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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886186/a-foreleg-transcriptome-for-ixodes-scapularis-ticks-candidates-for-chemoreceptors-and-binding-proteins-that-might-be-expressed-in-the-sensory-haller-s-organ
#1
Tanya Josek, Kimberly K O Walden, Brian F Allan, Marianne Alleyne, Hugh M Robertson
Little is known about the molecular basis for the olfactory capabilities of the sensory Haller's organ on the forelegs of ticks. We first expanded the known repertoire of Ionotropic Receptors (IRs), a variant lineage of the ionotropic glutamate receptors, encoded by the black-legged Ixodes scapularis genome from 15 to 125. We then undertook a transcriptome study of fore- and hind-legs of this tick in an effort to identify candidate chemoreceptors differentially expressed in forelegs as likely to be involved in Haller's organ functions...
May 26, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29860418/short-term-exposure-to-a-calorically-dense-diet-alters-taste-evoked-responses-in-the-chorda-tympani-nerve-but-not-unconditioned-lick-responses-to-sucrose
#2
Yada Treesukosol, Chizuko Inui-Yamamoto, Haruno Mizuta, Takashi Yamamoto, Timothy H Moran
Upon presentation of a calorically dense diet, rats display hyperphagia driven by increased meal size. The increased meal size and hyperphagia is most robust across the first days of diet exposure before changes in body weight are evident, thus it is plausible that one of the factors that drives the hyperphagia may be enhanced orosensory responsivity. Here, electrophysiological responses to an array of taste stimuli were recorded from the chorda tympani (CT) nerve, a branch of the facial nerve that innervates taste receptors in the anterior tongue, of rats presented a high energy (45% fat, 17% sucrose) diet (HE) for three days...
June 1, 2018: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29850795/chemosensory-transmembrane-protein-families-in-the-coffee-white-stemborer-xylotrechus-quadripes-coleoptera-cerambycidae
#3
Ji-Xin Pang, Xin Zeng, Jia-Ying Zhu, Nai-Yong Liu
The coffee white stemborer, Xylotrechus quadripes Chevrolat (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), feeds primarily on Coffea arabica L. (Gentianales: Rubiaceae) with its egg, larva, and pupa being developed within the trunk. The detection of chemosensory-related cues linked to adult mating, host seeking, and recognition is driven by three chemoreceptor gene repertoires of odorant (ORs), gustatory (GRs), and ionotropic (IRs) receptors as well as sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs). Yet, information on these genes involved in chemoreception is unavailable in X...
May 30, 2018: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29800678/genome-wide-analysis-of-ionotropic-receptor-gene-repertoire-in-lepidoptera-with-an-emphasis-on-its-functions-of-helicoverpa-armigera
#4
Nai-Yong Liu, Wei Xu, Shuang-Lin Dong, Jia-Ying Zhu, Yu-Xing Xu, Alisha Anderson
The functions of the Ionotropic Receptor (IR) family have been well studied in Drosophila melanogaster, but only limited information is available in Lepidoptera. Here, we conducted a large-scale genome-wide analysis of the IR gene repertoire in 13 moths and 16 butterflies. Combining a homology-based approach and manual efforts, totally 996 IR candidates are identified including 31 pseudogenes and 825 full-length sequences, representing the most current comprehensive annotation in lepidopteran species. The phylogeny, expression and sequence characteristics classify Lepidoptera IRs into three sub-families: antennal IRs (A-IRs), divergent IRs (D-IRs) and Lepidoptera-specific IRs (LS-IRs), which is distinct from the case of Drosophila IRs...
May 22, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789962/genome-based-identification-and-analysis-of-ionotropic-receptors-in-spodoptera-litura
#5
Jia-Ying Zhu, Zhi-Wen Xu, Xin-Min Zhang, Nai-Yong Liu
The ability to sense and recognize various classes of compounds is of particular importance for survival and reproduction of insects. Ionotropic receptor (IR), a sub-family of the ionotropic glutamate receptor family, has been identified as one of crucial chemoreceptor super-families, which mediates the sensing of odors and/or tastants, and serves as non-chemosensory functions. Yet, little is known about IR characteristics, evolution, and functions in Lepidoptera. Here, we identify the IR gene repertoire from a destructive polyphagous pest, Spodoptera litura...
May 22, 2018: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788250/comparative-genomics-reveals-thousands-of-novel-chemosensory-genes-and-massive-changes-in-chemoreceptor-repertories-across-chelicerates
#6
Joel Vizueta, Julio Rozas, Alejandro Sánchez-Gracia
Chemoreception is a widespread biological function that is essential for the survival, reproduction, and social communication of animals. Though the molecular mechanisms underlying chemoreception are relatively well known in insects, they are poorly studied in the other major arthropod lineages. Current availability of a number of chelicerate genomes constitutes a great opportunity to better characterize gene families involved in this important function in a lineage that emerged and colonized land independently of insects...
April 1, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788112/evolution-of-gustatory-receptor-gene-family-provides-insights-into-adaptation-to-diverse-host-plants-in-nymphalid-butterflies
#7
Hiromu C Suzuki, Katsuhisa Ozaki, Takashi Makino, Hironobu Uchiyama, Shunsuke Yajima, Masakado Kawata
The host plant range of herbivorous insects is a major aspect of insect-plant interaction, but the genetic basis of host range expansion in insects is poorly understood. In butterflies, gustatory receptor genes (GRs) play important roles in host plant selection by ovipositing females. Since several studies have shown associations between the repertoire sizes of chemosensory gene families and the diversity of resource use, we hypothesized that the increase in the number of genes in the GR family is associated with host range expansion in butterflies...
May 18, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787920/identification-and-characterization-of-chemosensory-genes-in-the-antennal-transcriptome-of-spodoptera-exigua
#8
Li-Xiao Du, Yang Liu, Jin Zhang, Xi-Wu Gao, Bing Wang, Gui-Rong Wang
Chemical senses are crucial for insect behaviors such as host preference, mate choice and oviposition site selection. Various protein families are involved in these processes, including odorant receptors (ORs), ionotropic receptors (IRs), gustatory receptors (GRs), chemosensory proteins (CSPs), odorant binding proteins (OBPs) and sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs). To better understand the olfactory mechanism in Spodoptera exigua, we conducted transcriptome analysis of adult antennae and identified a total of 157 candidate chemosensory genes encoding 51 ORs, 20 IRs, 7 GRs, 32 CSPs, 45 OBPs and 2 SNMPs...
May 7, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772542/regulation-of-feeding-behavior-in-drosophila-through-the-interplay-of-gustation-physiology-and-neuromodulation
#9
Bhumika S, Arvind Kumar Singh
One of the most fundamental behaviors in all the organisms, in order to achieve a satiated state and internal energy homeostasis is feeding. The action of feeding in any being whether be it any vertebrate or an invertebrate involves the perception of the external environment along with the gamut of decision making processes to eat or to not eat. The feeding decision along with chemosensation through gustation and olfaction leads to intake of food with proper nutrient balance along with avoidance of bitter and toxic substances...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754900/burst-firing-in-bee-gustatory-neurons-prevents-adaptation
#10
Ashwin Miriyala, Sébastien Kessler, F Claire Rind, Geraldine A Wright
Animals detect changes in the environment using modality-specific, peripheral sensory neurons. The insect gustatory system encodes tastant identity and concentration through the independent firing of gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) that spike rapidly at stimulus onset and quickly adapt. Here, we show the first evidence that concentrated sugar evokes a temporally structured burst pattern of spiking involving two GRNs within the gustatory sensilla of bumblebees. Bursts of spikes resulted when a sucrose-activated GRN was inhibited by another GRN at a frequency of ∼22 Hz during the first 1 s of stimulation...
May 1, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740343/identification-of-chemosensory-genes-based-on-the-transcriptomic-analysis-of-six-different-chemosensory-organs-in-spodoptera-exigua
#11
Ya-Nan Zhang, Jia-Li Qian, Ji-Wei Xu, Xiu-Yun Zhu, Meng-Ya Li, Xiao-Xue Xu, Chun-Xiang Liu, Tao Xue, Liang Sun
Insects have a complex chemosensory system that accurately perceives external chemicals and plays a pivotal role in many insect life activities. Thus, the study of the chemosensory mechanism has become an important research topic in entomology. Spodoptera exigua Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a major agricultural polyphagous pest that causes significant agricultural economic losses worldwide. However, except for a few genes that have been discovered, its olfactory and gustatory mechanisms remain uncertain...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727827/analysis-of-the-grapevine-moth-lobesia-botrana-antennal-transcriptome-and-expression-of-odorant-binding-and-chemosensory-proteins
#12
Valentina Rojas, Héctor Jiménez, Rubén Palma-Millanao, Angélica González-González, Juan Machuca, Ricardo Godoy, Ricardo Ceballos, Ana Mutis, Herbert Venthur
The grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana, is considered a harmful pest for vineyards in Chile as well as in North America and Europe. Currently, monitoring and control methods of L. botrana are based on its main sex pheromone component, being effective for low population densities. In order to improve control methods, antennal olfactory proteins in moths, such as odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) and odorant receptors (ORs) have been studied as promising targets for the discovery of new potent semiochemicals, which have not been reported for L...
April 30, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681531/calhm3-is-essential-for-rapid-ion-channel-mediated-purinergic-neurotransmission-of-gpcr-mediated-tastes
#13
Zhongming Ma, Akiyuki Taruno, Makoto Ohmoto, Masafumi Jyotaki, Jason C Lim, Hiroaki Miyazaki, Naomi Niisato, Yoshinori Marunaka, Robert J Lee, Henry Hoff, Riley Payne, Angelo Demuro, Ian Parker, Claire H Mitchell, Jorge Henao-Mejia, Jessica E Tanis, Ichiro Matsumoto, Michael G Tordoff, J Kevin Foskett
Binding of sweet, umami, and bitter tastants to G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in apical membranes of type II taste bud cells (TBCs) triggers action potentials that activate a voltage-gated nonselective ion channel to release ATP to gustatory nerves mediating taste perception. Although calcium homeostasis modulator 1 (CALHM1) is necessary for ATP release, the molecular identification of the channel complex that provides the conductive ATP-release mechanism suitable for action potential-dependent neurotransmission remains to be determined...
May 2, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643854/the-role-of-quinine-responsive-taste-receptor-family-2-in-airway-immune-defense-and-chronic-rhinosinusitis
#14
Alan D Workman, Ivy W Maina, Steven G Brooks, Michael A Kohanski, Beverly J Cowart, Corrine Mansfield, David W Kennedy, James N Palmer, Nithin D Adappa, Danielle R Reed, Robert J Lee, Noam A Cohen
Background: Bitter (T2R) and sweet (T1R) taste receptors in the airway are important in innate immune defense, and variations in taste receptor functionality in one T2R (T2R38) correlate with disease status and disease severity in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Quinine is a bitter compound that is an agonist for several T2Rs also expressed on sinonasal cells, but not for T2R38. Because of this property, quinine may stimulate innate immune defense mechanisms in the airway, and functional differences in quinine perception may be reflective of disease status in CRS...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643828/lateralization-of-sucrose-responsiveness-and-non-associative-learning-in-honeybees
#15
David Baracchi, Elisa Rigosi, Gabriela de Brito Sanchez, Martin Giurfa
Lateralization is a fundamental property of the human brain that affects perceptual, motor, and cognitive processes. It is now acknowledged that left-right laterality is widespread across vertebrates and even some invertebrates such as fruit flies and bees. Honeybees, which learn to associate an odorant (the conditioned stimulus, CS) with sucrose solution (the unconditioned stimulus, US), recall this association better when trained using their right antenna than they do when using their left antenna. Correspondingly, olfactory sensilla are more abundant on the right antenna and odor encoding by projection neurons of the right antennal lobe results in better odor differentiation than those of the left one...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628206/odorant-receptor-might-be-related-to-sperm-dna-integrity-in-apis-cerana-cerana
#16
Lina Guo, Huiting Zhao, Bing Xu, Yusuo Jiang
Olfactory receptors (ORs) are important for insects to recognize and discriminate odorants in the environment and are mainly expressed in olfactory and gustatory organs. Little is known about the potential OR functions in non-olfactory tissues. In the present study, we evaluated the possibility of odorant receptors AcerOr1 and AcerOr2 (AcerOr2 is orthologous to the co-receptor) mediating sperm DNA integrity, and the relationship between sperm DNA integrity and semen parameters in Apis cerana cerana. Based on previous findings in mammals, we speculated that the Ca2+ /calmodulin (CaM)/CaM-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) signaling pathway might be involved in the regulation of sperm motility in A...
June 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625111/insect-taste-receptors-relevant-to-host-identification-by-recognition-of-secondary-metabolite-patterns-of-non-host-plants
#17
Mayu Kasubuchi, Fumika Shii, Kana Tsuneto, Takayuki Yamagishi, Satomi Adegawa, Haruka Endo, Ryoichi Sato
The taste sensing system is crucial for food recognition in insects and other animals. It is commonly believed that insect gustatory receptors (Grs) expressed in gustatory organs are indispensable for host plant selection. Many behavioral studies have shown that mono- or oligo-phagous lepidopteran insects use the balance between feeding attractants and feeding deterrents in host plants and that these are sensed by taste organs for host plant recognition. However, the molecular mechanism underlying taste recognition, especially of feeding deterrents, remains to be elucidated...
May 23, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610329/hybridization-and-gene-flow-in-the-mega-pest-lineage-of-moth-helicoverpa
#18
Craig J Anderson, John G Oakeshott, Wee Tek Tay, Karl H J Gordon, Andreas Zwick, Tom K Walsh
Within the mega-pest lineage of heliothine moths are a number of polyphagous, highly mobile species for which the exchange of adaptive traits through hybridization would affect their properties as pests. The recent invasion of South America by one of the most significant agricultural pests, Helicoverpa armigera , raises concerns for the formation of novel combinations of adaptive genes following hybridization with the closely related Helicoverpa zea To investigate the propensity for hybridization within the genus Helicoverpa , we carried out whole-genome resequencing of samples from six species, focusing in particular upon H...
May 8, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576440/evolution-of-dietary-preferences-and-the-innate-urge-to-heal-drug-discovery-lessons-from-ayurveda
#19
REVIEW
Akhila Hosur Shrungeswara, Mazhuvancherry Kesavan Unnikrishnan
Highly specialized and functionally integrated cognitive systems facilitate hedonistic and healthy food preferences. Guided by survival needs, flavor preferences not only select safe, nutritious dietary components, but also those with negligible calorific value but significant health benefits, for example, spices. Feeding behavior, both innate and acquired, is guided not only by taste receptors on the tongue but also visceral organs. The gustatory cortex receives information from all senses, not just taste, suggesting multiple checkpoints in predicting and evaluating healthy foods...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566459/enormous-expansion-of-the-chemosensory-gene-repertoire-in-the-omnivorous-german-cockroach-blattella-germanica
#20
Hugh M Robertson, Rachel L Baits, Kimberly K O Walden, Ayako Wada-Katsumata, Coby Schal
The acquisition of genome sequences from a wide range of insects and other arthropods has revealed a broad positive correlation between the complexity of their chemical ecology and the size of their chemosensory gene repertoire. The German cockroach Blattella germanica is an extreme omnivore and has the largest chemosensory gene repertoire known for an arthropod, exceeding even the highly polyphagous spider mite Tetranychus urticae. While the Odorant Receptor family is not particularly large, with 123 genes potentially encoding 134 receptors (105 intact), the Gustatory Receptor family is greatly expanded to 431 genes potentially encoding 545 receptors (483 intact), the largest known for insects and second only to the spider mite...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
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