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Auditory gap detection

Gavin M Bidelman, Shaum P Bhagat
Auditory filter theory posits a tradeoff in time-frequency analysis: high temporal precision is achievable only at the expense of poorer frequency resolution and vice versa. Here, we examined the hierarchy of brain mechanisms of these spectrotemporal tradeoffs through a series of physiological and behavioral measures aimed to tap temporal and spectral acuity at different levels of the auditory neuroaxis (cochlea→brainstem→percept). Cochlear and behavioral frequency selectivity was measured by stimulus-frequency otoacoustic emissions (SFOAE) and psychophysical tuning curves; temporal acuity was measured physiologically and behaviorally by paired click recovery of auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) and gap detection thresholds (GDTs), respectively...
January 1, 2017: Neuroreport
Himanshu Kumar Sanju, Vaishnavi Bohra, Sujeet Kumar Sinha
This study aimed at characterizing the gap detection threshold (GDT) and speech evoked ABR (SABR) in younger and middle-aged individuals. Two groups of subjects were participated in the study which includes 15 young adults in the age range of 15-25 years and 15 middle-aged individuals in the age range of 40-60 years. SABR with stimulus/da/of 40 ms and GDT were investigated on both groups. For SABR, Mann-Whitney U test revealed that ageing has significantly adverse effect on the encoding of F1 and F2 at brainstem level...
November 24, 2016: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
França Denise Maria Vaz Romano, Adriana Bender Moreira Lacerda, Diolen Lobato, Angela Ribas, Karin Ziliotto Dias, Tony Leroux, Adrian Fuente
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of exposure to pesticides on the central auditory functions (CAF) of Brazilian tobacco growers. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study carried out between 2010 and 2012. Participants were evaluated with two behavioural procedures to investigate CAF, the random gap detection test (RGDT) and the dichotic digit test in Portuguese (DDT). STUDY SAMPLE: A total of 22 growers exposed to pesticides (study group) and 21 subjects who were not exposed to pesticides (control group) were selected...
November 21, 2016: International Journal of Audiology
Joel I Berger, Ben Coomber, Mark N Wallace, Alan R Palmer
Tinnitus chronically affects between 10-15% of the population but despite its prevalence, the underlying mechanisms are still not properly understood. One experimental model involves administration of high doses of sodium salicylate, as this is known to reliably induce tinnitus in both humans and animals. Guinea pigs were implanted with chronic electrocorticography (ECoG) electrode arrays, with silver ball electrodes placed on the dura over left and right auditory cortex. Two more electrodes were positioned over the cerebellum to monitor auditory brainstem responses (ABRs)...
November 12, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Ömer Faruk Birkent, Turgut Karlıdağ, Figen Başar, Şinasi Yalçın, İrfan Kaygusuz, Erol Keleş, Abdulvahap Akyiğit
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the air-bone gaps in adults with mixed-type hearing loss using air-conduction auditory brainstem response (ABR) latencies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty adults with mixed-type hearing loss (study group) and 30 adults with normal hearing (control group) were included in this study. Before performing ABR measurements, ear, nose, and throat examinations, pure tone audiometry, speech audiometry, acoustic immittance audiometry, and transient evoked autoacoustic emission testing were performed for all participants...
November 7, 2016: Journal of International Advanced Otology
Rajkishor Mishra, Himanshu Kumar Sanju, Prawin Kumar
Introduction "Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by elevated blood sugar and abnormalities in insulin secretion and action" (American Diabetes Association). Previous literature has reported connection between diabetes mellitus and hearing impairment. There is a dearth of literature on auditory temporal resolution ability in individuals with diabetes mellitus type 2. Objective The main objective of the present study was to assess auditory temporal resolution ability through GDT (Gap Detection Threshold) in individuals with diabetes mellitus type 2 with high frequency hearing loss...
October 2016: International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology
Prawin Kumar, Himanshu Kumar Sanju, J Nikhil
Introduction Enhanced auditory perception in musicians is likely to result from auditory perceptual learning during several years of training and practice. Many studies have focused on biological processing of auditory stimuli among musicians. However, there is a lack of literature on temporal resolution and active auditory discrimination skills in vocal musicians. Objective The aim of the present study is to assess temporal resolution and active auditory discrimination skill in vocal musicians. Method The study participants included 15 vocal musicians with a minimum professional experience of 5 years of music exposure, within the age range of 20 to 30 years old, as the experimental group, while 15 age-matched non-musicians served as the control group...
October 2016: International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology
D Bernardeschi, N Pyatigorskaya, F Y Russo, D De Seta, G Corallo, E Ferrary, Y Nguyen, O Sterkers
OBJECTIVE: To analyse the anatomical, functional and quality-of-life results when using bioactive glass in mastoid and epitympanic obliteration. DESIGN: Prospective clinical study. SETTING: Tertiary referral centre. PARTICIPANTS: Forty-one cases (39 patients) operated between May 2013 and January 2015. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Anatomical results were evaluated by otomicroscopy 1 year after surgery and using imaging to detect residual disease...
September 8, 2016: Clinical Otolaryngology
Theofilos Petsas, Jemma Harrison, Makio Kashino, Shigeto Furukawa, Maria Chait
In this series of behavioural experiments we investigated the effect of distraction on the maintenance of acoustic scene information in short-term memory. Stimuli are artificial acoustic 'scenes' composed of several (up to twelve) concurrent tone-pip streams ('sources'). A gap (1000 ms) is inserted partway through the 'scene'; Changes in the form of an appearance of a new source or disappearance of an existing source, occur after the gap in 50% of the trials. Listeners were instructed to monitor the unfolding 'soundscapes' for these events...
September 2, 2016: Hearing Research
Nathan Barlow, Suzanne C Purdy, Mridula Sharma, Ellen Giles, Vijay Narne
This study investigated whether a short intensive psychophysical auditory training program is associated with speech perception benefits and changes in cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs) in adult cochlear implant (CI) users. Ten adult implant recipients trained approximately 7 hours on psychophysical tasks (Gap-in-Noise Detection, Frequency Discrimination, Spectral Rippled Noise [SRN], Iterated Rippled Noise, Temporal Modulation). Speech performance was assessed before and after training using Lexical Neighborhood Test (LNT) words in quiet and in eight-speaker babble...
February 2016: Seminars in Hearing
Hong Yu, Kim Vikhe Patil, Chul Han, Brian Fabella, Barbara Canlon, Shinichi Someya, Christopher R Cederroth
Gap detection or gap pre-pulse inhibition of the acoustic startle (GPIAS) has been successfully used in rat and guinea pig models of tinnitus, yet this system has been proven to have low efficacy in CBA mice, with low basal GPIAS and subtle tinnitus-like effects. Here, we tested five mouse strains (CBA, BalbC, CD-1, C57BL/6 and 129sv) for pre-pulse inhibition (PPI) and gap detection with varying interstimulus intervals (ISI) and found that mice from a CBA genetic background had the poorest capacities of suppressing the startle response in the presence of a pre-pulse or a gap...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Srikanta K Mishra, Manasa R Panda
The rapid initial phase of training-induced improvement has been shown to reflect a genuine sensory change in perception. Several features of early and rapid learning, such as generalization and stability, remain to be characterized. The present study demonstrated that learning effects from brief training on a temporal gap detection task using spectrally similar narrowband noise markers defining the gap (within-channel task), transfer across ears, however, not across spectrally dissimilar markers (between-channel task)...
July 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Yizeng Li, Karl Grosh
In a sensitive cochlea, the basilar membrane response to transient excitation of any kind-normal acoustic or artificial intracochlear excitation-consists of not only a primary impulse but also a coda of delayed secondary responses with varying amplitudes but similar spectral content around the characteristic frequency of the measurement location. The coda, sometimes referred to as echoes or ringing, has been described as a form of local, short term memory which may influence the ability of the auditory system to detect gaps in an acoustic stimulus such as speech...
July 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
Erol J Ozmeral, Ann C Eddins, D Robert Frisina, David A Eddins
The auditory system relies on extraordinarily precise timing cues for the accurate perception of speech, music, and object identification. Epidemiological research has documented the age-related progressive decline in hearing sensitivity that is known to be a major health concern for the elderly. Although smaller investigations indicate that auditory temporal processing also declines with age, such measures have not been included in larger studies. Temporal gap detection thresholds (TGDTs; an index of auditory temporal resolution) measured in 1071 listeners (aged 18-98 years) were shown to decline at a minimum rate of 1...
July 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
Arash Bayat, Mohammad Farhadi, Hesam Emamdjomeh, Nader Sakri, Golshan Mirmomeni, Fakher Rahim
INTRODUCTION: It has been demonstrated that long-term Conductive Hearing Loss (CHL) may influence the precise detection of the temporal features of acoustic signals or Auditory Temporal Processing (ATP). It can be argued that ATP may be the underlying component of many central auditory processing capabilities such as speech comprehension or sound localization. Little is known about the consequences of CHL on temporal aspects of central auditory processing. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to assess auditory temporal processing ability in individuals with chronic CHL...
April 22, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
Raquel Prestes, Adriana de Andrade Neves, Renata Beatriz Fernandes Santos, Andrea Tortosa Marangoni, Ana Maria Schiefer, Daniela Gil
INTRODUCTION: Stuttering is a speech fluency disorder, and may be associated with neuroaudiological factors linked to central auditory processing, including changes in auditory processing skills and temporal resolution. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the temporal processing and long-latency auditory evoked potential in stutterers and to compare them with non-stutterers. METHODS: The study included 41 right-handed subjects, aged 18-46 years, divided into two groups: stutterers (n=20) and non-stutters (n=21), compared according to age, education, and sex...
April 28, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
Joseph W Hall, Emily Buss, Erol J Ozmeral, John H Grose
Experiment 1 investigated gap detection for random and low-fluctuation noise (LFN) markers as a function of bandwidth (25-1600 Hz), level [40 or 75 dB sound pressure level (SPL)], and center frequency (500-4000 Hz). Gap thresholds for random noise improved as bandwidth increased from 25 to 1600 Hz, but there were only minor effects related to center frequency and level. For narrow bandwidths, thresholds were lower for LFN than random markers; this difference extended to higher bandwidths at the higher center frequencies and was particularly large at high stimulus level...
April 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Léo Varnet, Fanny Meunier, Gwendoline Trollé, Michel Hoen
A vast majority of dyslexic children exhibit a phonological deficit, particularly noticeable in phonemic identification or discrimination tasks. The gap in performance between dyslexic and normotypical listeners appears to decrease into adulthood, suggesting that some individuals with dyslexia develop compensatory strategies. Some dyslexic adults however remain impaired in more challenging listening situations such as in the presence of background noise. This paper addresses the question of the compensatory strategies employed, using the recently developed Auditory Classification Image (ACI) methodology...
2016: PloS One
Shuo Wang, Ruijuan Dong, Dongxin Liu, Luo Zhang, Li Xu
Previous studies have demonstrated that temporal envelope (E) is sufficient for speech perception, while fine structure (FS) is important for pitch perception for normal-hearing (NH) listeners. Listeners with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) have an impaired ability to use FS in lexical tone perception due to the reduced frequency resolution. Listeners with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) may have deficits in temporal resolution. Little is known about how such deficits may impact their ability to use E and FS to perceive lexical tone, and whether it is the deficit in temporal resolution or frequency resolution that may lead to more detrimental effects on FS processing in pitch perception...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Yan Gai
Masking effects of a preceding stimulus on the detection or perception of a signal have been found in several sensory systems in mammals, including humans and rodents. In the auditory system, it has been hypothesized that a central "OFF-inhibitory" mechanism, which is generated by neurons that respond after a sound is terminated, may contribute to the observed psychophysics. The present study constructed a systems model for the inferior colliculus that includes major ascending monaural and binaural auditory pathways...
June 1, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
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