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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098306/effective-viscosity-and-dynamics-of-spreading-epithelia-a-solvable-model
#1
C Blanch-Mercader, R Vincent, E Bazellières, X Serra-Picamal, X Trepat, J Casademunt
Collective cell migration in spreading epithelia in controlled environments has become a landmark in our current understanding of fundamental biophysical processes in development, regeneration, wound healing or cancer. Epithelial monolayers are treated as thin layers of a viscous fluid that exert active traction forces on the substrate. The model is exactly solvable and shows a broad range of applicabilities for the quantitative analysis and interpretation of force microscopy data of monolayers from a variety of experiments and cell lines...
January 18, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097509/revealing-pmdi-spray-initial-conditions-flashing-atomisation-and-the-effect-of-ethanol
#2
Nicholas Mason-Smith, Daniel J Duke, Alan L Kastengren, Daniela Traini, Paul M Young, Yang Chen, David A Lewis, Daniel Edgington-Mitchell, Damon Honnery
PURPOSE: Sprays from pressurised metered-dose inhalers are produced by a transient discharge of a multiphase mixture. Small length and short time scales have made the investigation of the governing processes difficult. Consequently, a deep understanding of the physical processes that govern atomisation and drug particle formation has been elusive. METHODS: X-ray phase contrast imaging and quantitative radiography were used to reveal the internal flow structure and measure the time-variant nozzle exit mass density of 50 µL metered sprays of HFA134a, with and without ethanol cosolvent...
January 17, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096381/scene-selective-coding-by-single-neurons-in-the-human-parahippocampal-cortex
#3
Florian Mormann, Simon Kornblith, Moran Cerf, Matias J Ison, Alexander Kraskov, Michelle Tran, Simeon Knieling, Rodrigo Quian Quiroga, Christof Koch, Itzhak Fried
Imaging, electrophysiological, and lesion studies have shown a relationship between the parahippocampal cortex (PHC) and the processing of spatial scenes. Our present knowledge of PHC, however, is restricted to the macroscopic properties and dynamics of bulk tissue; the behavior and selectivity of single parahippocampal neurons remains largely unknown. In this study, we analyzed responses from 630 parahippocampal neurons in 24 neurosurgical patients during visual stimulus presentation. We found a spatially clustered subpopulation of scene-selective units with an associated event-related field potential...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095497/replication-coupled-recruitment-of-viral-and-cellular-factors-to-herpes-simplex-virus-type-1-replication-forks-for-the-maintenance-and-expression-of-viral-genomes
#4
Jill A Dembowski, Sarah E Dremel, Neal A DeLuca
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infects over half the human population. Much of the infectious cycle occurs in the nucleus of cells where the virus has evolved mechanisms to manipulate host processes for the production of virus. The genome of HSV-1 is coordinately expressed, maintained, and replicated such that progeny virions are produced within 4-6 hours post infection. In this study, we selectively purify HSV-1 replication forks and associated proteins from virus-infected cells and identify select viral and cellular replication, repair, and transcription factors that associate with viral replication forks...
January 17, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095493/thoracic-temporal-subtraction-three-dimensional-computed-tomography-3d-ct-screening-for-vertebral-metastases-of-primary-lung-cancers
#5
Shingo Iwano, Rintaro Ito, Hiroyasu Umakoshi, Takatoshi Karino, Tsutomu Inoue, Yuanzhong Li, Shinji Naganawa
PURPOSE: We developed an original, computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) software that subtracts the initial thoracic vertebral three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) image from the follow-up 3D-CT image. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of this CAD software during screening for vertebral metastases on follow-up CT images of primary lung cancer patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The interpretation experiment included 30 sets of follow-up CT scans in primary lung cancer patients and was performed by two readers (readers A and B), who each had 2...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095313/prefrontal-mediation-of-emotion-regulation-in-social-anxiety-disorder-during-laughter-perception
#6
Benjamin Kreifelts, Carolin Brück, Thomas Ethofer, Jan Ritter, Lena Weigel, Michael Erb, Dirk Wildgruber
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by negatively biased perception of social cues and deficits in emotion regulation. While negatively biased perception is thought to maintain social anxiety, emotion regulation represents an ability necessary to overcome both biased perception and social anxiety. Here, we used laughter as a social threat in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study to identify cerebral mediators linking SAD with attention and interpretation biases and their modification through cognitive emotion regulation in the form of reappraisal...
January 14, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095192/spike-centered-jitter-can-mistake-temporal-structure
#7
Jonathan Platkiewicz, Eran Stark, Asohan Amarasingham
Jitter-type spike resampling methods are routinely applied in neurophysiology for detecting temporal structure in spike trains (point processes). Several variations have been proposed. The concern has been raised, based on numerical experiments involving Poisson spike processes, that such procedures can be conservative. We study the issue and find it can be resolved by reemphasizing the distinction between spike-centered (basic) jitter and interval jitter. Focusing on spiking processes with no temporal structure, interval jitter generates an exact hypothesis test, guaranteeing valid conclusions...
January 17, 2017: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094067/differential-intensity-projection-for-visualisation-and-quantification-of-plaque-neovascularisation-in-contrast-enhanced-ultrasound-images-of-carotid-arteries
#8
Wing Keung Cheung, Benoy N Shah, Antonio Stanziola, Dorothy M Gujral, Navtej S Chahal, David O Cosgrove, Roxy Senior, Meng-Xing Tang
Studies have reported that intraplaque neovascularisation (IPN) is closely correlated with plaque vulnerability. In this study, a new image processing approach, differential intensity projection (DIP), was developed to visualise and quantify IPN in contrast-enhanced non-linear ultrasound image sequences of carotid arteries. DIP used the difference between the local temporal maximum and the local temporal average signals to identify bubbles against tissue non-linear artefact and noise. The total absolute and relative areas occupied by bubbles within each plaque were calculated to quantify IPN...
January 13, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092919/compensatory-water-effects-link-yearly-global-land-co2-sink-changes-to-temperature
#9
Martin Jung, Markus Reichstein, Christopher R Schwalm, Chris Huntingford, Stephen Sitch, Anders Ahlström, Almut Arneth, Gustau Camps-Valls, Philippe Ciais, Pierre Friedlingstein, Fabian Gans, Kazuhito Ichii, Atul K Jain, Etsushi Kato, Dario Papale, Ben Poulter, Botond Raduly, Christian Rödenbeck, Gianluca Tramontana, Nicolas Viovy, Ying-Ping Wang, Ulrich Weber, Sönke Zaehle, Ning Zeng
Large interannual variations in the measured growth rate of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) originate primarily from fluctuations in carbon uptake by land ecosystems. It remains uncertain, however, to what extent temperature and water availability control the carbon balance of land ecosystems across spatial and temporal scales. Here we use empirical models based on eddy covariance data and process-based models to investigate the effect of changes in temperature and water availability on gross primary productivity (GPP), terrestrial ecosystem respiration (TER) and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) at local and global scales...
January 16, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092909/immune-mediated-neuropathies-following-autologous-stem-cell-transplantation-for-multiple-myeloma-case-series-and-review-of-the-literature
#10
Ghulam Rehman Mohyuddin, Jacqueline Uy, Honhar Medhavi, Muhammad Salman Faisal, Muzaffar H Qazilbash
Neuropathy is a common finding in patients with multiple myeloma. Several different factors can cause neuropathy in these patients, such as the underlying disease itself, medications used for treatment, or immune-mediated processes. Immune-mediated neuropathies (IMN) consist of a heterogeneous spectrum of peripheral nerve disorders. Although IMN is associated with several hematological disorders, it remains a very rare complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT). We describe our experiences of 3 patients with multiple myeloma who experienced IMN following autologous HCT (auto-HCT)...
January 17, 2017: Acta Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092785/integrated-ssfp-for-functional-brain-mapping-at-7t-with-reduced-susceptibility-artifact
#11
Kaibao Sun, Rong Xue, Peng Zhang, Zhentao Zuo, Zhongwei Chen, Bo Wang, Thomas Martin, Yi Wang, Lin Chen, Sheng He, Danny J J Wang
Balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) offers an alternative and potentially important tool to the standard gradient-echo echo-planar imaging (GE-EPI) for functional MRI (fMRI). Both passband and transition band based bSSFP have been proposed for fMRI. The applications of these methods, however, are limited by banding artifacts due to the sensitivity of bSSFP signal to off-resonance effects. In this article, a unique case of the SSFP-FID sequence, termed integrated-SSFP or iSSFP, was proposed to overcome the obstacle by compressing the SSFP profile into the width of a single voxel...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092740/temporal-variations-in-early-developmental-decisions-an-engine-of-forebrain-evolution
#12
REVIEW
H Bielen, S Pal, S Tole, C Houart
Tight control of developmental timing is pivotal to many major processes in developmental biology, such as patterning, fate specification, cell cycle dynamics, cell migration and connectivity. Temporal change in these ontogenetic sequences is known as heterochrony, a major force in the evolution of body plans and organogenesis. In the last 5 years, studies in fish and rodents indicate that heterochrony in signaling during early development generates diversity in forebrain size and complexity. Here, we summarize these findings and propose that, additionally to spatio-temporal tuning of neurogenesis, temporal and quantitative modulation of signaling events drive pivotal changes in shape, size and complexity of the forebrain across evolution, participating to the generation of diversity in animal behavior and emergence of cognition...
January 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092561/realistic-data-driven-traffic-flow-animation-using-texture-synthesis
#13
Qianwen Chao, Zhigang Deng, Jiaping Ren, Qianqian Ye, Xiaogang Jin
We present a novel data-driven approach to populate virtual road networks with realistic traffic flows. Specifically, given a limited set of vehicle trajectories as the input samples, our approach first synthesizes a large set of vehicle trajectories. By taking the spatio-temporal information of traffic flows as a 2D texture, the generation of new traffic flows can be formulated as a texture synthesis process, which is solved by minimizing a newly developed traffic texture energy. The synthesized output captures the spatio-temporal dynamics of the input traffic flows, and the vehicle interactions in it strictly follow traffic rules...
January 11, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092560/diffeomorphic-multi-frame-non-rigid-registration-of-cell-nuclei-in-2d-and-3d-live-cell-images
#14
Marco Tektonidis, Karl Rohr
To gain a better understanding of cellular and molecular processes it is important to quantitatively analyze the motion of subcellular particles in live cell microscopy image sequences. Since generally the subcellular particles move and cell nuclei move as well as deform, it is important to decouple the movement of particles from that of the cell nuclei using nonrigid registration methods. We have developed a diffeomorphic multi-frame approach for non-rigid registration of cell nuclei in 2D and 3D live cell fluorescence microscopy images...
January 16, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092528/low-rank-and-adaptive-sparse-signal-lassi-models-for-highly-accelerated-dynamic-imaging
#15
Saiprasad Ravishankar, Brian Moore, Raj Nadakuditi, Jeffrey Fessler
Sparsity-based approaches have been popular in many applications in image processing and imaging. Compressed sensing exploits the sparsity of images in a transform domain or dictionary to improve image recovery from undersampled measurements. In the context of inverse problems in dynamic imaging, recent research has demonstrated the promise of sparsity and low-rank techniques. For example, the patches of the underlying data are modeled as sparse in an adaptive dictionary domain, and the resulting image and dictionary estimation from undersampled measurements is called dictionary-blind compressed sensing, or the dynamic image sequence is modeled as a sum of low-rank and sparse (in some transform domain) components (L+S model) that are estimated from limited measurements...
January 10, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092512/a-hidden-markov-model-for-seismocardiography
#16
Johan Wahlstrom, Isaac Skog, Peter Handel, Farzad Khosrow-Khavar, Kouhyar Tavakolian, Phyllis K Stein, Arye Nehorai
We propose a hidden Markov model approach for processing seismocardiograms. The seismocardiogram morphology is learned using the expectation-maximization algorithm, and the state of the heart at a given time instant is estimated by the Viterbi algorithm. From the obtained Viterbi sequence, it is then straightforward to estimate instantaneous heart rate, heart rate variability measures, and cardiac time intervals (the latter requiring a small number of manual annotations). As is shown in the conducted experimental study, the presented algorithm outperforms the state-of-the-art in seismocardiogrambased heart rate and heart rate variability estimation Moreover, the isovolumic contraction time and the left ventricular ejection time are estimated with mean absolute errors of about 5 [ms] and 9 [ms], respectively...
January 9, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092277/hierarchical-linear-modeling-for-analysis-of-ecological-momentary-assessment-data-in-physical-medicine-and-rehabilitation-research
#17
Lauren Terhorst, Kelly Battle Beck, Ashlee B McKeon, Kristin M Graham, Feifei Ye, Saul Shiffman
Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) methods collect real-time data in real-world environments, which allow physical medicine and rehabilitation researchers to examine objective outcome data and reduces bias from retrospective recall. The statistical analysis of EMA data is directly related to the research question and the temporal design of the study. Hierarchical linear modeling, which accounts for multiple observations from the same participant, is a particularly useful approach to analyzing EMA data. The objective of this paper was to introduce the process of conducting hierarchical linear modeling analyses with EMA data...
January 13, 2017: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092011/microbubble-moving-in-blood-flow-in-microchannels-effect-on-the-cell-free-layer-and-cell-local-concentration
#18
David Bento, Lúcia Sousa, Tomoko Yaginuma, Valdemar Garcia, Rui Lima, João M Miranda
Gas embolisms can hinder blood flow and lead to occlusion of the vessels and ischemia. Bubbles in microvessels circulate as tubular bubbles (Taylor bubbles) and can be trapped, blocking the normal flow of blood. To understand how Taylor bubbles flow in microcirculation, in particular, how bubbles disturb the blood flow at the scale of blood cells, experiments were performed in microchannels at a low Capillary number. Bubbles moving with a stream of in vitro blood were filmed with the help of a high-speed camera...
March 2017: Biomedical Microdevices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091578/temporal-dynamics-of-cerebellar-and-motor-cortex-physiological-processes-during-motor-skill-learning
#19
D Spampinato, P Celnik
Learning motor tasks involves distinct physiological processes in the cerebellum (CB) and primary motor cortex (M1). Previous studies have shown that motor learning results in at least two important neurophysiological changes: modulation of cerebellar output mediated in-part by long-term depression of parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapse and induction of long-term plasticity (LTP) in M1, leading to transient occlusion of additional LTP-like plasticity. However, little is known about the temporal dynamics of these two physiological mechanisms during motor skill learning...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089696/differential-sensory-cortical-involvement-in-auditory-and-visual-sensorimotor-temporal-recalibration-evidence-from-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs
#20
Ali Aytemür, Nathalia Almeida, Kwang-Hyuk Lee
Adaptation to delayed sensory feedback following an action produces a subjective time compression between the action and the feedback (temporal recalibration effect, TRE). TRE is important for sensory delay compensation to maintain a relationship between causally related events. It is unclear whether TRE is a sensory modality-specific phenomenon. In 3 experiments employing a sensorimotor synchronization task, we investigated this question using cathodal transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS). We found that cathodal tDCS over the visual cortex, and to a lesser extent over the auditory cortex, produced decreased visual TRE...
January 12, 2017: Neuropsychologia
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