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Auditory temporal processing

Tzipi Horowitz-Kraus, Rola Farah, Mark DiFrancesco, Jennifer Vannest
Story listening in children relies on brain regions supporting speech perception, auditory word recognition, syntax, semantics, and discourse abilities, along with the ability to attend and process information (part of executive functions). Speed-of-processing is an early-developed executive function. We used functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to demonstrate the relationship between story listening and speed-of-processing in preschool-age children. Eighteen participants performed story-listening tasks during MRI scans...
October 21, 2016: Neuropediatrics
Kelly N Jahn, Ryan A Stevenson, Mark T Wallace
OBJECTIVES: Despite significant improvements in speech perception abilities following cochlear implantation, many prelingually deafened cochlear implant (CI) recipients continue to rely heavily on visual information to develop speech and language. Increased reliance on visual cues for understanding spoken language could lead to the development of unique audiovisual integration and visual-only processing abilities in these individuals. Brain imaging studies have demonstrated that good CI performers, as indexed by auditory-only speech perception abilities, have different patterns of visual cortex activation in response to visual and auditory stimuli as compared with poor CI performers...
October 19, 2016: Ear and Hearing
Rebecca A Gilbert, Graham J Hitch, Tom Hartley
The capacity of serially ordered auditory-verbal short-term memory (AVSTM) is sensitive to the timing of the material to be stored, and both temporal processing and AVSTM capacity are implicated in the development of language. We developed a novel "rehearsal-probe" task to investigate the relationship between temporal precision and the capacity to remember serial order. Participants listened to a sub-span sequence of spoken digits and silently rehearsed the items and their timing during an unfilled retention interval...
October 19, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Jia Ke, Shao-Xing Zhang, Lei Hu, Chang-Sheng Li, Yun-Feng Zhu, Shi-Long Sun, Li-Feng Wang, Fu-Rong Ma
BACKGROUND: A single drilled tunnel from the lateral mastoid cortex to the cochlea via the facial recess is essential for minimally invasive cochlear implant surgery. This study aimed to explore the safety profile of this kind of new image-guided and bi-planar device-assisted surgery procedure in vitro. METHODS: Image-guided minimally invasive cochlear implantations were performed on eight cadaveric temporal bone specimens. The main procedures were: (1) temporal bone specimens were prepared for surgery and fiducial markers were registered...
2016: Chinese Medical Journal
Rajkishor Mishra, Himanshu Kumar Sanju, Prawin Kumar
Introduction "Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by elevated blood sugar and abnormalities in insulin secretion and action" (American Diabetes Association). Previous literature has reported connection between diabetes mellitus and hearing impairment. There is a dearth of literature on auditory temporal resolution ability in individuals with diabetes mellitus type 2. Objective The main objective of the present study was to assess auditory temporal resolution ability through GDT (Gap Detection Threshold) in individuals with diabetes mellitus type 2 with high frequency hearing loss...
October 2016: International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology
Prawin Kumar, Himanshu Kumar Sanju, J Nikhil
Introduction Enhanced auditory perception in musicians is likely to result from auditory perceptual learning during several years of training and practice. Many studies have focused on biological processing of auditory stimuli among musicians. However, there is a lack of literature on temporal resolution and active auditory discrimination skills in vocal musicians. Objective The aim of the present study is to assess temporal resolution and active auditory discrimination skill in vocal musicians. Method The study participants included 15 vocal musicians with a minimum professional experience of 5 years of music exposure, within the age range of 20 to 30 years old, as the experimental group, while 15 age-matched non-musicians served as the control group...
October 2016: International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology
Ryan A Stevenson, Sohee Park, Channing Cochran, Lindsey G McIntosh, Jean-Paul Noel, Morgan D Barense, Susanne Ferber, Mark T Wallace
Recent neurobiological accounts of schizophrenia have included an emphasis on changes in sensory processing. These sensory and perceptual deficits can have a cascading effect onto higher-level cognitive processes and clinical symptoms. One form of sensory dysfunction that has been consistently observed in schizophrenia is altered temporal processing. In this study, we investigated temporal processing within and across the auditory and visual modalities in individuals with schizophrenia (SCZ) and age-matched healthy controls...
October 13, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
Nina Hedayati, Kylie Schibli, Amedeo D'Angiulli
Children (aged 9-12) training in an El Sistema-inspired program (OrKidstra) and a matched comparison group participated in an auditory Go/No-Go task while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. Entire-sweep waveform patterns correlated with known ERP peaks associated with executive and other cognitive functions and indicated that the spread of neural activity in the initial 250 ms of executive attention processing (pre-P300) showed higher level of topographical overlap in OrKidstra children. In these children, late potentials (post-P300) concurrent with response control were more widely distributed and temporally coordinated...
October 13, 2016: Neurocase
Christina B Reimer, Tilo Strobach, Torsten Schubert
Both visual attention and response selection are limited in capacity. In the present study, we investigated whether visual attention requires the same bottleneck mechanism as response selection in a dual-task of the Psychological Refractory Period (PRP) paradigm. The dual-task consisted of an auditory two-choice discrimination Task 1 and a conjunction search Task 2, which were presented at variable temporal intervals (stimulus onset asynchrony, SOA). In the conjunction search task, visual attention is required to select the items and to bind the item features resulting in a serial search process...
October 13, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Rui Cai, Ben D Richardson, Donald M Caspary
: Human aging studies suggest that an increased use of top-down knowledge-based resources would compensate for degraded upstream acoustic information to accurately identify important temporally rich signals. Sinusoidal amplitude-modulated (SAM) stimuli have been used to mimic the fast-changing temporal features in speech and species-specific vocalizations. Single units were recorded from auditory thalamus [medial geniculate body (MGB)] of young awake, aged awake, young anesthetized, and aged anesthetized rats...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Maike Vollmer, Ralph Eugene Beitel, Christoph E Schreiner, Patricia A Leake
In profoundly deaf cats, behavioral training with intracochlear electric stimulation (ICES) can improve temporal processing in the primary auditory cortex (AI). To investigate whether similar effects are manifest in the auditory midbrain, ICES was initiated in neonatally deafened cats either during development after short durations of deafness (8 wk of age) or in adulthood after long durations of deafness (≥3.5 yr). All of these animals received behaviorally-meaningless, 'passive' ICES. Some animals also received behavioral training with ICES...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Julia Merrill, Marc Bangert, Daniela Sammler, Angela D Friederici
Song and speech represent two auditory categories the brain usually classifies fairly easily. Functionally, this classification ability may depend to a great extent on characteristic features of pitch patterns present in song melody and speech prosody. Anatomically, the temporal lobe (TL) has been discussed as playing a prominent role in the processing of both. Here we tested individuals with congenital amusia and patients with unilateral left and right TL lesions in their ability to categorize song and speech...
October 11, 2016: Neurocase
Kyoko Nagao, Tammy Riegner, Jennifer Padilla, L Ashleigh Greenwood, Jessica Loson, Sarah Zavala, Thierry Morlet
BACKGROUND: Although auditory processing disorder (APD) is a widely recognized impairment, its prevalence and demographic characteristics are not precisely known in the pediatric population. PURPOSE: To examine the demographic characteristics of children diagnosed with APD at a tertiary health-care facility and the prevalence of pediatric APD. RESEARCH DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. STUDY SAMPLE: A total of 243 children (149 boys and 94 girls) who were referred to the Nemours Audiology Clinics in the Delaware Valley for an APD evaluation...
October 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
Nikos Makris, A Zhu, G M Papadimitriou, P Mouradian, I Ng, E Scaccianoce, G Baselli, F Baglio, M E Shenton, Y Rathi, B Dickerson, E Yeterian, M Kubicki
Originally, the middle longitudinal fascicle (MdLF) was defined as a long association fiber tract connecting the superior temporal gyrus and temporal pole with the angular gyrus. More recently its description has been expanded to include all long postrolandic cortico-cortical association connections of the superior temporal gyrus and dorsal temporal pole with the parietal and occipital lobes. Despite its location and size, which makes MdLF one of the most prominent cerebral association fiber tracts, its discovery in humans is recent...
October 6, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Anna Dora Manca, Mirko Grimaldi
Speech sound perception is one of the most fascinating tasks performed by the human brain. It involves a mapping from continuous acoustic waveforms onto the discrete phonological units computed to store words in the mental lexicon. In this article, we review the magnetoencephalographic studies that have explored the timing and morphology of the N1m component to investigate how vowels and consonants are computed and represented within the auditory cortex. The neurons that are involved in the N1m act to construct a sensory memory of the stimulus due to spatially and temporally distributed activation patterns within the auditory cortex...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Xiangbin Teng, Xing Tian, David Poeppel
Natural sounds contain information on multiple timescales, so the auditory system must analyze and integrate acoustic information on those different scales to extract behaviorally relevant information. However, this multi-scale process in the auditory system is not widely investigated in the literature, and existing models of temporal integration are mainly built upon detection or recognition tasks on a single timescale. Here we use a paradigm requiring processing on relatively 'local' and 'global' scales and provide evidence suggesting that the auditory system extracts fine-detail acoustic information using short temporal windows and uses long temporal windows to abstract global acoustic patterns...
October 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
Toshiro Fujimoto, Eiichi Okumura, Atsushi Kodabashi, Kouzou Takeuchi, Toshiaki Otsubo, Katsumi Nakamura, Kazutaka Yatsushiro, Masaki Sekine, Shinichiro Kamiya, Susumu Shimooki, Toshiyo Tamura
We studied sex-related differences in gamma oscillation during an auditory oddball task, using magnetoencephalography and electroencephalography assessment of imaginary coherence (IC). We obtained a statistical source map of event-related desynchronization (ERD) / event-related synchronization (ERS), and compared females and males regarding ERD / ERS. Based on the results, we chose respectively seed regions for IC determinations in low (30-50 Hz), mid (50-100 Hz) and high gamma (100-150 Hz) bands. In males, ERD was increased in the left posterior cingulate cortex (CGp) at 500 ms in the low gamma band, and in the right caudal anterior cingulate cortex (cACC) at 125 ms in the mid-gamma band...
2016: Open Neuroimaging Journal
Malte R Schomers, Friedemann Pulvermüller
In the neuroscience of language, phonemes are frequently described as multimodal units whose neuronal representations are distributed across perisylvian cortical regions, including auditory and sensorimotor areas. A different position views phonemes primarily as acoustic entities with posterior temporal localization, which are functionally independent from frontoparietal articulatory programs. To address this current controversy, we here discuss experimental results from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) as well as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Jesus Martin-Cortecero, Angel Nuñez
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) plays a key role in higher functions such as memory and attention. In order to demonstrate sensory responses in the mPFC, we used electrophysiological recordings of urethane-anesthetized rats to record somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs) or auditory-evoked potentials (AEPs) elicited by whisker deflections and click stimulation, respectively. Contralateral whisker stimulation or auditory stimuli were also applied to study sensory interference in the mPFC. Interference with other sensory stimuli or recent stimulation history reduced whisker responses in the infralimbic and prelimbic cortices of the ventral mPFC...
October 1, 2016: Neuroscience
Kali Woodruff Carr, Ahren B Fitzroy, Adam Tierney, Travis White-Schwoch, Nina Kraus
Speech communication involves integration and coordination of sensory perception and motor production, requiring precise temporal coupling. Beat synchronization, the coordination of movement with a pacing sound, can be used as an index of this sensorimotor timing. We assessed adolescents' synchronization and capacity to correct asynchronies when given online visual feedback. Variability of synchronization while receiving feedback predicted phonological memory and reading sub-skills, as well as maturation of cortical auditory processing; less variable synchronization during the presence of feedback tracked with maturation of cortical processing of sound onsets and resting gamma activity...
October 1, 2016: Brain and Language
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