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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441763/improving-passive-time-reversal-underwater-acoustic-communications-using-subarray-processing
#1
Chengbing He, Lianyou Jing, Rui Xi, Qinyuan Li, Qunfei Zhang
Multichannel receivers are usually employed in high-rate underwater acoustic communication to achieve spatial diversity. In the context of multichannel underwater acoustic communications, passive time reversal (TR) combined with a single-channel adaptive decision feedback equalizer (TR-DFE) is a low-complexity solution to achieve both spatial and temporal focusing. In this paper, we present a novel receiver structure to combine passive time reversal with a low-order multichannel adaptive decision feedback equalizer (TR-MC-DFE) to improve the performance of the conventional TR-DFE...
April 24, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441393/sequence-learning-modulates-neural-responses-and-oscillatory-coupling-in-human-and-monkey-auditory-cortex
#2
Yukiko Kikuchi, Adam Attaheri, Benjamin Wilson, Ariane E Rhone, Kirill V Nourski, Phillip E Gander, Christopher K Kovach, Hiroto Kawasaki, Timothy D Griffiths, Matthew A Howard, Christopher I Petkov
Learning complex ordering relationships between sensory events in a sequence is fundamental for animal perception and human communication. While it is known that rhythmic sensory events can entrain brain oscillations at different frequencies, how learning and prior experience with sequencing relationships affect neocortical oscillations and neuronal responses is poorly understood. We used an implicit sequence learning paradigm (an "artificial grammar") in which humans and monkeys were exposed to sequences of nonsense words with regularities in the ordering relationships between the words...
April 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441229/preliminary-model-for-the-design-of-a-custom-middle-ear-prosthesis
#3
Brandon Kamrava, Jonathan A Gerstenhaber, Mamta Amin, Yah-El Har-El, Pamela C Roehm
HYPOTHESIS: Custom prostheses could be used to recreate the ossicular chain and improve hearing. BACKGROUND: Ossicular discontinuity or fixation occurs in 55% of cases of conductive hearing loss, with most cases involving the incus. Reconstruction has been achieved by a variety of methods; however, there has been little improvement in hearing outcomes in decades. METHODS: Precise measurements of anatomic dimensions, weight, and center of gravity were taken from 19 cadaveric incudes...
April 24, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440931/microplastics-as-vectors-for-environmental-contaminants-exploring-sorption-desorption-and-transfer-to-biota
#4
Nanna B Hartmann, Sinja Rist, Julia Bodin, Louise Hs Jensen, Stine N Schmidt, Philipp Mayer, Anders Meibom, Anders Baun
The occurrence and effects of microplastics (MPs) in the aquatic environment are receiving increasing attention. In addition to their possible direct adverse effects on biota, the potential role of MPs as vectors for hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs), compared to natural pathways, is a topic of much debate. It is evident, however, that temporal and spatial variations of MP occurrence do (and will) occur. To further improve the estimations of the role of MPs as vectors for HOC transfer into biota under varying MP concentrations and environmental conditions, it is important to identify and understand the governing processes...
May 2017: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440628/edaphic-conditions-regulate-denitrification-directly-and-indirectly-by-altering-denitrifier-abundance-in-wetlands-along-the-han-river-china
#5
Ziqian Xiong, Laodong Guo, Quanfa Zhang, Guihua Liu, Wenzhi Liu
Riparian wetlands play a critical role in retaining nitrogen (N) from upland runoff and improving river water quality, mainly through biological processes such as soil denitrification. However, the relative contribution of abiotic and biotic factors to riparian denitrification capacity remains elusive. Here we report the spatio-temporal dynamics of potential and unamended soil denitrification rates in 20 wetlands along the Han River, an important water source in central China. We also quantified the abundance of soil denitrifying microorganisms using nirK and nirS genes...
April 25, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439694/modifications-to-a-3d-printed-temporal-bone-model-for-augmented-stapes-fixation-surgery-teaching
#6
Yann Nguyen, Elisabeth Mamelle, Daniele De Seta, Olivier Sterkers, Daniele Bernardeschi, Renato Torres
Functional outcomes and complications in otosclerosis surgery are governed by the surgeon's experience. Thus, teaching the procedure to residents to guide them through the learning process as quickly as possible is challenging. Artificial 3D-printed temporal bones are replacing cadaver specimens in many institutions to learn mastoidectomy, but these are not suitable for middle ear surgery training. The goal of this work was to adapt such an artificial temporal bone to aid the teaching of otosclerosis surgery and to evaluate this tool...
April 24, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439236/auditory-visual-and-audiovisual-speech-processing-streams-in-superior-temporal-sulcus
#7
Jonathan H Venezia, Kenneth I Vaden, Feng Rong, Dale Maddox, Kourosh Saberi, Gregory Hickok
The human superior temporal sulcus (STS) is responsive to visual and auditory information, including sounds and facial cues during speech recognition. We investigated the functional organization of STS with respect to modality-specific and multimodal speech representations. Twenty younger adult participants were instructed to perform an oddball detection task and were presented with auditory, visual, and audiovisual speech stimuli, as well as auditory and visual nonspeech control stimuli in a block fMRI design...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439228/from-engrams-to-pathologies-of-the-brain
#8
REVIEW
Christine A Denny, Evan Lebois, Steve Ramirez
Memories are the experiential threads that tie our past to the present. The biological realization of a memory is termed an engram-the enduring biochemical and physiological processes that enable learning and retrieval. The past decade has witnessed an explosion of engram research that suggests we are closing in on boundary conditions for what qualifies as the physical manifestation of memory. In this review, we provide a brief history of engram research, followed by an overview of the many rodent models available to probe memory with intersectional strategies that have yielded unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution over defined sets of cells...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438673/infants-and-adults-have-similar-regional-functional-brain-organization-for-the-perception-of-emotions
#9
N Rotem-Kohavi, T F Oberlander, N Virji-Babul
An infant's ability to perceive emotional facial expressions is critical for developing social skills. Infants are tuned to faces from early in life, however the functional organization of the brain that supports the processing of emotional faces in infants is still not well understood. We recorded electroencephalography (EEG) brain responses in 8-10 month old infants and adults and applied graph theory analysis on the functional connections to compare the network organization at the global and the regional levels underlying the perception of negative and positive dynamic facial expressions (happiness and sadness)...
April 21, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438665/effective-connectivity-gateways-to-the-theory-of-mind-network-in-processing-communicative-intention
#10
Marco Tettamanti, Matilde M Vaghi, Bruno G Bara, Stefano F Cappa, Ivan Enrici, Mauro Adenzato
An Intention Processing Network (IPN), involving the medial prefrontal cortex, precuneus, bilateral posterior superior temporal sulcus, and temporoparietal junctions, plays a fundamental role in comprehending intentions underlying action goals. In a previous fMRI study, we showed that, depending on the linguistic or extralinguistic (gestural) modality used to convey the intention, the IPN is complemented by activation of additional brain areas, reflecting distinct modality-specific input gateways to the IPN...
April 21, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438484/simultaneous-object-perception-deficits-are-related-to-reduced-visual-processing-speed-in-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment
#11
Adriana L Ruiz-Rizzo, Peter Bublak, Petra Redel, Timo Grimmer, Hermann J Müller, Christian Sorg, Kathrin Finke
Simultanagnosia, an impairment in simultaneous object perception, has been attributed to deficits in visual attention and, specifically, to processing speed. Increasing visual attention deficits manifest over the course of Alzheimer's disease (AD), where the first changes are present already in its symptomatic predementia phase: amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). In this study, we examined whether patients with aMCI due to AD show simultaneous object perception deficits and whether and how these deficits relate to visual attention...
April 4, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437846/pain-sensitization-is-associated-with-disease-activity-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-patients-a-cross-sectional-study
#12
Yvonne C Lee, Clifton O Bingham, Robert R Edwards, Wendy Marder, Phillips Kristine, Marcy B Bolster, Daniel J Clauw, Larry W Moreland, Bing Lu, Alyssa Wohlfahrt, Zhi Zhang, Tuhina Neogi
OBJECTIVE: Pain sensitization may contribute to pain severity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), impacting assessment of disease activity. We examined whether pain processing mechanisms were associated with disease activity among RA patients with active disease. METHODS: This study includes 139 subjects enrolled in the Central Pain in Rheumatoid Arthritis cohort. Subjects underwent quantitative sensory testing (QST), including assessment of pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) at multiple sites, conditioned pain modulation, and temporal summation...
April 24, 2017: Arthritis Care & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437572/nearly-a-decade-long-repeatable-seasonal-diversity-patterns-of-bacterioplankton-communities-in-the-eutrophic-lake-donghu-wuhan-china
#13
Qingyun Yan, James C Stegen, Yuhe Yu, Ye Deng, Xinghao Li, Shu Wu, LilI Dai, Xiang Zhang, Jinjin Li, Chun Wang, Jiajia Ni, Xuemei Li, Hongjuan Hu, Fanshu Xiao, Weisong Feng, Daliang Ning, Zhili H E, Joy D Van Nostrand, Liyou Wu, Jizhong Zhou
Uncovering which environmental factors govern community diversity patterns and how ecological processes drive community turnover are key questions related to understand the community assembly. However, the ecological mechanisms regulating long-term variations of bacterioplankton communities in lake ecosystems remains poorly understood. Here we present nearly a decade-long study of bacterioplankton communities from the eutrophic Lake Donghu (Wuhan, China) using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing with MiSeq platform...
April 24, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437571/label-free-high-temporal-resolution-assessment-of-cell-proliferation-using-digital-holographic-microscopy
#14
Birgit Janicke, Andreas Kårsnäs, Peter Egelberg, Kersti Alm
Cell proliferation assays are widely applied in biological sciences to understand the effect of drugs over time. However, current methods often assess cell population growth indirectly, that is, the cells are not actually counted. Instead other parameters, for example, the amount of protein, are determined. These methods often also demand phototoxic labels, have low temporal resolution, or employ end-point assays, and frequently are labor intensive. We have developed a robust and label-free kinetic cell proliferation assay with high temporal resolution for adherent cells using digital holographic microscopy (DHM), one of many quantitative phase microscopy techniques...
April 24, 2017: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437486/prediction-of-crime-occurrence-from-multi-modal-data-using-deep-learning
#15
Hyeon-Woo Kang, Hang-Bong Kang
In recent years, various studies have been conducted on the prediction of crime occurrences. This predictive capability is intended to assist in crime prevention by facilitating effective implementation of police patrols. Previous studies have used data from multiple domains such as demographics, economics, and education. Their prediction models treat data from different domains equally. These methods have problems in crime occurrence prediction, such as difficulty in discovering highly nonlinear relationships, redundancies, and dependencies between multiple datasets...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437444/transcriptional-bursting-in-drosophila-development-stochastic-dynamics-of-eve-stripe-2-expression
#16
David M Holloway, Alexander V Spirov
Anterior-posterior (AP) body segmentation of the fruit fly (Drosophila) is first seen in the 7-stripe spatial expression patterns of the pair-rule genes, which regulate downstream genes determining specific segment identities. Regulation of pair-rule expression has been extensively studied for the even-skipped (eve) gene. Recent live imaging, of a reporter for the 2nd eve stripe, has demonstrated the stochastic nature of this process, with 'bursts' in the number of RNA transcripts being made over time. We developed a stochastic model of the spatial and temporal expression of eve stripe 2 (binding by transcriptional activators (Bicoid and Hunchback proteins) and repressors (Giant and Krüppel proteins), transcriptional initiation and termination; with all rate parameters constrained by features of the experimental data) in order to analyze the noisy experimental time series and test hypotheses for how eve transcription is regulated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437026/analyzing-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-mutation-status-changes-in-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-at-different-sampling-time-points-of-blood-within-one%C3%A2-day
#17
Jin Wang, Hua Bai, Chaoyu Hong, Jie Wang, Tong-Hua Mei
BACKGROUND: We investigated whether different sampling time-points within one day would influence epidermal growth factor receptor mutation (EGFRm) status in plasma and evaluated the clinical outcomes according to the quantity analysis of EGFRm in circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor naïve advanced NSCLC patients who carried EGFRm in both tissues and ctDNA were enrolled in this study. Plasma samples were collected at three time-points within one day (at 8 am, 11 am and 2 pm) for EGFRm analysis by droplet digital PCR...
April 24, 2017: Thoracic Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436918/an-integrated-and-highly-sensitive-ultrafast-acoustoelectric-imaging-system-for-biomedical-applications
#18
Beatrice Berthon, Pierre-Marc Dansette, Mickael Tanter, Mathieu Pernot, Jean Provost
PURPOSE: Direct imaging of cardiac electrical activation is crucial to better understand and diagnose diseases linked to arrhythmias. This work presents an Ultrafast Acoustoelectric Imaging (UAI) system for direct and non-invasive ultrafast mapping of propagating current densities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Acoustoelectric imaging is based on the acoustoelectric effect, the modulation of the medium's electrical impedance by a propagating ultrasonic wave. UAI triggers this effect with plane wave emissions to image current densities...
April 24, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436865/video-anomaly-detection-with-compact-feature-sets-for-online-performance
#19
Roberto Leyva, Victor Sanchez, Chang-Tsun Li
Over the past decade, video anomaly detection has been explored with remarkable results. However, research on methodologies suitable for online performance is still very limited. In this paper, we present an online framework for video anomaly detection. The key aspect of our framework is a compact set of highly descriptive features, which is extracted from a novel cell structure that helps to define support regions in a coarse-to-fine fashion. Based on the scene's activity, only a limited number of support regions are processed, thus limiting the size of the feature set...
April 18, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436834/active-auditory-experience-in-infancy-promotes-brain-plasticity-in-theta-and-gamma-oscillations
#20
Gabriella Musacchia, Silvia Ortiz-Mantilla, Naseem Choudhury, Teresa Realpe-Bonilla, Cynthia Roesler, April A Benasich
Language acquisition in infants is driven by on-going neural plasticity that is acutely sensitive to environmental acoustic cues. Recent studies showed that attention-based experience with non-linguistic, temporally-modulated auditory stimuli sharpens cortical responses. A previous ERP study from this laboratory showed that interactive auditory experience via behavior-based feedback (AEx), over a 6-week period from 4- to 7-months-of-age, confers a processing advantage, compared to passive auditory exposure (PEx) or maturation alone (Naïve Control, NC)...
April 15, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
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