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Temporal processing

Christopher R Bodle, Josephine H Schamp, Joseph B O'Brien, Michael P Hayes, Meng Wu, Jonathan A Doorn, David L Roman
Regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins temporally regulate heterotrimeric G protein signaling cascades elicited by G protein-coupled receptor activation and thus are essential for cell homeostasis. The dysregulation of RGS protein expression has been linked to several pathologies, spurring discovery efforts to identify small-molecule inhibitors of these proteins. Presented here are the results of a high-throughput screening (HTS) campaign targeting RGS17, an RGS protein reported to be inappropriately upregulated in several cancers...
January 1, 2018: SLAS Discovery
T P Xiong, L L Yan, F Zhou, K Rehan, D F Liang, L Chen, W L Yang, Z H Ma, M Feng, V Vedral
Most nonequilibrium processes in thermodynamics are quantified only by inequalities; however, the Jarzynski relation presents a remarkably simple and general equality relating nonequilibrium quantities with the equilibrium free energy, and this equality holds in both the classical and quantum regimes. We report a single-spin test and confirmation of the Jarzynski relation in the quantum regime using a single ultracold ^{40}Ca^{+} ion trapped in a harmonic potential, based on a general information-theoretic equality for a temporal evolution of the system sandwiched between two projective measurements...
January 5, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Christopher J Barnes, Christopher J van der Gast, Niall P McNamara, Rebecca Rowe, Gary D Bending
Global warming is resulting in increased frequency of weather extremes. Root-associated fungi play important roles in terrestrial biogeochemical cycling processes, but the way in which they are affected by extreme weather is unclear. Here, we performed long-term field monitoring of the root-associated fungus community of a short rotation coppice willow plantation, and compared community dynamics before and after a once in 100 yr rainfall event that occurred in the UK in 2012. Monitoring of the root-associated fungi was performed over a 3-yr period by metabarcoding the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region...
January 19, 2018: New Phytologist
Linya Wang, Jing-Hsiung James Ou
Macroautophagy, hereafter autophagy, is a catabolic process that is important for maintaining cellular homeostasis. It can also be used by cells to remove intracellular microbial pathogens. However, the studies on hepatitis C virus (HCV) in recent years indicated that this virus could regulate this cellular pathway and use it to enhance its replication. HCV could temporally control the autophagic flux and use the autophagic membranes for the assembly of its RNA replication complex. In this report, we will discuss the biogenesis of autophagosomes induced by HCV and how HCV uses this autophagic pathway for its RNA replication...
January 19, 2018: DNA and Cell Biology
Mette Harboe, Julie Torvund-Jensen, Kasper Kjaer-Sorensen, Lisbeth S Laursen
During development of the central nervous system not all axons are myelinated, and axons may have distinct myelination patterns. Furthermore, the number of myelin sheaths formed by each oligodendrocyte is highly variable. However, our current knowledge about the axo-glia communication that regulates the formation of myelin sheaths spatially and temporally is limited. By using axon-mimicking microfibers and a zebrafish model system, we show that axonal ephrin-A1 inhibits myelination. Ephrin-A1 interacts with EphA4 to activate the ephexin1-RhoA-Rock-myosin 2 signaling cascade and causes inhibition of oligodendrocyte process extension...
January 19, 2018: Glia
Adam B Smith, Aude F Pacini, Paul E Nachtigall
Odontocete marine mammals explore the environment by rapidly producing echolocation signals and receiving the corresponding echoes, which likewise return at very rapid rates. Thus, it is important that the auditory system has a high temporal resolution to effectively process and extract relevant information from click echoes. This study used auditory evoked potential methods to investigate auditory temporal resolution of individuals from four different odontocete species, including a spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris), pygmy killer whale (Feresa attenuata), long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas), and Blainville's beaked whale (Mesoplodon densirostris)...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
Yulia Lerner, Maya Bleich-Cohen, Shimrit Solnik-Knirsh, Galit Yogev-Seligmann, Tamir Eisenstein, Waheed Madah, Alon Shamir, Talma Hendler, Ilana Kremer
Previous research indicates abnormal comprehension of verbal information in patients with schizophrenia. Yet the neural mechanism underlying the breakdown of verbal information processing in schizophrenia is poorly understood. Imaging studies in healthy populations have shown a network of brain areas involved in hierarchical processing of verbal information over time. Here, we identified critical aspects of this hierarchy, examining patients with schizophrenia. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined various levels of information comprehension elicited by naturally presented verbal stimuli; from a set of randomly shuffled words to an intact story...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Ebrahim Aboualizadeh, Christine M Sorenson, Alex J Schofield, Miriam Unger, Nader Sheibani, Carol J Hirschmugl
To discover the mechanisms underlying the progression of diabetic retinopathy (DR), a more comprehensive understanding of the biomolecular processes in individual retinal cells subjected to hyperglycemia is required. Despite extensive studies, the changes in the biochemistry of retinal layers during the development of DR are not well known. In this study, we aimed to determine a more detailed understanding of the natural history of DR in Akita/+ (type 1 diabetes model) male mice with different duration of diabetes...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Charles R Marshall, Chris J D Hardy, Lucy L Russell, Camilla N Clark, Rebecca L Bond, Katrina M Dick, Emilie V Brotherhood, Cath J Mummery, Jonathan M Schott, Jonathan D Rohrer, James M Kilner, Jason D Warren
Automatic motor mimicry is essential to the normal processing of perceived emotion, and disrupted automatic imitation might underpin socio-emotional deficits in neurodegenerative diseases, particularly the frontotemporal dementias. However, the pathophysiology of emotional reactivity in these diseases has not been elucidated. We studied facial electromyographic responses during emotion identification on viewing videos of dynamic facial expressions in 37 patients representing canonical frontotemporal dementia syndromes versus 21 healthy older individuals...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jose Carlos Aldana-Aguirre, Hamdy El-Hakim, Ernest Phillipos, Marc-Antoine Landry
A premature infant of 25 weeks' gestational age presented at 8 weeks after birth with otorrhoea from the left ear. Following a course of topical and systemic antibiotics, the patient deteriorated developing facial nerve paralysis and cervical lymphadenitis. Contrast-enhanced CT and MRI of the head showed a destructive process of the left temporal bone. These findings prompted the clinicians to send swabs from the purulent discharge from the ear for acid-fast bacilli stain. Furthermore, surgical exploration and debridement were undertaken...
January 17, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
R Pasion, C Fernandes, A R Gonçalves, F Ferreira-Santos, R Páscoa, F Barbosa, J Marques-Teixeira
Despite the accumulated knowledge on moral decision-making in the early stages of development, empirical evidence is still limited in the old-aged adults. The current study contributes to unveil the neural correlates of judgments of moral transgressions as a function of aging, by examining the temporal dynamics of neural activation elicited by intentional and accidental harmful actions in three groups of healthy participants: young adults (18-35), adults (40-55), and older adults (60-75). Older adults were slower and less accurate in rating intentionality, compared to the younger groups...
January 18, 2018: Social Neuroscience
Luis E C Rocha, Naoki Masuda, Petter Holme
Temporal networks have been increasingly used to model a diversity of systems that evolve in time; for example, human contact structures over which dynamic processes such as epidemics take place. A fundamental aspect of real-life networks is that they are sampled within temporal and spatial frames. Furthermore, one might wish to subsample networks to reduce their size for better visualization or to perform computationally intensive simulations. The sampling method may affect the network structure and thus caution is necessary to generalize results based on samples...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
Stanislav Burov
This work focuses on quantitative representation of transport in systems with quenched disorder. Explicit mapping of the quenched trap model to continuous time random walk is presented. Linear temporal transformation, t→t/Λ^{1/α}, for a transient process in the subdiffusive regime is sufficient for asymptotic mapping. An exact form of the constant Λ^{1/α} is established. A disorder averaged position probability density function for a quenched trap model is obtained, and analytic expressions for the diffusion coefficient and drift are provided...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
Marifi Güler
Two self-contained diffusion formulations, in the form of coupled stochastic differential equations, are developed for the temporal evolution of state densities over an ensemble of Markov chains evolving independently under a common transition rate matrix. Our first formulation derives from Kurtz's strong approximation theorem of density-dependent Markov jump processes [Stoch. PROCESS: Their Appl. 6, 223 (1978)STOPB70304-414910.1016/0304-4149(78)90020-0] and, therefore, strongly converges with an error bound of the order of lnN/N for ensemble size N...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
Luca Faes, Giandomenico Nollo, Sebastiano Stramaglia, Daniele Marinazzo
In the study of complex physical and biological systems represented by multivariate stochastic processes, an issue of great relevance is the description of the system dynamics spanning multiple temporal scales. While methods to assess the dynamic complexity of individual processes at different time scales are well established, multiscale analysis of directed interactions has never been formalized theoretically, and empirical evaluations are complicated by practical issues such as filtering and downsampling...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
Felipe Olivares, Luciano Zunino, Damián Gulich, Darío G Pérez, Osvaldo A Rosso
We have experimentally quantified the temporal structural diversity from the coordinate fluctuations of a laser beam propagating through isotropic optical turbulence. The main focus here is on the characterization of the long-range correlations in the wandering of a thin Gaussian laser beam over a screen after propagating through a turbulent medium. To fulfill this goal, a laboratory-controlled experiment was conducted in which coordinate fluctuations of the laser beam were recorded at a sufficiently high sampling rate for a wide range of turbulent conditions...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
Yichul Choi, Hyun-Joo Kim
We introduce a single generative mechanism that can be used to describe diverse nonstationary diffusions. A nonstationary Markovian replication process for steps is considered for which we derive analytically the time evolution of the probability distribution of the walker's displacement and the generalized telegrapher equation with time-varying coefficients, and we find that diffusivity can be determined by temporal changes of replication of an immediate step. By controlling the replications, we realize diverse diffusions such as alternating diffusion, superdiffusion, subdiffusion, and marginal diffusion, which originate from oscillating, increasing, decreasing, and slowly increasing or decreasing replications with time, respectively...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
Paul C Bressloff, Sean D Lawley
A fundamental issue in the theory of continuous stochastic process is the interpretation of multiplicative white noise, which is often referred to as the Itô-Stratonovich dilemma. From a physical perspective, this reflects the need to introduce additional constraints in order to specify the nature of the noise, whereas from a mathematical perspective it reflects an ambiguity in the formulation of stochastic differential equations (SDEs). Recently, we have identified a mechanism for obtaining an Itô SDE based on a form of temporal disorder...
July 2017: Physical Review. E
Sungchul Kwon, Jin Min Kim
For a fixed-energy Manna sandpile model belonging to a Manna class in one dimension (d=1), we recently showed that the critical decay is different for random and regular initial conditions (ICs). Compared with previous results of natural IC for several models, we suggested for the Manna class that the critical decay depends on the characteristics of the three ICs. But the dependence on the random and regular ICs was shown only for a single model. In this work, we study the critical decay for the random and regular ICs for another model of the Manna class in d=1, a diffusive epidemic process...
July 2017: Physical Review. E
Laurent Chevillard
Motivated by the modeling of the temporal structure of the velocity field in a highly turbulent flow, we propose and study a linear stochastic differential equation that involves the ingredients of an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, supplemented by a fractional Gaussian noise, of parameter H, regularized over a (small) time scale ε>0. A peculiar correlation between these two plays a key role in the establishment of the statistical properties of its solution. We show that this solution reaches a stationary regime, which marginals, including variance and increment variance, remain bounded when ε→0...
September 2017: Physical Review. E
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