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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914065/computational-design-of-membrane-curvature-sensing-peptides
#1
Armando Jerome de Jesus, Hang Yin
Computer simulations have become an indispensable tool in studying molecular biological systems. The unmatched spatial and temporal resolution that it offers enables for microscopic-level views into the dynamics and mechanics of biological systems. Recent advances in hardware resources have also opened up to computer simulations the investigation of longer timescale biological processes and larger systems. The study of membrane proteins or peptides especially benefits from simulations due to difficulties related to crystallization of such proteins in a membrane environment...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913433/medial-temporal-lobe-contributions-to-episodic-future-thinking-scene-construction-or-future-projection
#2
D J Palombo, S M Hayes, K M Peterson, M M Keane, M Verfaellie
Previous research has shown that the medial temporal lobes (MTL) are more strongly engaged when individuals think about the future than about the present, leading to the suggestion that future projection drives MTL engagement. However, future thinking tasks often involve scene processing, leaving open the alternative possibility that scene-construction demands, rather than future projection, are responsible for the MTL differences observed in prior work. This study explores this alternative account. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we directly contrasted MTL activity in 1) high scene-construction and low scene-construction imagination conditions matched in future thinking demands and 2) future-oriented and present-oriented imagination conditions matched in scene-construction demands...
December 1, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911952/high-interannual-variability-in-connectivity-and-genetic-pool-of-a-temperate-clingfish-matches-oceanographic-transport-predictions
#3
Maria Klein, Sara Teixeira, Jorge Assis, Ester A Serrão, Emanuel J Gonçalves, Rita Borges
Adults of most marine benthic and demersal fish are site-attached, with the dispersal of their larval stages ensuring connectivity among populations. In this study we aimed to infer spatial and temporal variation in population connectivity and dispersal of a marine fish species, using genetic tools and comparing these with oceanographic transport. We focused on an intertidal rocky reef fish species, the shore clingfish Lepadogaster lepadogaster, along the southwest Iberian Peninsula, in 2011 and 2012. We predicted high levels of self-recruitment and distinct populations, due to short pelagic larval duration and because all its developmental stages have previously been found near adult habitats...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910824/accelerated-high-resolution-photoacoustic-tomography-via-compressed-sensing
#4
Simon Arridge, Paul Beard, Marta Betcke, Ben Cox, Nam Huynh, Felix Lucka, Olumide Ogunlade, Edward Zhang
Current 3D photoacoustic tomography (PAT) systems offer either high image quality or high frame rates but are not able to deliver high spatial and temporal resolution simultaneously, which limits their ability to image dynamic processes in living tissue (4D PAT). A particular example is the planar Fabry-Pérot (FP) photoacoustic scanner, which yields high-resolution 3D images but takes several minutes to sequentially map the incident photoacoustic field on the 2D sensor plane, point-by-point. However, as the spatio-temporal complexity of many absorbing tissue structures is rather low, the data recorded in such a conventional, regularly sampled fashion is often highly redundant...
December 21, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910247/auditory-processing-in-noise-is-associated-with-complex-patterns-of-disrupted-functional-connectivity-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#5
Fahimeh Mamashli, Sheraz Khan, Hari Bharadwaj, Konstantinos Michmizos, Santosh Ganesan, Keri-Lee A Garel, Javeria Ali Hashmi, Martha R Herbert, Matti Hämäläinen, Tal Kenet
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with difficulty in processing speech in a noisy background, but the neural mechanisms that underlie this deficit have not been mapped. To address this question, we used magnetoencephalography to compare the cortical responses between ASD and typically developing (TD) individuals to a passive mismatch paradigm. We repeated the paradigm twice, once in a quiet background, and once in the presence of background noise. We focused on both the evoked mismatch field (MMF) response in temporal and frontal cortical locations, and functional connectivity with spectral specificity between those locations...
December 2, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910107/gestating-times-women-s-accounts-of-the-temporalities-of-pregnancies-that-end-in-abortion-in-england
#6
Siân M Beynon-Jones
Tensions between the 'clock time' of medicine and the embodied times of its subjects are central to feminist writing concerning Western obstetric practice. In this article, I expand the focus of this literature by addressing the temporal dynamics of another site of reproductive healthcare: abortion provision. Echoing obstetric accounts of birth, time in legal, healthcare and social scientific discourse on abortion is routinely conceptualised as a finite resource contained within the pregnant/foetal body, which can be measured using clocks and calendars...
December 2, 2016: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909214/initial-mainstream-cultural-orientations-predict-early-social-participation-in-the-mainstream-cultural-group
#7
Marina M Doucerain, Sonya S Deschênes, Jean-Philippe Gouin, Catherine E Amiot, Andrew G Ryder
This work adopts a perspective that construes acculturation as a dynamic intergroup process, and social contact with members of the new community as a key mechanism underlying cultural adaptation. We argue that migrants' initial self-reported mainstream cultural orientation constitutes an important antecedent of early social participation in the new community. Results from two longitudinal studies of newly arrived international students (N = 98 and N = 60) show that more positive initial mainstream cultural orientations prospectively predict higher social participation, specifically in the mainstream group, over the following months...
November 30, 2016: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909003/the-cytoarchitecture-of-domain-specific-regions-in-human-high-level-visual-cortex
#8
Kevin S Weiner, Michael A Barnett, Simon Lorenz, Julian Caspers, Anthony Stigliani, Katrin Amunts, Karl Zilles, Bruce Fischl, Kalanit Grill-Spector
A fundamental hypothesis in neuroscience proposes that underlying cellular architecture (cytoarchitecture) contributes to the functionality of a brain area. However, this hypothesis has not been tested in human ventral temporal cortex (VTC) that contains domain-specific regions causally involved in perception. To fill this gap in knowledge, we used cortex-based alignment to register functional regions from living participants to cytoarchitectonic areas in ex vivo brains. This novel approach reveals 3 findings...
November 30, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909000/distinct-contributions-of-dorsal-and-ventral-streams-to-imitation-of-tool-use-and-communicative-gestures
#9
Andrea Dressing, Kai Nitschke, Dorothee Kümmerer, Tobias Bormann, Lena Beume, Charlotte S M Schmidt, Vera M Ludwig, Irina Mader, Klaus Willmes, Michel Rijntjes, Christoph P Kaller, Cornelius Weiller, Markus Martin
Imitation of tool-use gestures (transitive; e.g., hammering) and communicative emblems (intransitive; e.g., waving goodbye) is frequently impaired after left-hemispheric lesions. We aimed 1) to identify lesions related to deficient transitive or intransitive gestures, 2) to delineate regions associated with distinct error types (e.g., hand configuration, kinematics), and 3) to compare imitation to previous data on pantomimed and actual tool use. Of note, 156 patients (64.3 ± 14.6 years; 56 female) with first-ever left-hemispheric ischemic stroke were prospectively examined 4...
November 30, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908787/fractionating-the-anterior-temporal-lobe-mvpa-reveals-differential-responses-to-input-and-conceptual-modality
#10
Charlotte Murphy, Shirley-Ann Rueschemeyer, David Watson, Theodoros Karapanagiotidis, Jonathan Smallwood, Elizabeth Jefferies
Words activate cortical regions in accordance with their modality of presentation (i.e., written vs. spoken), yet there is a long-standing debate about whether patterns of activity in any specific brain region capture modality-invariant conceptual information. Deficits in patients with semantic dementia highlight the anterior temporal lobe (ATL) as an amodal store of semantic knowledge but these studies do not permit precise localisation of this function. The current investigation used multiple imaging methods in healthy participants to examine functional dissociations within ATL...
November 28, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908561/beyond-eye-gaze-what-else-can-eyetracking-reveal-about-cognition-and-cognitive-development
#11
REVIEW
Maria K Eckstein, Belén Guerra-Carrillo, Alison T Miller Singley, Silvia A Bunge
This review provides an introduction to two eyetracking measures that can be used to study cognitive development and plasticity: pupil dilation and spontaneous blink rate. We begin by outlining the rich history of gaze analysis, which can reveal the current focus of attention as well as cognitive strategies. We then turn to the two lesser-utilized ocular measures. Pupil dilation is modulated by the brain's locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system, which controls physiological arousal and attention, and has been used as a measure of subjective task difficulty, mental effort, and neural gain...
November 11, 2016: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908177/automatic-segmentation-of-right-ventricle-in-cardiac-cine-mr-images-using-a-saliency-analysis
#12
Angélica Atehortúa, Maria A Zuluaga, Juan D García, Eduardo Romero
PURPOSE: Accurate measurement of the right ventricle (RV) volume is important for the assessment of the ventricular function and a biomarker of the progression of any cardiovascular disease. However, the high RV variability makes difficult a proper delineation of the myocardium wall. This paper introduces a new automatic method for segmenting the RV volume from short axis cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) images by a salient analysis of temporal and spatial observations. METHODS: The RV volume estimation starts by localizing the heart as the region with the most coherent motion during the cardiac cycle...
December 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907100/patterns-of-fish-connectivity-between-a-marine-protected-area-and-surrounding-fished-areas
#13
Rita Sahyoun, Paolo Guidetti, Antonio Di Franco, Serge Planes
Patterns of connectivity and self-recruitment are recognized as key factors shaping the dynamics of marine populations. Connectivity is also essential for maintaining and restoring natural ecological processes with genetic diversity contributing to the adaptation and persistence of any species in the face of global disturbances. Estimates of connectivity are crucial to inform the design of both marine protected areas (MPAs) and MPA networks. Among several approaches, genetic structure is frequently used as a proxy for patterns of connectivity...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907065/statistical-frailty-modeling-for-quantitative-analysis-of-exocytotic-events-recorded-by-live-cell-imaging-rapid-release-of-insulin-containing-granules-is-impaired-in-human-diabetic-%C3%AE-cells
#14
Giuliana Cortese, Nikhil R Gandasi, Sebastian Barg, Morten Gram Pedersen
Hormones and neurotransmitters are released when secretory granules or synaptic vesicles fuse with the cell membrane, a process denoted exocytosis. Modern imaging techniques, in particular total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, allow the investigator to monitor secretory granules at the plasma membrane before and when they undergo exocytosis. However, rigorous statistical approaches for temporal analysis of such exocytosis data are still lacking. We propose here that statistical methods from time-to-event (also known as survival) analysis are well suited for the problem...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906974/in-silico-knockout-studies-of-xenophagic-capturing-of-salmonella
#15
Jennifer Scheidel, Leonie Amstein, Jörg Ackermann, Ivan Dikic, Ina Koch
The degradation of cytosol-invading pathogens by autophagy, a process known as xenophagy, is an important mechanism of the innate immune system. Inside the host, Salmonella Typhimurium invades epithelial cells and resides within a specialized intracellular compartment, the Salmonella-containing vacuole. A fraction of these bacteria does not persist inside the vacuole and enters the host cytosol. Salmonella Typhimurium that invades the host cytosol becomes a target of the autophagy machinery for degradation...
December 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906359/monitoring-blood-vital-bio-signs-using-secondary-speckle-patterns
#16
Talia Sirkis, Yevgeny Beiderman, Sergey Agdarov, Yafim Beiderman, Zeev Zalevsky
Continuous noninvasive measurement of vital bio-signs, such as cardiopulmonary parameters, is an important tool in the evaluation process of the patient's physiological condition and in the health monitoring of the patient. On the demand of new enabling technologies, some works have been done in continuous monitoring of blood pressure and pulse wave velocity. In this paper, we introduce further application of a novel technique for remote noncontact blood pulse wave velocity and pressure measurement based on tracking the temporal changes of reflected secondary speckle patterns produced in human skin when illuminated by a laser beam...
November 28, 2016: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906358/monitoring-blood-vital-bio-signs-using-secondary-speckle-patterns
#17
Talia Sirkis, Yevgeny Beiderman, Sergey Agdarov, Yafim Beiderman, Zeev Zalevsky
Continuous noninvasive measurement of vital bio-signs, such as cardiopulmonary parameters, is an important tool in the evaluation process of the patient's physiological condition and in the health monitoring of the patient. On the demand of new enabling technologies, some works have been done in continuous monitoring of blood pressure and pulse wave velocity. In this paper, we introduce further application of a novel technique for remote noncontact blood pulse wave velocity and pressure measurement based on tracking the temporal changes of reflected secondary speckle patterns produced in human skin when illuminated by a laser beam...
November 28, 2016: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906316/ring-modulators-with-enhanced-efficiency-based-on-standing-wave-operation-on-a-field-matched-interdigitated-p-n-junction
#18
Fabio Pavanello, Xiaoge Zeng, Mark T Wade, Miloš A Popović
We propose ring modulators based on interdigitated p-n junctions that exploit standing rather than traveling-wave resonant modes to improve modulation efficiency, insertion loss and speed. Matching the longitudinal nodes and antinodes of a standing-wave mode with high (contacts) and low (depletion regions) carrier density regions, respectively, simultaneously lowers loss and increases sensitivity significantly. This approach permits further to relax optical constraints on contacts placement and can lead to lower device capacitance...
November 28, 2016: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906104/the-effects-of-computer-based-mindfulness-training-on-self-control-and-mindfulness-within-ambulatorily-assessed-network-systems-across-health-related-domains-in-a-healthy-student-population-smash-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Zarah Rowland, Mario Wenzel, Thomas Kubiak
BACKGROUND: Self-control is an important ability in everyday life, showing associations with health-related outcomes. The aim of the Self-control and Mindfulness within Ambulatorily assessed network Systems across Health-related domains (SMASH) study is twofold: first, the effectiveness of a computer-based mindfulness training will be evaluated in a randomized controlled trial. Second, the SMASH study implements a novel network approach in order to investigate complex temporal interdependencies of self-control networks across several domains...
December 1, 2016: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905969/disparities-in-length-of-life-across-developed-countries-measuring-and-decomposing-changes-over-time-within-and-between-country-groups
#20
Sergey Timonin, Vladimir M Shkolnikov, Domantas Jasilionis, Pavel Grigoriev, Dmitry A Jdanov, David A Leon
BACKGROUND: Over the past half century the global tendency for improvements in longevity has been uneven across countries. This has resulted in widening of inter-country disparities in life expectancy. Moreover, the pattern of divergence appears to be driven in part by processes at the level of country groupings defined in geopolitical terms. A systematic quantitative analysis of this phenomenon has not been possible using demographic decomposition approaches as these have not been suitably adapted for this purpose...
August 11, 2016: Population Health Metrics
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