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Temporal processing

A Lina Teichmann, Tijl Grootswagers, Thomas Carlson, Anina N Rich
Numerical format describes the way magnitude is conveyed, for example, as a digit ("3") or Roman numeral ("III"). In the field of numerical cognition, there is an ongoing debate of whether magnitude representation is independent of numerical format. Here, we examine the time course of magnitude processing when using different symbolic formats. We presented participants with a series of digits and dice patterns corresponding to the magnitudes of 1 to 6 while performing a 1-back task on magnitude...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Scott C Hutchings, Julia Y Q Low, Russell S J Keast
Sugar reduction is a major technical challenge for the food industry to address in response to public health concerns regarding the amount of added sugars in foods. This paper reviews sweet taste perception, sensory methods to evaluate sugar reduction and the merits of different techniques available to reduce sugar content. The use of sugar substitutes (non-nutritive sweeteners, sugar alcohols, and fibres) can achieve the greatest magnitude of sugar and energy reduction, however bitter side tastes and varying temporal sweet profiles are common issues...
March 21, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Poppy Sharp, David Melcher, Clayton Hickey
Constructing useful representations of our visual environment requires the ability to selectively pay attention to particular locations at specific moments. Whilst there has been much investigation on the influence of selective attention on spatial discrimination, less is known about its influence on temporal discrimination. In particular, little is known about how endogenous attention influences two fundamental and opposing temporal processes: segregation - the parsing of the visual scene over time into separate features, and integration - the binding together of related elements...
March 20, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Christian Gerlach, Randi Starrfelt
There has been an increase in studies adopting an individual difference approach to examine visual cognition and in particular in studies trying to relate face recognition performance with measures of holistic processing (the face composite effect and the part-whole effect). In the present study we examine whether global precedence effects, measured by means of non-face stimuli in Navon's paradigm, can also account for individual differences in face recognition and, if so, whether the effect is of similar magnitude for faces and objects...
March 20, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
N Jmail, M Zaghdoud, A Hadriche, T Frikha, C Ben Amar, C Bénar
To define the neural networks responsible of an epileptic seizure, it is useful to perform advanced signal processing techniques. In this context, electrophysiological signals present three types of waves: oscillations, spikes, and a mixture of both. Recent studies show that spikes and oscillations should be separated properly in order to define the accurate neural connectivity during the pre-ictal, seizure and inter-ictal states. Retrieving oscillatory activity is a sensitive task due to the frequency overlap between oscillations and transient activities...
February 2018: Heliyon
Annet Bluschke, Krutika Gohil, Maxi Petzold, Veit Roessner, Christian Beste
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a disorder affecting cognitive control. These functions are important to achieve goals when different actions need to be executed in close succession. This type of multi-component behavior, which often further requires the processing of information from different modalities, is important for everyday activities. Yet, possible changes in neurophysiological mechanisms have not been investigated in adolescent ADHD. We examined N = 31 adolescent ADHD patients and N = 35 healthy controls (HC) in two Stop-Change experiments using either uni-modal or bi-modal stimuli to trigger stop and change processes...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Jing-Li Yue, Peng Li, Le Shi, Xiao Lin, Hong-Qiang Sun, Lin Lu
Background: The "dysconnectivity hypothesis" was proposed 20 years ago. It characterized schizophrenia as a disorder with dysfunctional connectivity across a large range of distributed brain areas. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) data have supported this theory. Previous studies revealed that the amygdala might be responsible for the emotion regulation-related symptoms of schizophrenia. However, conventional methods oversimplified brain activities by assuming that it remained static throughout the entire scan duration, which may explain why inconsistent results have been reported for the same brain region...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Xiaoyue Liu, Xiao Lin, Ming Zheng, Yanbo Hu, Yifan Wang, Lingxiao Wang, Xiaoxia Du, Guangheng Dong
Internet search changed the way we store and recall information and possibly altered our brain functions. Previous studies suggested that Internet search facilitates the information-acquisition process. However, this process may cause individuals to lose the ability to store and recollect specific contents. Despite the numerous behavioral studies conducted in this field, little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying Internet searches. The present study explores potential brain activity changes induced by Internet search...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Eric A Woodcock, Chaitali Anand, Dalal Khatib, Vaibhav A Diwadkar, Jeffrey A Stanley
Glutamate is involved in excitatory neurotransmission and metabolic processes related to brain function. Previous studies using proton functional magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1 H fMRS) have demonstrated elevated cortical glutamate levels by 2-4% during visual and motor stimulation, relative to periods of no stimulation. Here, we extended this approach to working memory cognitive task performance, which has been consistently associated with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) activation. Sixteen healthy adult volunteers completed a continuous visual fixation "rest" task followed by a letter 2-back working memory task during1 H fMRS acquisition of the left dlPFC, which encompassed Brodmann areas 45 and 46 over a 4...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Abdul G Dulloo, Jennifer L Miles-Chan, Yves Schutz
Collateral fattening refers to the process whereby excess fat is deposited as a result of the body's attempt to counter a deficit in lean mass through overeating. Its demonstration and significance to weight regulation and obesity can be traced to work on energy budget strategies in growing mammals and birds, and to men recovering from experimental starvation. The cardinal features of collateral fattening rests upon (i) the existence of a feedback system between lean tissue and appetite control, with lean tissue deficit driving hyperphagia, and (ii) upon the occurrence of a temporal desynchronization in the recovery of body composition, with complete recovery of fat mass preceeding that of lean mass...
March 20, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Tatsunori Watanabe, Kotaro Saito, Kazuto Ishida, Shigeo Tanabe, Mitsuya Horiba, Shogo Itamoto, Yoshino Ueki, Ikuo Wada, Ippei Nojima
Start hesitation in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) occurs predominantly during distractive and conflictual situations. The aim of this study was to investigate how differently an auditory stimulus (AS) influences execution function and execution time during a cognitively demanding stepping task in PD patients as compared to healthy controls. PD patients and healthy controls stepped forward in response to a visual imperative stimulus of an arrow. We applied a Simon task that comprised congruent and incongruent conditions...
March 17, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Shaheen A Abdulkareem, Ellen-Wien Augustijn, Yaseen T Mustafa, Tatiana Filatova
BACKGROUND: Millions of people worldwide are exposed to deadly infectious diseases on a regular basis. Breaking news of the Zika outbreak for instance, made it to the main media titles internationally. Perceiving disease risks motivate people to adapt their behavior toward a safer and more protective lifestyle. Computational science is instrumental in exploring patterns of disease spread emerging from many individual decisions and interactions among agents and their environment by means of agent-based models...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Health Geographics
Stefan Schneider, Doerte U Junghaenel, Masakatsu Ono, Arthur A Stone
Advances in pain measurement using ecological momentary assessments offer novel opportunities for understanding the temporal dynamics of pain. This study examined whether regime-switching models, which capture processes characterized by recurrent shifts between different states, provide clinically relevant information for characterizing individuals based on their temporal pain patterns. Patients with rheumatic diseases (N=116) provided 7-8 momentary pain ratings per day for two weekly periods, separated by 3 months...
March 16, 2018: Pain
Georgios Samiotis, Eleni Trikoilidou, Lazaros Tsikritzis, Elisavet Amanatidou
In this work, a comparative study on the water quality characteristics of two in-line water reservoirs (artificial lakes) in Aliakmon River (Western Macedonia, Greece) is performed. Polyfytos Reservoir and Ilarion Reservoir were created in 1975 and 2012 respectively, in order to serve the homonymous hydroelectric stations. In young artificial lakes, severe deterioration of water quality may occur; thus, the monitoring and assessment of their water quality characteristics and their statistical interpretation are of great importance...
March 20, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Tobias Brosch, Yoann Stussi, Olivier Desrichard, David Sander
Individuals with pronounced self-transcendence values have been shown to put greater weight on the long-term consequences of their actions when making decisions. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the neural mechanisms underlying the evaluation of events occurring several decades in the future as well as the role of core values in these processes. Thirty-six participants viewed a series of events, consisting of potential consequences of climate change, which could occur in the near future (around 2030), and thus would be experienced by the participants themselves, or in the far future (around 2080)...
March 19, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
María Lovato, José Real Buffelli, Mariana Abrile, Carlos Martín
The application of conventional physicochemical and microbiological techniques for the removal of organic pollutants has limitations for its utilization on wastewaters as landfill leachates because of their high concentration of not easily biodegradable organic compounds. The use of ozone-based technologies is an alternative and complementary treatment for this type of wastewaters. This paper reports the study of the degradation of landfill leachates from different stages of a treatment plant using ozone and ozone + UV...
March 19, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Cathrin Rohleder, Dagmar Koethe, Stefan Fritze, Cristina E Topor, F Markus Leweke, Dusan Hirjak
OBJECTIVES: Binocular depth inversion illusion (BDII), a visual, 'top-down'-driven information process, is impaired in schizophrenia and particularly in its early stages. BDII is a sensitive measure of impaired visual information processing and represents a valid diagnostic tool for schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. However, neurobiological underpinnings of aberrant BDII in first-episode schizophrenia are largely unknown at present. METHODS: In this study, 22 right-handed, first-episode, antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients underwent BDII assessment and MRI scanning at 1...
March 19, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Cathryn Clarke Murray, Janson Wong, Gerald G Singh, Megan Mach, Jackie Lerner, Bernardo Ranieri, Guillaume Peterson St-Laurent, Alice Guimaraes, Kai M A Chan
Environmental assessment is the process that decision-makers rely on to predict, evaluate, and prevent biophysical, social, and economic impacts of potential project developments. The determination of significance in environmental assessment is central to environmental management in many nations. We reviewed ten recent environmental impact assessments from British Columbia, Canada and systematically reviewed and scored significance determination and the approaches used by assessors, the use of thresholds in significance determination, threshold exceedances, and the outcomes...
March 19, 2018: Environmental Management
Prince C Esiobu, Mi Jin Yoo, Erin M Kirkham, R Eugene Zierler, Benjamin W Starnes, Matthew P Sweet
Eagle syndrome is caused by an elongated styloid process or calcified stylohyoid ligament. The stylocarotid variant with neurologic symptoms is rare and presents a diagnostic challenge. Patients may present with transient ischemic attacks, syncope, or less well defined symptoms like episodic dizziness. We report use of vascular laboratory testing in the management of Eagle syndrome. In one patient, on Doppler ultrasound examination of the ipsilateral temporal artery, the signal was lost with provocative neck flexion...
March 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery Cases and Innovative Techniques
Kevin D Kohl
Interactions with microbial communities can have profound influences on animal physiology, thereby impacting animal performance and fitness. Therefore, it is important to understand the diversity and nature of host-microbe interactions in various animal groups (invertebrates, fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals). In this perspective, I discuss how the field of host-microbe interactions can be used to address topics that have been identified as grand challenges in comparative animal physiology: (i) horizontal integration of physiological processes across organisms, (ii) vertical integration of physiological processes across organizational levels within organisms, and (iii) temporal integration of physiological processes during evolutionary change...
March 2018: MSystems
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