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Temporal processing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156413/anterior-posterior-gradient-differences-in-lobar-and-cingulate-cortex-cerebral-blood-flow-in-late-life-depression
#1
Margarita Abi Zeid Daou, Brian D Boyd, Manus J Donahue, Kimberly Albert, Warren D Taylor
Vascular pathology is common in late-life depression, contributing to changes in cerebral function. We examined whether late-life depression was associated with differences in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and whether such differences were related to vascular risk and cerebrovascular pathology, specifically white matter hyperintensity (WMH) volumes. Twenty-three depressed elders and 20 age- and sex-matched elders with no psychiatric history completed cranial 3T MRI. MRI procedures included a pseudo-continuous Arterial Spin Labeling (pcASL) acquisition obtained while on room air and during a hypercapnia challenge allowing for calculation of cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR)...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156269/autotrophic-denitrification-supported-by-biotite-dissolution-in-crystalline-aquifers-2-transient-mixing-and-denitrification-dynamic-during-long-term-pumping
#2
Clément Roques, Luc Aquilina, Alexandre Boisson, Virginie Vergnaud-Ayraud, Thierry Labasque, Laurent Longuevergne, Marc Laurencelle, Alexis Dufresne, Jean-Raynald de Dreuzy, Hélène Pauwels, Olivier Bour
We investigated the mixing and dynamic of denitrification processes induced by long-term pumping in the crystalline aquifer of Ploemeur (Brittany, France). Hydrological and geochemical parameters have been continuously recorded over 15 boreholes in 5km(2) on a 25-year period. This extensive spatial and temporal monitoring of conservative as well as reactive compounds is a key opportunity to identify aquifer-scale transport and reactive processes in crystalline aquifers. Time series analysis of the conservative elements recorded at the pumped well were used to determine mixing fractions from different compartments of the aquifer on the basis of a Principal Component Analysis approach coupled with an end-member mixing analysis...
November 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156088/climate-mediated-changes-in-marine-ecosystem-regulation-during-el-ni%C3%A3-o
#3
Martin Lindegren, David M Checkley, J Anthony Koslow, Ralf Goericke, Mark D Ohman
The degree to which ecosystems are regulated through bottom-up, top-down or direct physical processes represents a long-standing issue in ecology, with important consequences for resource management and conservation. In marine ecosystems, the role of bottom-up and top-down forcing has been shown to vary over spatio-temporal scales, often linked to highly variable and heterogeneously distributed environmental conditions. Ecosystem dynamics in the Northeast Pacific have been suggested to be predominately bottom-up regulated...
November 20, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155809/multivariate-pattern-dependence
#4
Stefano Anzellotti, Alfonso Caramazza, Rebecca Saxe
When we perform a cognitive task, multiple brain regions are engaged. Understanding how these regions interact is a fundamental step to uncover the neural bases of behavior. Most research on the interactions between brain regions has focused on the univariate responses in the regions. However, fine grained patterns of response encode important information, as shown by multivariate pattern analysis. In the present article, we introduce and apply multivariate pattern dependence (MVPD): a technique to study the statistical dependence between brain regions in humans in terms of the multivariate relations between their patterns of responses...
November 20, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155709/a-computational-method-to-quantify-fly-circadian-activity
#5
Andrey Lazopulo, Sheyum Syed
In most animals and plants, circadian clocks orchestrate behavioral and molecular processes and synchronize them to the daily light-dark cycle. Fundamental mechanisms that underlie this temporal control are widely studied using the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as a model organism. In flies, the clock is typically studied by analyzing multiday locomotor recording. Such a recording shows a complex bimodal pattern with two peaks of activity: a morning peak that happens around dawn, and an evening peak that happens around dusk...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155351/erp-responses-greater-for-faces-in-the-temporal-compared-to-the-nasal-visual-field
#6
David Framorando, Nicolas Burra, Mylène Bapst, Alan J Pegna
The distribution of retino-tectal projections is dissimilar depending on whether the receptors are situated in the nasal and temporal visual hemiretinas. Indeed, it has been claimed that the superior colliculus receives a greater proportion of its input from the temporal visual hemifield (nasal hemi-retina) relative to the nasal hemifield (temporal hemi-retina). In order to investigate whether these subcortical projections influence face processing, we investigated the early cortical ERP responses to faces and houses presented in the temporal and nasal retinas using monocular viewing...
November 16, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155063/technical-note-robotic-guided-bi-hippocampal-and-bi-parahippocampal-depth-placement-for-responsive-neurostimulation-in-bitemporal-lobe-epilepsy
#7
Pratik Rohatgi, Ryan J Jafrani, Nicholas J Brandmeir, Frank G Gilliam, Tiffany L Fisher, Michael D Sather
BACKGROUND: Patients with bitemporal lobe epilepsy are generally not considered for surgical resection. Fortunately, responsive neurostimulation proves another avenue for the management of this challenging disease process. In conjunction with our epileptologist, we consider responsive neurostimulation for patients who have clinical features of temporal lobe epilepsy without clear localization on imaging and stereo-EEG. METHODS: Here we describe our technique for implanting a responsive neurostimulator (NeuroPace, NeuroPace Inc...
November 14, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154795/vision-improvement-in-pilots-with-presbyopia-following-perceptual-learning
#8
Anna Sterkin, Yuval Levy, Russell Pokroy, Maria Lev, Liora Levian, Ravid Doron, Oren Yehezkel, Moshe Fried, Yael Frenkel-Nir, Barak Gordon, Uri Polat
Israeli Air Force (IAF) pilots continue flying combat missions after the symptoms of natural near-vision deterioration, termed presbyopia, begin to be noticeable. Because modern pilots rely on the displays of the aircraft control and performance instruments, near visual acuity (VA) is essential in the cockpit. We aimed to apply a method previously shown to improve visual performance of presbyopes, and test whether presbyopic IAF pilots can overcome the limitation imposed by presbyopia. Participants were selected by the IAF aeromedical unit as having at least initial presbyopia and trained using a structured personalized perceptual learning method (GlassesOff application), based on detecting briefly presented low-contrast Gabor stimuli, under the conditions of spatial and temporal constraints, from a distance of 40 cm...
November 14, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154629/emergent-perception-of-gaze-direction-across-time
#9
Diana Mihalache, Laurel A Gaeddert, Timothy D Sweeny
To determine where another person is looking, the visual system engages a process of emergent integration, pooling information across space from both the head and eyes. Gaze is dynamic, however, and in order to achieve a temporally stabilized metric of a person's direction of attention, this integrative process might also occur across time. Here, we tested and confirmed this prediction. Even when seen separately and in succession, the rotation of a head attracted the perceived gaze of a pair of eyes. This integration depended on temporal continuity-attraction decayed with longer delays between the face parts and prolonged viewing of the head reduced integration...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154155/the-dynamic-characteristics-of-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex-in-resting-state-fmri-of-patients-with-depression
#10
Hongna Zheng, Feng Li, Qijing Bo, Xianbin Li, Li Yao, Zhijun Yao, Chuanyue Wang, Xia Wu
BACKGROUND: The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is part of the limbic system of the brain. It is a bridge between attentional and emotional processing, which is responsible for the integration of visceral, attentional, and affective information. Lesioning of the ACC, which produces striking changes, is used to treat major depression disorder (MDD). Moreover, the brain dynamically integrates and coordinates functions of its different subparts to realize its cognitive capability. Hence, the spatio-temporal community distribution of the ACC is necessary to completely understand MDD...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153446/the-instability-of-functional-connectivity-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-and-their-siblings-a-dynamic-connectivity-study
#11
Shuixia Guo, Wei Zhao, Haojuan Tao, Zhening Liu, Lena Palaniyappan
BACKGROUND: The distributed connectivity among brain regions is in a constant state of flux, even when a subject is at rest. This instability (temporal variability), when optimal, may contribute to efficient cross-network communications. We investigate the role of this variability in the genetic diathesis and symptom expression of schizophrenia. METHODS: Resting state functional MRI data acquired from 116 subjects (28 patients with schizophrenia, 28 siblings and 60 matched healthy controls)...
November 15, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153359/multi-detector-ct-liver-protocol-and-recent-developments
#12
REVIEW
N Kartalis, K Brehmer, L Loizou
Multi-detector computed tomography is today the workhorse in the evaluation of the vast majority of patients with known or suspected liver disease. Reasons for that include widespread availability, robustness and repeatability of the technique, time-efficient image acquisitions of large body volumes, high temporal and spatial resolution as well as multiple post-processing capabilities. However, as the technique employs ionizing radiation and intravenous iodine-based contrast media, the associated potential risks have to be taken into account...
December 2017: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152379/interplay-of-neuronal-and-non-neuronal-genes-regulates-intestinal-daf-16-mediated-immune-response-during-fusarium-infection-of-caenorhabditis-elegans
#13
Papri Nag, Pooja Rani Aggarwal, Sudip Ghosh, Kanika Narula, Rajul Tayal, Nidhi Maheshwari, Niranjan Chakraborty, Subhra Chakraborty
Although precisely controlled innate immune response is governed by conserved cellular events in phylogenetically diverse hosts, the underlying molecular mechanisms by which this process is regulated against a multi-host pathogen remain unknown. Fusarium oxysporum is a model multi-host pathogen, known to be associated with neuronal stress in humans and vascular wilt in plants. The interaction between innate immune and neuronal pathways is the basis of many diverse biological responses. How these processes are coordinated in response to fungal disease is not well understood...
2017: Cell Death Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152200/resource-partitioning-facilitates-coexistence-in-sympatric-cetaceans-in-the-california-current
#14
Sabrina Fossette, Briana Abrahms, Elliott L Hazen, Steven J Bograd, Kelly M Zilliacus, John Calambokidis, Julia A Burrows, Jeremy A Goldbogen, James T Harvey, Baldo Marinovic, Bernie Tershy, Donald A Croll
Resource partitioning is an important process driving habitat use and foraging strategies in sympatric species that potentially compete. Differences in foraging behavior are hypothesized to contribute to species coexistence by facilitating resource partitioning, but little is known on the multiple mechanisms for partitioning that may occur simultaneously. Studies are further limited in the marine environment, where the spatial and temporal distribution of resources is highly dynamic and subsequently difficult to quantify...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151864/dissecting-functional-components-of-reproductive-isolation-among-closely-related-sympatric-species-of-the-anopheles-gambiae-complex
#15
Marco Pombi, Pierre Kengne, Geoffrey Gimonneau, Billy Tene-Fossog, Diego Ayala, Colince Kamdem, Federica Santolamazza, Wamdaogo Moussa Guelbeogo, N'Falé Sagnon, Vincenzo Petrarca, Didier Fontenille, Nora J Besansky, Christophe Antonio-Nkondjio, Roch Kounbobr Dabiré, Alessandra Della Torre, Frédéric Simard, Carlo Costantini
Explaining how and why reproductive isolation evolves and determining which forms of reproductive isolation have the largest impact on the process of population divergence are major goals in the study of speciation. By studying recent adaptive radiations in incompletely isolated taxa, it is possible to identify barriers involved at early divergence before other confounding barriers emerge after speciation is complete. Sibling species of the Anopheles gambiae complex offer opportunities to provide insights into speciation mechanisms...
December 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151852/ancient-oncogenesis-infection-and-human-evolution
#16
REVIEW
Riaan F Rifkin, Marnie Potgieter, Jean-Baptiste Ramond, Don A Cowan
The recent discovery that malignant neoplastic lesions date back nearly 2 million years ago not only highlights the antiquity of cancer in the human lineage, but also provides remarkable insight into ancestral hominin disease pathology. Using these Early Pleistocene examples as a point of departure, we emphasize the prominent role of viral and bacterial pathogens in oncogenesis and evaluate the impact of pathogens on human evolutionary processes in Africa. In the Shakespearean vernacular "what's past is prologue," we highlight the significance of novel information derived from ancient pathogenic DNA...
December 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151616/polymeric-biomaterials-diverse-functions-enabled-by-advances-in-macromolecular-chemistry
#17
Yingkai Liang, Linqing Li, Rebecca A Scott, Kristi L Kiick
Biomaterials have been extensively used to leverage beneficial outcomes in various therapeutic applications, such as providing spatial and temporal control over the release of therapeutic agents in drug delivery as well as engineering functional tissues and promoting the healing process in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. This perspective presents important milestones in the development of polymeric biomaterials with defined structures and properties. Contemporary studies of biomaterial design have been reviewed with focus on constructing materials with controlled structure, dynamic functionality, and biological complexity...
January 24, 2017: Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151387/affective-family-interactions-and-their-associations-with-adolescent-depression-a-dynamic-network-approach
#18
Nadja Bodner, Peter Kuppens, Nicholas B Allen, Lisa B Sheeber, Eva Ceulemans
The prevalence of depression rises steeply during adolescence. Family processes have been identified as one of the important factors that contribute to affect (dys)regulation during adolescence. In this study, we explored the affect expressed by mothers, fathers, and adolescents during a problem-solving interaction and investigated whether the patterns of the affective interactions differed between families with depressed adolescents and families with nondepressed adolescents. A network approach was used to depict the frequencies of different affects, concurrent expressions of affect, and the temporal sequencing of affective behaviors among family members...
November 20, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150901/expression-of-the-clock-gene-rev-erb%C3%AE-in-the-brain-controls-the-circadian-organization-of-food-intake-and-locomotor-activity-but-not-daily-variations-of-energy-metabolism
#19
Satish Sen, Stéphanie Dumont, Dominique Sage-Ciocca, Sophie Reibel, Paul de Goede, Andries Kalsbeek, Etienne Challet
The nuclear receptor REV-ERBα is part of the molecular clock mechanism and thought to be involved in a variety of biological processes within metabolically active peripheral tissues as well. To investigate whether Rev-erbα (also known as Nr1d1) in the brain plays a role in the daily variations of energy metabolism, feeding behaviour and the sleep-wake cycle, we studied mice with global (GKO) or brain (BKO) deletion of Rev-erbα. Mice were studied both in a light-dark cycle and constant darkness, and 24-h variations of Respiratory quotient (RQ) and energy expenditure, as well as the temporal patterns of rest-activity and feeding behavior were recorded...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150620/the-role-of-forelimb-motor-cortex-areas-in-goal-directed-action-in-mice
#20
Karin Morandell, Daniel Huber
Mammalian motor cortex consists of several interconnected subregions thought to play distinct roles in voluntary movements, yet their specific role in decision making and execution is not completely elucidated. Here we used transient optogenetic inactivation of the caudal forelimb area (CFA) and rostral forelimb area (RFA) in mice as they performed a directional joystick task. Based on a vibrotactile cue applied to their forepaw, mice were trained to push or pull a joystick after a delay period. We found that choice and execution are temporally segregated processes...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
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