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Temporal processing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742230/allopatric-speciation-despite-historical-gene-flow-divergence-and-hybridization-in-carex-furva-and-c-lucennoiberica-cyperaceae-inferred-from-plastid-and-nuclear-rad-seq-data
#1
E Maguilla, M Escudero, A L Hipp, M Luceño
Gene flow among incipient species can act as a creative or destructive force in the speciation process, generating variation on which natural selection can act while, potentially, undermining population divergence. The flowering plant genus Carex exhibits a rapid and relatively recent radiation with many species limits still unclear. This is the case with the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal) endemic C. lucennoiberica, which lay unrecognized within Carex furva until its recent description as a new species...
July 25, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742153/reconstructing-the-regulatory-circuit-of-cell-fate-determination-in-yeast-mating-response
#2
Bin Shao, Haiyu Yuan, Rongfei Zhang, Xuan Wang, Shuwen Zhang, Qi Ouyang, Nan Hao, Chunxiong Luo
Massive technological advances enabled high-throughput measurements of proteomic changes in biological processes. However, retrieving biological insights from large-scale protein dynamics data remains a challenging task. Here we used the mating differentiation in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model and developed integrated experimental and computational approaches to analyze the proteomic dynamics during the process of cell fate determination. When exposed to a high dose of mating pheromone, the yeast cell undergoes growth arrest and forms a shmoo-like morphology; however, at intermediate doses, chemotropic elongated growth is initialized...
July 24, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742127/tpc1-is-an-important-zn-ii-2cys6-transcriptional-regulator-required-for-polarized-growth-and-virulence-in-the-rice-blast-fungus
#3
Rita Galhano, Adriana Illana, Lauren S Ryder, Julio Rodríguez-Romero, Marie Demuez, Muhammad Badaruddin, Ana Lilia Martinez-Rocha, Darren M Soanes, David J Studholme, Nicholas J Talbot, Ane Sesma
The establishment of polarity is a critical process in pathogenic fungi, mediating infection-related morphogenesis and host tissue invasion. Here, we report the identification of TPC1 (Transcription factor for Polarity Control 1), which regulates invasive polarized growth in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. TPC1 encodes a putative transcription factor of the fungal Zn(II)2Cys6 family, exclusive to filamentous fungi. Tpc1-deficient mutants show severe defects in conidiogenesis, infection-associated autophagy, glycogen and lipid metabolism, and plant tissue colonisation...
July 24, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742117/comparison-of-gcamp3-and-gcamp6f-for-studying-astrocyte-ca2-dynamics-in-the-awake-mouse-brain
#4
Liang Ye, Mateen A Haroon, Angelica Salinas, Martin Paukert
In recent years it has become increasingly clear that astrocytes play a much more active role in neural processes than the traditional view of them as supporting cells suggests. Although not electrically excitable, astrocytes exhibit diverse Ca2+ dynamics across spatial and temporal scales, more or less dependent on the animal's behavioral state. Ca2+ dynamics range from global elevations lasting multiple seconds encompassing the soma up to the finest processes, to short elevations restricted to so-called microdomains within fine processes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742107/analyzing-the-locomotory-gaitprint-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-on-the-basis-of-empirical-mode-decomposition
#5
Li-Chun Lin, Han-Sheng Chuang
The locomotory gait analysis of the microswimmer, Caenorhabditis elegans, is a commonly adopted approach for strain recognition and examination of phenotypic defects. Gait is also a visible behavioral expression of worms under external stimuli. This study developed an adaptive data analysis method based on empirical mode decomposition (EMD) to reveal the biological cues behind intricate motion. The method was used to classify the strains of worms according to their gaitprints (i.e., phenotypic traits of locomotion)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742091/multiple-visual-objects-are-sampled-sequentially
#6
Ole Jensen, Marlies E Vissers
When acting in a complex visual environment, it is essential to be able to flexibly allocate attention to parts of the visual scene that may contain goal-relevant information. The paper by Jia et al. provides novel evidence that our brains sequentially sample different objects in a visual scene. The results were obtained using "temporal response functions," in which unique electroencephalographic (EEG) signals corresponding to the processing of 2 continuously presented objects were isolated in an object-specific way...
July 24, 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742052/a-semi-analytical-model-of-time-reversal-cavity-for-high-amplitude-focused-ultrasound-applications
#7
Justine Robin, Mickael Tanter, Mathieu Pernot
Time reversal cavities (TRC) have been proposed as an efficient approach for 3D ultrasound therapy. They indeed allow precise spatio-temporal focusing of high power ultrasound pulses within a large region of interest with a low number of transducers. Leaky TRCs are usually built by placing a multiple scattering medium such as a random rods forest in a reverberating cavity, and the final peak pressure gain of the device only depends on the temporal length of its impulse response. Such multiple scattering in a reverberating cavity is a complex phenomenon, and the optimization of the device's gain is usually a cumbersome process, mostly empirical, and requiring numerical simulations with extremely long computational times...
July 25, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740752/long-term-resource-addition-to-a-detrital-food-web-yields-a-pattern-of-responses-more-complex-than-pervasive-bottom-up-control
#8
Kendra L Lawrence, David H Wise
BACKGROUND: Theory predicts strong bottom-up control in detritus-based food webs, yet field experiments with detritus-based terrestrial systems have uncovered contradictory evidence regarding the strength and pervasiveness of bottom-up control processes. Two factors likely leading to contradictory results are experiment duration, which influences exposure to temporal variation in abiotic factors such as rainfall and affects the likelihood of detecting approach to a new equilibrium; and openness of the experimental units to immigration and emigration...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740553/a-fluorogenic-probe-for-ultrafast-and-reversible-detection-of-formaldehyde-in-neurovascular-tissues
#9
Xing-Guang Liang, Bo Chen, Ling-Xiao Shao, Juan Cheng, Ming-Zhu Huang, Yu Chen, Yong-Zhou Hu, Yi-Feng Han, Feng Han, Xin Li
Formaldehyde (FA) is endogenously produced in live systems and has been implicated in a diverse array of pathophysiological processes. To disentangle the detailed molecular mechanisms of FA biology, a reliable method for monitoring FA changes in live cells would be indispensable. Although there have been several fluorescent probes reported to detect FA, most are limited by the slow detection kinetics and the intrinsic disadvantage of detecting FA in an irreversible manner which may disturb endogenous FA homeostasis...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740497/the-role-of-multiscale-protein-dynamics-in-antigen-presentation-and-t-lymphocyte-recognition
#10
R Charlotte Eccleston, Shunzhou Wan, Neil Dalchau, Peter V Coveney
T lymphocytes are stimulated when they recognize short peptides bound to class I proteins of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) protein, as peptide-MHC complexes. Due to the diversity in T-cell receptor (TCR) molecules together with both the peptides and MHC proteins they bind to, it has been difficult to design vaccines and treatments based on these interactions. Machine learning has made some progress in trying to predict the immunogenicity of peptide sequences in the context of specific MHC class I alleles but, as such approaches cannot integrate temporal information and lack explanatory power, their scope will always be limited...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739639/advances-in-neuroscience-imply-that-harmful-experiments-in-dogs-are-unethical
#11
Jarrod Bailey, Shiranee Pereira
Functional MRI (fMRI) of fully awake and unrestrained dog 'volunteers' has been proven an effective tool to understand the neural circuitry and functioning of the canine brain. Although every dog owner would vouch that dogs are perceptive, cognitive, intuitive and capable of positive emotions/empathy, as indeed substantiated by ethological studies for some time, neurological investigations now corroborate this. These studies show that there exists a striking similarity between dogs and humans in the functioning of the caudate nucleus (associated with pleasure and emotion), and dogs experience positive emotions, empathic-like responses and demonstrate human bonding which, some scientists claim, may be at least comparable with human children...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739522/bimodal-odor-processing-with-a-trigeminal-component-at-sub-and-suprathreshold-levels
#12
Robert Pellegrino, Edda Drechsler, Cornelia Hummel, Johnathan Warr, Thomas Hummel
Odors are typically bimodal in nature, interacting with the olfactory and trigeminal systems. The trigeminal component may be noticed (e.g. menthol) or perceptually ignored, leading to different neural substrates being recruited during odor encoding. Therefore, the current study was designed to explore the perceptual and central-nervous activations in response to pleasant bimodal odors using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In this study, healthy subjects were exposed to odorants alone (unimodal) or with a "cooling" trigeminal component (bimodal) at sub- and suprathreshold concentrations with a portable olfactometer in a 3 T fMRI scanner...
July 21, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739482/brain-responses-to-40-hz-binaural-beat-and-effects-on-emotion-and-memory
#13
Nantawachara Jirakittayakorn, Yodchanan Wongsawat
Gamma oscillation plays a role in binding process or sensory integration, a process by which several brain areas beside primary cortex are activated for higher perception of the received stimulus. Beta oscillation is also involved in interpreting received stimulus and occurs following gamma oscillation, and this process is known as gamma-to-beta transition, a process for neglecting unnecessary stimuli in surrounding environment. Gamma oscillation also associates with cognitive functions, memory and emotion...
July 21, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739382/developmental-trends-in-infant-temporal-processing-speed
#14
Sarah E Saint, Billy R Hammond, Kevin J O'Brien, Janet E Frick
Processing speed, which can be measured behaviorally in various sensory domains, has been shown to be a strong marker of central nervous system health and functioning in adults. Visual temporal processing speed (measured via critical flicker fusion [CFF] thresholds) represents the speed at which the visual system can detect changes. Previous studies of infant CFF development have been limited and inconsistent. The present study sought to characterize the development of CFF thresholds in the first year of life using a larger sample than previous studies and a repeated measures design (in Experiment 2) to control for individual differences...
July 21, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738288/it-doesn-t-matter-what-you-say-fmri-correlates-of%C3%A2-voice-learning-and-recognition-independent-of%C3%A2-speech-content
#15
Romi Zäske, Bashar Awwad Shiekh Hasan, Pascal Belin
Listeners can recognize newly learned voices from previously unheard utterances, suggesting the acquisition of high-level speech-invariant voice representations during learning. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we investigated the anatomical basis underlying the acquisition of voice representations for unfamiliar speakers independent of speech, and their subsequent recognition among novel voices. Specifically, listeners studied voices of unfamiliar speakers uttering short sentences and subsequently classified studied and novel voices as "old" or "new" in a recognition test...
June 27, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738072/monitoring-protected-areas-from-space-a-multi-temporal%C3%A2-assessment-using-raptors-as-biodiversity-surrogates
#16
Adrián Regos, Luis Tapia, Alberto Gil-Carrera, Jesús Domínguez
Monitoring protected areas (PAs) is essential for systematic evaluation of their effectiveness in terms of habitat protection, preservation and representativeness. This study illustrates how the use of species distribution models that combine remote sensing data and information about biodiversity surrogates can contribute to develop a systematic protocol for monitoring PAs. In particular, we assessed the effectiveness of the Natura 2000 (N2000) network, for conserving and preserving the representativeness of seven raptor species in a highly-dynamic landscape in northwest Spain between 2001 and 2014...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738063/atypical-speech-versus-non-speech-detection-and-discrimination-in-4-to-6-yr-old-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-an-erp-study
#17
Alena Galilee, Chrysi Stefanidou, Joseph P McCleery
Previous event-related potential (ERP) research utilizing oddball stimulus paradigms suggests diminished processing of speech versus non-speech sounds in children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). However, brain mechanisms underlying these speech processing abnormalities, and to what extent they are related to poor language abilities in this population remain unknown. In the current study, we utilized a novel paired repetition paradigm in order to investigate ERP responses associated with the detection and discrimination of speech and non-speech sounds in 4- to 6-year old children with ASD, compared with gender and verbal age matched controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737551/vibrotactile-thresholds-on-the-mastoid-and-forehead-position-of-deaf-patients-using-radioear-b71-and-b81
#18
Karl-Johan Fredén Jansson, Bo Håkansson, Sabine Reinfeldt, Laura Fröhlich, Torsten Rahne
OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this study was to measure the vibrotactile thresholds on the mastoid process and forehead positions using patients with bilateral deafness and to compare the results from the two bone conduction vibrators Radioear B71 and B81. DESIGN: There is a possibility that the vibrotactile sensation on the skin makes it difficult to discriminate between sound and vibration. The risk is highest for patients who have bone conduction hearing thresholds in proximity to or worse than their vibrotactile thresholds...
July 21, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737256/insula-based-networks-in-professional-musicians-evidence-for-increased-functional-connectivity-during-resting-state-fmri
#19
Anna M Zamorano, Ignacio Cifre, Pedro Montoya, Inmaculada Riquelme, Boris Kleber
Despite considerable research on experience-dependent neuroplasticity in professional musicians, detailed understanding of an involvement of the insula is only now beginning to emerge. We investigated the effects of musical training on intrinsic insula-based connectivity in professional classical musicians relative to nonmusicians using resting-state functional MRI. Following a tripartite scheme of insula subdivisions, coactivation profiles were analyzed for the posterior, ventral anterior, and dorsal anterior insula in both hemispheres...
July 24, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737061/functional-and-structural-alterations-in-the-migraine-cerebellum
#20
Jan Mehnert, Arne May
The cerebellum plays an important role in pain processing but its function in headache and specifically in migraine is not known. We therefore compared 54 migraineurs with pairwise matched healthy controls in a magnetic resonance imaging study on neuronal cerebellar activity in response to nociceptive trigeminal sensation and also investigated possible structural alterations. Headache frequency, disease duration, and the proximity to a migraine attack were used as co-factors. Migraine patients showed functional and structural alterations in the posterior part of the cerebellum, namely crus I and crus II...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
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