin axon guidance family of molecules (SEMA3A and SEMA7A) that help maintain the "labelled line principle" between peripheral bitter or sweet receptors and their respective central projection area in the gustatory center...
January 24, 2018: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343813/the-drosophila-gr28bd-product-is-a-non-specific-cation-channel-that-can-be-used-as-a-novel-thermogenetic-tool
#9
Aditi Mishra, Autoosa Salari, Benton R Berigan, Kayla C Miguel, Marzie Amirshenava, Abbey Robinson, Benjamin C Zars, Jenna L Lin, Lorin S Milescu, Mirela Milescu, Troy Zars
Extrinsic control of single neurons and neuronal populations is a powerful approach for understanding how neural circuits function. Adding new thermogenetic tools to existing optogenetic and other forms of intervention will increase the complexity of questions that can be addressed. A good candidate for developing new thermogenetic tools is the Drosophila gustatory receptor family, which has been implicated in high-temperature avoidance behavior. We examined the five members of the Gr28b gene cluster for temperature-dependent properties via three approaches: biophysical characterization in Xenopus oocytes, functional calcium imaging in Drosophila motor neurons, and behavioral assays in adult Drosophila...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328505/substance-p-as-a-putative-efferent-transmitter-mediates-gabaergic-inhibition-in-mouse-taste-buds
#10
Anthony Y Huang, Sandy Y Wu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Capsaicin-mediated modulation on taste nerve responses is thought to be produced indirectly by actions of neuropeptides, e.g., calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP), onto taste cells implying playing a role in taste sensitivity. During processing gustatory information in taste buds, CGRP shapes peripheral taste signals via serotonergic signaling. The underlying assumption has been that SP exerts its effects on taste transmitter secretion in taste buds of mice...
January 12, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304134/identification-of-chemosensory-genes-from-the-antennal-transcriptome-of-indian-meal-moth-plodia-interpunctella
#11
Xiaojian Jia, Xiaofang Zhang, Hongmin Liu, Rongyan Wang, Tao Zhang
Olfaction plays an indispensable role in mediating insect behavior, such as locating host plants, mating partners, and avoidance of toxins and predators. Olfactory-related proteins are required for olfactory perception of insects. However, very few olfactory-related genes have been reported in Plodia interpunctella up to now. In the present study, we sequenced the antennae transcriptome of P. interpunctella using the next-generation sequencing technology, and identified 117 candidate olfactory-related genes, including 29 odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), 15 chemosensory proteins (CSPs), three sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs), 47 odorant receptors (ORs), 14 ionotropic receptors (IRs) and nine gustatory receptors (GRs)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276056/calcium-taste-avoidance-in-drosophila
#12
Youngseok Lee, Seeta Poudel, Yunjung Kim, Dhananjay Thakur, Craig Montell
Many animals, ranging from vinegar flies to humans, discriminate a wide range of tastants, including sugars, bitter compounds, NaCl, and sour. However, the taste of Ca2+ is poorly understood, and it is unclear whether animals such as Drosophila melanogaster are endowed with this sense. Here, we examined Ca2+ taste in Drosophila and showed that high levels of Ca2+ are aversive. The repulsion was mediated by two mechanisms-activation of a specific class of gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs), which suppresses feeding and inhibition of sugar-activated GRNs, which normally stimulates feeding...
December 20, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231818/molecular-basis-of-fatty-acid-taste-in-drosophila
#13
Ji-Eun Ahn, Yan Chen, Hubert O Amrein
Behavioral studies have established that Drosophila appetitive taste responses to towards fatty acids are mediated by sweet sensing Gustatory Receptor Neurons (GRNs). Here we show that sweet GRN activation requires the function of the IonotropicReceptor genes IR25a, IR76b and IR56d. The former two IR genes are expressed in several neurons per sensilla, while IR56d expression is restricted to sweet GRNs. Importantly, loss of appetitive behavioral responses to fatty acids in IR25a and IR76b mutant flies can be completely rescued by expression of respective transgenes in sweet GRNs...
December 12, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218733/a-gene-driven-recovery-mechanism-drosophila-larvae-increase-feeding-activity-for-post-stress-weight-recovery
#14
Masasuke Ryuda, Miku Tabuchi, Hitoshi Matsumoto, Takashi Matsumura, Masanori Ochiai, Yoichi Hayakawa
Recovery from weight loss after stress is important for all organisms, although the recovery mechanisms are not fully understood. We are working to clarify these mechanisms. Here, we recorded enhanced feeding activity of Drosophila melanogaster larvae from 2 to 4 h after heat stress at 35°C for 1 h. During the post-stress period, expression levels of sweet taste gustatory receptor genes (Grs), Gr5a, Gr43a, Gr64a, and Gr64f, were elevated, whereas bitter taste Grs, Gr66a, and Gr33a, were decreased in expression and expression of a non-typical taste receptor Gr, Gr68a, was unchanged...
December 8, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198196/the-identification-and-expression-analysis-of-candidate-chemosensory-genes-in-the-bird-cherry-oat-aphid-rhopalosiphum-padi-l
#15
Z-W Kang, F-H Liu, R-P Pang, W-B Yu, X-L Tan, Z-Q Zheng, H-G Tian, T-X Liu
The bird cherry-oat aphid Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) is one of the most important wheat pests with polyphagia and autumn migrants. And, chemosensory genes were thought to play a key role in insect searching their hosts, food and mate. However, a systematic identification of the chemosensory genes in this pest has not been reported. Thus, in this study, we identified 14 odorant-binding proteins, nine chemosensory proteins, one sensory neuron membrane protein, 15 odorant receptors, 19 gustatory receptors and 16 ionotropic receptors from R...
December 4, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194737/differential-expression-of-a-fructose-receptor-gene-in-honey-bee-workers-according-to-age-and-behavioral-role
#16
Tomoyuki Takada, Taiyo Sasaki, Ryoichi Sato, Shingo Kikuta, Maki N Inoue
Honey bee (Apis mellifera) workers contribute to the maintenance of colonies in various ways. The primary functions of workers are divided into two types depending on age: young workers (nurses) primarily engage in such behaviors as cleaning and food handling within the hive, whereas older workers (foragers) acquire floral nutrients beyond the colony. Concomitant with this age-dependent change in activity, physiological changes occur in the tissues and organs of workers. Nurses supply younger larvae with honey containing high levels of glucose and supply older larvae with honey containing high levels of fructose...
December 1, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178612/identification-of-a-sugar-gustatory-receptor-and-its-effect-on-fecundity-of-the-brown-planthopper-nilaparvata-lugens
#17
Wei-Wen Chen, Kui Kang, Pan Yang, Wen-Qing Zhang
In insects, the gustatory system plays a crucial role in multiple physiological behaviors, including feeding, toxin avoidance, courtship, mating and oviposition. Gustatory stimuli from the environment are recognized by gustatory receptors. To date, little is known about the function of gustatory receptors in agricultural pest insects. In this study, we cloned a sugar gustatory receptor gene, NlGr11, from the brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), a serious pest of rice in Asia; we then identified its ligands, namely, fructose, galactose and arabinose, by calcium imaging assay...
November 27, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175757/identification-and-characterization-of-chemosensory-gene-families-in-the-bark-beetle-tomicus-yunnanensis
#18
Nai-Yong Liu, Zong-Bo Li, Ning Zhao, Qi-Sheng Song, Jia-Ying Zhu, Bin Yang
The bark beetle, Tomicus yunnanensis (Coleoptera: Scolytinae), is a seriously destructive pest of Yunnan pine (Pinus yunnanensis) and is distributed solely in Southwestern China. It has been a challenge to control this pest owing to its resistance to chemical pesticides, which have been used as the main control strategy of this species in recent years. Since this approach will continue until an alternative mitigation strategy is implemented, it is essential to develop novel or improved biocontrol approaches...
November 23, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163209/the-role-of-cholecystokinin-in-peripheral-taste-signaling-in-mice
#19
Ryusuke Yoshida, Misa Shin, Keiko Yasumatsu, Shingo Takai, Mayuko Inoue, Noriatsu Shigemura, Soichi Takiguchi, Seiji Nakamura, Yuzo Ninomiya
Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a gut hormone released from enteroendocrine cells. CCK functions as an anorexigenic factor by acting on CCK receptors expressed on the vagal afferent nerve and hypothalamus with a synergistic interaction between leptin. In the gut, tastants such as amino acids and bitter compounds stimulate CCK release from enteroendocrine cells via activation of taste transduction pathways. CCK is also expressed in taste buds, suggesting potential roles of CCK in taste signaling in the peripheral taste organ...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163195/members-of-bitter-taste-receptor-cluster-tas2r143-tas2r135-tas2r126-are-expressed-in-the-epithelium-of-murine-airways-and-other-non-gustatory-tissues
#20
Shuya Liu, Shun Lu, Rui Xu, Ann Atzberger, Stefan Günther, Nina Wettschureck, Stefan Offermanns
The mouse bitter taste receptors Tas2r143, Tas2r135, and Tas2r126 are encoded by genes that cluster on chromosome 6 and have been suggested to be expressed under common regulatory elements. Previous studies indicated that the Tas2r143/Tas2r135/Tas2r126 cluster is expressed in the heart, but other organs had not been systematically analyzed. In order to investigate the expression of this bitter taste receptor gene cluster in non-gustatory tissues, we generated a BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) based transgenic mouse line, expressing CreERT2 under the control of the Tas2r143 promoter...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
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