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Temporal processing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647657/distribution-and-network-of-basal-temporal-language-areas-a-study-of-the-combination-of-electric-cortical-stimulation-and-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#1
Rei Enatsu, Aya Kanno, Satoshi Ookawa, Satoko Ochi, Sumio Ishiai, Takashi Nagamine, Nobuhiro Mikuni
OBJECTIVE: The basal temporal language area (BTLA) is considered to have several functions in language processing; however, its brain network is still unknown. This study investigated the distribution and networks of the BTLA using a combination of electric cortical stimulation and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). METHOD: Ten patients with intractable focal epilepsy who underwent presurgical evaluation with subdural electrodes were enrolled in this study (language dominant side: six patients, language non-dominant side: four patients)...
June 21, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647583/the-temporal-expression-of-adipokines-during-spinal-fusion
#2
Sohrab Virk, Alicia L Bertone, Hayam Hamaz Hussein, Jeffrey M Toth, Mari Kaido, Safdar Khan
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Adipokines are secreted by white adipose tissue and have been associated with fracture healing. Our goal was to report the temporal expression of adipokines during spinal fusion in an established rabbit model. PURPOSE: Our goal was to report the temporal expression of adipokines during spinal fusion in an established rabbit model. STUDY DESIGN: Laboratory animal model METHODS: New Zealand white rabbits were assigned to either sham surgery (n=2), unilateral posterior spinal fusion (n=14) or bilateral posterior spinal fusion (n=14)...
June 21, 2017: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647431/temporal-segmentation-for-laryngeal-high-speed-videoendoscopy-in-connected-speech
#3
Maryam Naghibolhosseini, Dimitar D Deliyski, Stephanie R C Zacharias, Alessandro de Alarcon, Robert F Orlikoff
OBJECTIVE: This study proposes a gradient-based method for temporal segmentation of laryngeal high-speed videoendoscopy (HSV) data obtained during connected speech. METHODS: A custom-developed HSV system coupled with a flexible fiberoptic nasolaryngoscope was used to record one vocally normal female participant during reading of the "Rainbow Passage." A gradient-based algorithm was developed to generate a motion window. When applied to the HSV data, the motion window acted as a filter tracking the location of the vibrating vocal folds...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647325/the-processing-of-semantic-relatedness-in-the-brain-evidence-from-associative-and-categorical-false-recognition-effects-following-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-of-the-left-anterior-temporal-lobe
#4
Emiliano Díez, Carlos J Gómez-Ariza, Antonio M Díez-Álamo, María A Alonso, Angel Fernandez
A dominant view of the role of the anterior temporal lobe (ATL) in semantic memory is that it serves as an integration hub, specialized in the processing of semantic relatedness by way of mechanisms that bind together information from different brain areas to form coherent amodal representations of concepts. Two recent experiments, using brain stimulation techniques along with the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, have found a consistent false memory reduction effect following stimulation of the ATL, pointing to the importance of the ATL in semantic/conceptual processing...
June 3, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647245/transport-and-humification-of-dissolved-organic-matter-within-a-semi-arid-floodplain
#5
Wenming Dong, Jiamin Wan, Tetsu K Tokunaga, Benjamin Gilbert, Kenneth H Williams
In order to understand the transport and humification processes of dissolved organic matter (DOM) within sediments of a semi-arid floodplain at Rifle, Colorado, fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy, humification index (HIX) and specific UV absorbance (SUVA) at 254nm were applied for characterizing depth and seasonal variations of DOM composition. Results revealed that late spring snowmelt leached relatively fresh DOM from plant residue and soil organic matter down into the deeper vadose zone (VZ)...
July 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646674/a-multimodal-spatiotemporal-cardiac-motion-atlas-from-mr-and-ultrasound-data
#6
Esther Puyol-Antón, Matthew Sinclair, Bernhard Gerber, Mihaela Silvia Amzulescu, Hélène Langet, Mathieu De Craene, Paul Aljabar, Paolo Piro, Andrew P King
Cardiac motion atlases provide a space of reference in which the motions of a cohort of subjects can be directly compared. Motion atlases can be used to learn descriptors that are linked to different pathologies and which can subsequently be used for diagnosis. To date, all such atlases have been formed and applied using data from the same modality. In this work we propose a framework to build a multimodal cardiac motion atlas from 3D magnetic resonance (MR) and 3D ultrasound (US) data. Such an atlas will benefit from the complementary motion features derived from the two modalities, and furthermore, it could be applied in clinics to detect cardiovascular disease using US data alone...
June 13, 2017: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646399/mousetrap-an-integrated-open-source-mouse-tracking-package
#7
Pascal J Kieslich, Felix Henninger
Mouse-tracking - the analysis of mouse movements in computerized experiments - is becoming increasingly popular in the cognitive sciences. Mouse movements are taken as an indicator of commitment to or conflict between choice options during the decision process. Using mouse-tracking, researchers have gained insight into the temporal development of cognitive processes across a growing number of psychological domains. In the current article, we present software that offers easy and convenient means of recording and analyzing mouse movements in computerized laboratory experiments...
June 23, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646241/never-forget-a-name-white-matter-connectivity-predicts-person-memory
#8
Athanasia Metoki, Kylie H Alm, Yin Wang, Chi T Ngo, Ingrid R Olson
Through learning and practice, we can acquire numerous skills, ranging from the simple (whistling) to the complex (memorizing operettas in a foreign language). It has been proposed that complex learning requires a network of brain regions that interact with one another via white matter pathways. One candidate white matter pathway, the uncinate fasciculus (UF), has exhibited mixed results for this hypothesis: some studies have shown UF involvement across a range of memory tasks, while other studies report null results...
June 23, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646201/comprehensive-investigation-of-temporal-and-autism-associated-cell-type-composition-dependent-and-independent-gene-expression-changes-in-human-brains
#9
Qianhui Yu, Zhisong He
The functions of human brains highly depend on the precise temporal regulation of gene expression, and the temporal brain transcriptome profile across lifespan has been observed. The substantial transcriptome alteration in neural disorders like autism has also been observed and is thought to be important for the pathology. While the cell type composition is known to be variable in brains, it remains unclear how it contributes to the temporal and pathological transcriptome changes in brains. Here, we applied a transcriptome deconvolution procedure to an age series RNA-seq dataset of healthy and autism samples, to quantify the contribution of cell type composition in shaping the temporal and autism pathological transcriptome in human brains...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646199/orthogonal-quasi-phase-matched-superlattice-for-generation-of-hyperentangled-photons
#10
Salem F Hegazy, Salah S A Obayya, Bahaa E A Saleh
A crystal superlattice structure featuring nonlinear layers with alternating orthogonal optic axes interleaved with orthogonal poling directions, is shown to generate high-quality hyperentangled photon pairs via orthogonal quasi-phase-matched spontaneous parametric downconversion. We demonstrate that orthogonal quasi-phase matching (QPM) processes in a single nonlinear domain structure correct phase and group-velocity mismatches concurrently. Compared with the conventional two-orthogonal-crystals source and the double-nonlinearity single-crystal source, the orthogonal QPM superlattice is shown to suppress the spatial and temporal distinguishability of the generated photon pairs by several orders of magnitude, depending on the number of layers...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646132/global-rainfall-erosivity-assessment-based-on-high-temporal-resolution-rainfall-records
#11
Panos Panagos, Pasquale Borrelli, Katrin Meusburger, Bofu Yu, Andreas Klik, Kyoung Jae Lim, Jae E Yang, Jinren Ni, Chiyuan Miao, Nabansu Chattopadhyay, Seyed Hamidreza Sadeghi, Zeinab Hazbavi, Mohsen Zabihi, Gennady A Larionov, Sergey F Krasnov, Andrey V Gorobets, Yoav Levi, Gunay Erpul, Christian Birkel, Natalia Hoyos, Victoria Naipal, Paulo Tarso S Oliveira, Carlos A Bonilla, Mohamed Meddi, Werner Nel, Hassan Al Dashti, Martino Boni, Nazzareno Diodato, Kristof Van Oost, Mark Nearing, Cristiano Ballabio
The exposure of the Earth's surface to the energetic input of rainfall is one of the key factors controlling water erosion. While water erosion is identified as the most serious cause of soil degradation globally, global patterns of rainfall erosivity remain poorly quantified and estimates have large uncertainties. This hampers the implementation of effective soil degradation mitigation and restoration strategies. Quantifying rainfall erosivity is challenging as it requires high temporal resolution(<30 min) and high fidelity rainfall recordings...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645710/impact-of-upstream-river-inputs-and-reservoir-operation-on-phosphorus-fractions-in-water-particulate-phases-in-the-three-gorges-reservoir
#12
Chaonan Han, Binghui Zheng, Yanwen Qin, Yingqun Ma, Chenchen Yang, Zhichao Liu, Wei Cao, Minghui Chi
The impoundment of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) has changed water-sand transport regime, with inevitable effects on phosphorus transport behavior in the TGR. In this study, we measured phosphorus fractions in water and suspended particles transported from upstream rivers of the TGR (the Yangtze River, the Jialing River and the Wu River) to reservoir inner region over the full operation schedule of the TGR. The aim was to determine how phosphorus fractions in water and particulate phases varied in response to natural hydrological processes and reservoir operations...
June 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645546/post-sepsis-cognitive-impairment-and-associated-risk-factors-a-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Allan J C Calsavara, Vandack Nobre, Tatiana Barichello, Antonio L Teixeira
INTRODUCTION: Post-sepsis cognitive impairment is one of the major sequelae observed in survivors of sepsis. This cognitive impairment can be global or may affect specific domains. A better understanding of these deficits and associated risk factors could influence the care of patients with sepsis. OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review to investigate the presence of cognitive impairment and its associated risk factors among patients who survived sepsis. METHODS: The search was conducted in MEDLINE (1966 to March 2017) and EMBASE (1988 to March 2017)...
June 20, 2017: Australian Critical Care: Official Journal of the Confederation of Australian Critical Care Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645326/improving-visualization-of-4d-flow-cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance-with-four-dimensional-angiographic-data-generation-of-a-4d-phase-contrast-magnetic-resonance-cardioangiography-4d-pc-mrca
#14
Mariana Bustamante, Vikas Gupta, Carl-Johan Carlhäll, Tino Ebbers
Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) and Phase-Contrast MRA (PC-MRA) approaches used for assessment of cardiovascular morphology typically result in data containing information from the entire cardiac cycle combined into one 2D or 3D image. Information specific to each timeframe of the cardiac cycle is, however, lost in this process. This study proposes a novel technique, called Phase-Contrast Magnetic Resonance CardioAngiography (4D PC-MRCA), that utilizes the full potential of 4D Flow CMR when generating temporally resolved PC-MRA data to improve visualization of the heart and major vessels throughout the cardiac cycle...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645000/manipulating-cues-in-mind-wandering-verbal-cues-affect-the-frequency-and-the-temporal-focus-of-mind-wandering
#15
Manila Vannucci, Claudia Pelagatti, Igor Marchetti
Our understanding of mind wandering (MW) has dramatically increased over the past decade. A key challenge still facing research is the identification of the processes and events that directly cause and control its occurrence. In the present study we sought to shed light on this question, by investigating the effects of verbal cues on the frequency and temporal focus of MW. To this aim, we experimentally manipulated the presence of irrelevant verbal cues during a vigilance task, in two independent groups (Verbal-cues group vs...
June 20, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644469/cooperative-polymerization-of-%C3%AE-helices-induced-by-macromolecular-architecture
#16
Ryan Baumgartner, Hailin Fu, Ziyuan Song, Yao Lin, Jianjun Cheng
Catalysis observed in enzymatic processes and protein polymerizations often relies on the use of supramolecular interactions and the organization of functional elements in order to gain control over the spatial and temporal elements of fundamental cellular processes. Harnessing these cooperative interactions to catalyse reactions in synthetic systems, however, remains challenging due to the difficulty in creating structurally controlled macromolecules. Here, we report a polypeptide-based macromolecule with spatially organized α-helices that can catalyse its own formation...
July 2017: Nature Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644397/relationship-between-remote-sensing-data-plant-biomass-and-soil-nitrogen-dynamics-in-intensively-managed-grasslands-under-controlled-conditions
#17
Christoph Knoblauch, Conor Watson, Clara Berendonk, Rolf Becker, Nicole Wrage-Mönnig, Florian Wichern
The sustainable use of grasslands in intensive farming systems aims to optimize nitrogen (N) inputs to increase crop yields and decrease harmful losses to the environment at the same time. To achieve this, simple optical sensors may provide a non-destructive, time- and cost-effective tool for estimating plant biomass in the field, considering spatial and temporal variability. However, the plant growth and related N uptake is affected by the available N in the soil, and therefore, N mineralization and N losses...
June 23, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643894/do-implicit-and-explicit-belief-processing-share-neural-substrates
#18
Claire K Naughtin, Kristina Horne, Dana Schneider, Dustin Venini, Ashley York, Paul E Dux
Humans rely on their ability to infer another person's mental state to understand and predict others' behavior ("theory of mind," ToM). Multiple lines of research suggest that not only are humans able to consciously process another person's belief state, but also are able to do so implicitly. Here we explored how general implicit belief states are represented in the brain, compared to those substrates involved in explicit ToM processes. Previous work on this topic has yielded conflicting results, and thus, the extent to which the implicit and explicit ToM systems draw on common neural bases is unclear...
June 23, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643873/increased-expression-of-immuno-proteasome-subunits-during-epileptogenesis-is-attenuated-by-inhibition-of-the-mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-pathway
#19
Diede W M Broekaart, Jackelien van Scheppingen, Karlijne W Geijtenbeek, Mark R J Zuidberg, Jasper J Anink, Johannes C Baayen, Angelika Mühlebner, Eleonora Aronica, Jan A Gorter, Erwin A van Vliet
OBJECTIVE: Inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway reduces epileptogenesis in various epilepsy models, possibly by inhibition of inflammatory processes, which may include the proteasome system. To study the role of mTOR inhibition in the regulation of the proteasome system, we investigated (immuno)proteasome expression during epileptogenesis, as well as the effects of the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin. METHODS: The expression of constitutive (β1, β5) and immunoproteasome (β1i, β5i) subunits was investigated during epileptogenesis using immunohistochemistry in the electrical post-status epilepticus (SE) rat model for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE)...
June 23, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642686/transcranial-random-noise-stimulation-trns-shapes-the-processing-of-rapidly-changing-auditory-information
#20
Katharina S Rufener, Philipp Ruhnau, Hans-Jochen Heinze, Tino Zaehle
Neural oscillations in the gamma range are the dominant rhythmic activation pattern in the human auditory cortex. These gamma oscillations are functionally relevant for the processing of rapidly changing acoustic information in both speech and non-speech sounds. Accordingly, there is a tight link between the temporal resolution ability of the auditory system and inherent neural gamma oscillations. Transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) has been demonstrated to specifically increase gamma oscillation in the human auditory cortex...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
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