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Animal psychophysics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904787/estimating-mechanical-properties-of-cloth-from-videos-using-dense-motion-trajectories-human-psychophysics-and-machine-learning
#1
Wenyan Bi, Peiran Jin, Hendrikje Nienborg, Bei Xiao
Humans can visually estimate the mechanical properties of deformable objects (e.g., cloth stiffness). While much of the recent work on material perception has focused on static image cues (e.g., textures and shape), little is known about whether humans can integrate information over time to make a judgment. Here we investigated the effect of spatiotemporal information across multiple frames (multiframe motion) on estimating the bending stiffness of cloth. Using high-fidelity cloth animations, we first examined how the perceived bending stiffness changed as a function of the physical bending stiffness defined in the simulation model...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769622/a-simple-power-law-governs-many-sensory-amplifications-and-multisensory-enhancements
#2
Vincent A Billock, Paul R Havig
When one sensory response occurs in the presence of a different sensory stimulation, the sensory response is often amplified. The variety of sensory enhancement data tends to obscure the underlying rules, but it has long been clear that weak signals are usually amplified more than strong ones (the Principle of Inverse Effectiveness). Here we show that for many kinds of sensory amplification, the underlying law is simple and elegant: the amplified response is a power law of the unamplified response, with a compressive exponent that amplifies weak signals more than strong...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749573/tone-evoked-acoustic-change-complex-acc-recorded-in-a-sedated-animal-model
#3
Alessandro Presacco, John C Middlebrooks
The acoustic change complex (ACC) is a scalp-recorded cortical evoked potential complex generated in response to changes (e.g., frequency, amplitude) in an auditory stimulus. The ACC has been well studied in humans, but to our knowledge, no animal model has been evaluated. In particular, it was not known whether the ACC could be recorded under the conditions of sedation that likely would be necessary for recordings from animals. For that reason, we tested the feasibility of recording ACC from sedated cats in response to changes of frequency and amplitude of pure-tone stimuli...
May 10, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739537/opioid-free-anesthesia-opioid-side-effects-tolerance-and-hyperalgesia
#4
REVIEW
Patricia Lavand'homme, Arnaud Steyaert
Opioids are the most potent drugs used to control severe pain. However, neuroadaptation prevents opioids' ability to provide long-term analgesia and produces opposite effects, i.e., enhancement of existent pain and facilitation of chronic pain development. Neuroadaptation to opioids use results in the development of two interrelated phenomena: tolerance and "opioid-induced hyperalgesia" (OIH). Tolerance, a pharmacologic concept, and OIH, a clinical syndrome, have been mostly observed under experimental conditions in animals and in human volunteers...
December 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659469/alloknesis-and-hyperknesis-mechanisms-assessment-methodology-and-clinical-implications-of-itch-sensitization
#5
Hjalte Holm Andersen, Tasuku Akiyama, Leigh Ann Nattkemper, Antoinette van Laarhoven, Jesper Elberling, Gil Yosipovitch, Lars Arendt-Nielsen
Itch and pain share numerous mechanistic similarities. Patients with chronic itch conditions (for instance atopic dermatitis or neuropathic itch), often experience symptoms such as mechanical alloknesis and hyperknesis. These dysesthesias are analoguous to the pain-associated phenomena allodynia and hyperalgesia, which are often observed, e.g., in neuropathic pain conditions. Mechanical itch dysesthesias represent abnormal sensory states (caused by neuroplastic changes) wherein considerable itch is evoked, for instance by light cutaneous stimuli such as from clothing (alloknesis), or where increased itch is perceived in response to normally itch-evoking stimuli (hyperknesis)...
April 11, 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652555/henry-herbert-donaldson-s-1857-1938-contribution-to-an-organized-approach-to-the-experimental-study-of-the-mammalian-central-nervous-system
#6
J Wayne Lazar
This article shows that the academic and research careers of Henry Herbert Donaldson (1857-1938) were directed to provide basic information about the growth of the vertebrate nervous system and to provide standards and the means to make such research efficient. He earned the reputation of making the albino rat a standard laboratory animal. His academic career began when he was an undergraduate at Yale University in 1875 and concluded with his death as Professor and Head of the Department of Neurology at the Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology of the University of Pennsylvania in 1938...
April 13, 2018: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614151/visual-vestibular-estimation-of-the-body-s-curvilinear-motion-through-the-world-a-computational-model
#7
John A Perrone
Motion along curved paths (curvilinear self-motion) introduces a rotation component to the radial expanding patterns of visual motion generated in the eyes of moving animals with forward-facing eyes. The resultant image motion (vector flow field) is no longer purely radial, and it is difficult to infer the heading direction from such combined translation-plus-rotation flow fields. The eye need not rotate relative to the head or body during curvilinear self-motion, and so there is an absence of efference signals directing and indicating the rotation...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551308/auditory-perceptual-learning-and-changes-in-the-conceptualization-of-auditory-cortex
#8
REVIEW
Dexter R F Irvine
Perceptual learning, improvement in discriminative ability as a consequence of training, is one of the forms of sensory system plasticity that has driven profound changes in our conceptualization of sensory cortical function. Psychophysical and neurophysiological studies of auditory perceptual learning have indicated that the characteristics of the learning, and by implication the nature of the underlying neural changes, are highly task specific. Some studies in animals have indicated that recruitment of neurons to the population responding to the training stimuli, and hence an increase in the so-called cortical "area of representation" of those stimuli, is the substrate of improved performance, but such changes have not been observed in other studies...
March 12, 2018: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531351/psychophysical-laws-and-the-superorganism
#9
Andreagiovanni Reina, Thomas Bose, Vito Trianni, James A R Marshall
Through theoretical analysis, we show how a superorganism may react to stimulus variations according to psychophysical laws observed in humans and other animals. We investigate an empirically-motivated honeybee house-hunting model, which describes a value-sensitive decision process over potential nest-sites, at the level of the colony. In this study, we show how colony decision time increases with the number of available nests, in agreement with the Hick-Hyman law of psychophysics, and decreases with mean nest quality, in agreement with Piéron's law...
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463642/the-effect-of-locomotion-on-early-visual-contrast-processing-in-humans
#10
Alex V Benjamin, Kirstie Wailes-Newson, Anna Ma-Wyatt, Daniel H Baker, Alex R Wade
Most of our knowledge about vision comes from experiments in which stimuli are presented to immobile human subjects or animals. In the case of human subjects, movement during psychophysical, electrophysiological, or neuroimaging experiments is considered to be a source of noise to be eliminated. Animals used in visual neuroscience experiments are typically restrained and, in many cases, anesthetized. In reality, however, vision is often used to guide the motion of awake, ambulating organisms. Recent work in mice has shown that locomotion elevates visual neuronal response amplitudes (Niell and Stryker, 2010; Erisken et al...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428581/temporal-recalibration-of-motor-and-visual-potentials-in-lag-adaptation-in-voluntary-movement
#11
Chang Cai, Kenji Ogawa, Takanori Kochiyama, Hirokazu Tanaka, Hiroshi Imamizu
Adaptively recalibrating motor-sensory asynchrony is critical for animals to perceive self-produced action consequences. It is controversial whether motor- or sensory-related neural circuits recalibrate this asynchrony. By combining magnetoencephalography (MEG) and functional MRI (fMRI), we investigate the temporal changes in brain activities caused by repeated exposure to a 150-ms delay inserted between a button-press action and a subsequent flash. We found that readiness potentials significantly shift later in the motor system, especially in parietal regions (average: 219...
May 15, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364068/methods-for-chair-restraint-and-training-of-the-common-marmoset-on-oculomotor-tasks
#12
Kevin D Johnston, Kevin Barker, Lauren Schaeffer, David J Schaeffer, Stefan Everling
The oculomotor system is the most thoroughly understood sensorimotor system in the brain, due in large part to electrophysiological studies carried out in macaque monkeys trained to perform ocuolomotor tasks. A disadvantage of the macaque model is that many cortical oculomotor areas of interest lie within sulci, making high-density array and laminar recordings impractical. Many techniques of molecular biology developed in rodents, such as optogenetic manipulation of neuronal subtypes, are also limited in this species...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358364/single-cell-stimulation-in-barrel-cortex-influences-psychophysical-detection-performance
#13
Nouk Tanke, J Gerard G Borst, Arthur R Houweling
A single whisker stimulus elicits action potentials in a sparse subset of neurons in somatosensory cortex. The precise contribution of these neurons to the animal's perception of a whisker stimulus is unknown. Here we show that single-cell stimulation in rat barrel cortex of both sexes influences the psychophysical detection of a near-threshold whisker stimulus in a cell type-dependent manner, without affecting false alarm rate. Counterintuitively, stimulation of single fast-spiking putative inhibitory neurons increased detection performance...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239633/spatial-but-not-temporal-numerosity-thresholds-correlate-with-formal-math-skills-in-children
#14
Giovanni Anobile, Roberto Arrighi, Elisa Castaldi, Eleonora Grassi, Lara Pedonese, Paula A M Moscoso, David C Burr
Humans and other animals are able to make rough estimations of quantities using what has been termed the approximate number system (ANS). Much evidence suggests that sensitivity to numerosity correlates with symbolic math capacity, leading to the suggestion that the ANS may serve as a start-up tool to develop symbolic math. Many experiments have demonstrated that numerosity perception transcends the sensory modality of stimuli and their presentation format (sequential or simultaneous), but it remains an open question whether the relationship between numerosity and math generalizes over stimulus format and modality...
March 2018: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234113/principles-of-economic-rationality-in-mice
#15
Marion Rivalan, York Winter, Vladislav Nachev
Humans and non-human animals frequently violate principles of economic rationality, such as transitivity, independence of irrelevant alternatives, and regularity. The conditions that lead to these violations are not completely understood. Here we report a study on mice tested in automated home-cage setups using rewards of drinking water. Rewards differed in one of two dimensions, volume or probability. Our results suggest that mouse choice conforms to the principles of economic rationality for options that differ along a single reward dimension...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175957/brainstem-pain-control-circuitry-connectivity-in-chronic-neuropathic-pain
#16
Emily P Mills, Flavia Di Pietro, Zeynab Alshelh, Chris C Peck, Greg M Murray, E Russell Vickers, Luke A Henderson
Preclinical investigations have suggested that altered functioning of brainstem pain-modulation circuits may be crucial for the maintenance of some chronic pain conditions. While some human psychophysical studies show that patients with chronic pain display altered pain-modulation efficacy, it remains unknown whether brainstem pain-modulation circuits are altered in individuals with chronic pain. The aim of the present investigation was to determine whether, in humans, chronic pain following nerve injury is associated with altered ongoing functioning of the brainstem descending modulation systems...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065362/pharmacological-augmentation-of-endocannabinoid-signaling-reduces-the-neuroendocrine-response-to-stress
#17
Pablo Nicolás Surkin, Sofia Ludmila Gallino, Valeria Luce, Fernando Correa, Javier Fernandez-Solari, Andrea De Laurentiis
Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) is critical for survival when the organism is exposed to a stressful stimulus. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is currently considered an important neuromodulator involved in numerous pathophysiological processes and whose primary function is to maintain homeostasis. In the tissues constituting the HPA axis, all the components of the ECS are present and the activation of this system acts in parallel with changes in the activity of numerous neurotransmitters, including nitric oxide (NO)...
January 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035690/the-psychology-of-music-rhythm-and-movement
#18
Daniel J Levitin, Jessica A Grahn, Justin London
The urge to move to music is universal among humans. Unlike visual art, which is manifest across space, music is manifest across time. When listeners get carried away by the music, either through movement (such as dancing) or through reverie (such as trance), it is usually the temporal qualities of the music-its pulse, tempo, and rhythmic patterns-that put them in this state. In this article, we review studies addressing rhythm, meter, movement, synchronization, entrainment, the perception of groove, and other temporal factors that constitute a first step to understanding how and why music literally moves us...
January 4, 2018: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971012/neuromagnetic-responses-to-tactile-stimulation-of-the-fingers-evidence-for-reduced-cortical-inhibition-for-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-children-with-epilepsy
#19
William Gaetz, Michael T Jurkiewicz, Sudha Kilaru Kessler, Lisa Blaskey, Erin S Schwartz, Timothy P L Roberts
The purpose of this study was to compare somatosensory responses from a group of children with epilepsy and a group of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), with age matched TD controls. We hypothesized that the magnitude of the tactile "P50m" somatosensory response would be reduced in both patient groups, possibly due to reduced GABAergic signaling as has been implicated in a variety of previous animal models and in vivo human MRS studies. We observed significant (~ 25%) decreases in tactile P50m dipole moment values from the source localized tactile P50m response, both for children with epilepsy and for children with ASD...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857606/on-the-clock-interval-timing-and-overshadowing-in-domestic-dogs-canis-familiaris
#20
Krista Macpherson, William A Roberts
Interval timing is an important skill that allows animals to approximate how much time has elapsed since a given event. Little, however, is known about interval timing in domestic dogs. In an initial experiment, dogs were trained to make an operant response on 30-s fixed intervals, with either a light or a tone + light compound signaling the beginning of the fixed interval. When dogs in the compound group were subsequently tested with nonreinforced 60-s tone-only probe trials, the dogs' rate of responding peaked near 30 s...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
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