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Animal psychophysics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659469/alloknesis-and-hyperknesis-mechanisms-assessment-methodology-and-clinical-implications-of-itch-sensitization
#1
Hjalte Holm Andersen, Tasuku Akiyama, Leigh Ann Nattkemper, Antoinette van Laarhoven, Jesper Elberling, Gil Yosipovitch, Lars Arendt-Nielsen
Itch and pain share numerous mechanistic similarities. Patients with chronic itch conditions (for instance atopic dermatitis or neuropathic itch), often experience symptoms such as mechanical alloknesis and hyperknesis. These dysesthesias are analoguous to the pain-associated phenomena allodynia and hyperalgesia, which are often observed, e.g., in neuropathic pain conditions. Mechanical itch dysesthesias represent abnormal sensory states (caused by neuroplastic changes) wherein considerable itch is evoked, for instance by light cutaneous stimuli such as from clothing (alloknesis), or where increased itch is perceived in response to normally itch-evoking stimuli (hyperknesis)...
April 11, 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652555/henry-herbert-donaldson-s-1857-1938-contribution-to-an-organized-approach-to-the-experimental-study-of-the-mammalian-central-nervous-system
#2
J Wayne Lazar
This article shows that the academic and research careers of Henry Herbert Donaldson (1857-1938) were directed to provide basic information about the growth of the vertebrate nervous system and to provide standards and the means to make such research efficient. He earned the reputation of making the albino rat a standard laboratory animal. His academic career began when he was an undergraduate at Yale University in 1875 and concluded with his death as Professor and Head of the Department of Neurology at the Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology of the University of Pennsylvania in 1938...
April 13, 2018: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614151/visual-vestibular-estimation-of-the-body-s-curvilinear-motion-through-the-world-a-computational-model
#3
John A Perrone
Motion along curved paths (curvilinear self-motion) introduces a rotation component to the radial expanding patterns of visual motion generated in the eyes of moving animals with forward-facing eyes. The resultant image motion (vector flow field) is no longer purely radial, and it is difficult to infer the heading direction from such combined translation-plus-rotation flow fields. The eye need not rotate relative to the head or body during curvilinear self-motion, and so there is an absence of efference signals directing and indicating the rotation...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551308/auditory-perceptual-learning-and-changes-in-the-conceptualization-of-auditory-cortex
#4
REVIEW
Dexter R F Irvine
Perceptual learning, improvement in discriminative ability as a consequence of training, is one of the forms of sensory system plasticity that has driven profound changes in our conceptualization of sensory cortical function. Psychophysical and neurophysiological studies of auditory perceptual learning have indicated that the characteristics of the learning, and by implication the nature of the underlying neural changes, are highly task specific. Some studies in animals have indicated that recruitment of neurons to the population responding to the training stimuli, and hence an increase in the so-called cortical "area of representation" of those stimuli, is the substrate of improved performance, but such changes have not been observed in other studies...
March 12, 2018: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531351/psychophysical-laws-and-the-superorganism
#5
Andreagiovanni Reina, Thomas Bose, Vito Trianni, James A R Marshall
Through theoretical analysis, we show how a superorganism may react to stimulus variations according to psychophysical laws observed in humans and other animals. We investigate an empirically-motivated honeybee house-hunting model, which describes a value-sensitive decision process over potential nest-sites, at the level of the colony. In this study, we show how colony decision time increases with the number of available nests, in agreement with the Hick-Hyman law of psychophysics, and decreases with mean nest quality, in agreement with Piéron's law...
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463642/the-effect-of-locomotion-on-early-visual-contrast-processing-in-humans
#6
A V Benjamin, K Wailes-Newson, A Ma-Wyatt, D H Baker, A R Wade
Most of our knowledge about vision comes from experiments in which stimuli are presented to immobile human subjects or animals. In the case of human subjects, movement during psychophysical, electrophysiological or neuroimaging experiments is considered to be a source of noise to be eliminated. Animals used in visual neuroscience experiments are typically restrained and, in many cases, anaesthetized.In reality however, vision is often used to guide the motion of awake, ambulating organisms. Recent work in mice has shown that locomotion elevates visual neuronal response amplitudes (Erisken et al...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428581/temporal-recalibration-of-motor-and-visual-potentials-in-lag-adaptation-in-voluntary-movement
#7
Chang Cai, Kenji Ogawa, Takanori Kochiyama, Hirokazu Tanaka, Hiroshi Imamizu
Adaptively recalibrating motor-sensory asynchrony is critical for animals to perceive self-produced action consequences. It is controversial whether motor- or sensory-related neural circuits recalibrate this asynchrony. By combining magnetoencephalography (MEG) and functional MRI (fMRI), we investigate the temporal changes in brain activities caused by repeated exposure to a 150-ms delay inserted between a button-press action and a subsequent flash. We found that readiness potentials significantly shift later in the motor system, especially in parietal regions (average: 219...
February 8, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364068/methods-for-chair-restraint-and-training-of-the-common-marmoset-on-oculomotor-tasks
#8
Kevin D Johnston, Kevin Barker, Lauren Schaeffer, David J Schaeffer, Stefan Everling
The oculomotor system is the most thoroughly understood sensorimotor system in the brain, due in large part to electrophysiological studies carried out in macaque monkeys trained to perform ocuolomotor tasks. A disadvantage of the macaque model is that many cortical oculomotor areas of interest lie within sulci, making high-density array and laminar recordings impractical. Many techniques of molecular biology developed in rodents, such as optogenetic manipulation of neuronal subtypes, are also limited in this species...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358364/single-cell-stimulation-in-barrel-cortex-influences-psychophysical-detection-performance
#9
Nouk Tanke, J Gerard G Borst, Arthur R Houweling
A single whisker stimulus elicits action potentials in a sparse subset of neurons in somatosensory cortex. The precise contribution of these neurons to the animal's perception of a whisker stimulus is unknown. Here we show that single-cell stimulation in rat barrel cortex of both sexes influences the psychophysical detection of a near-threshold whisker stimulus in a cell type-dependent manner, without affecting false alarm rate. Counterintuitively, stimulation of single fast-spiking putative inhibitory neurons increased detection performance...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239633/spatial-but-not-temporal-numerosity-thresholds-correlate-with-formal-math-skills-in-children
#10
Giovanni Anobile, Roberto Arrighi, Elisa Castaldi, Eleonora Grassi, Lara Pedonese, Paula A M Moscoso, David C Burr
Humans and other animals are able to make rough estimations of quantities using what has been termed the approximate number system (ANS). Much evidence suggests that sensitivity to numerosity correlates with symbolic math capacity, leading to the suggestion that the ANS may serve as a start-up tool to develop symbolic math. Many experiments have demonstrated that numerosity perception transcends the sensory modality of stimuli and their presentation format (sequential or simultaneous), but it remains an open question whether the relationship between numerosity and math generalizes over stimulus format and modality...
March 2018: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234113/principles-of-economic-rationality-in-mice
#11
Marion Rivalan, York Winter, Vladislav Nachev
Humans and non-human animals frequently violate principles of economic rationality, such as transitivity, independence of irrelevant alternatives, and regularity. The conditions that lead to these violations are not completely understood. Here we report a study on mice tested in automated home-cage setups using rewards of drinking water. Rewards differed in one of two dimensions, volume or probability. Our results suggest that mouse choice conforms to the principles of economic rationality for options that differ along a single reward dimension...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175957/brainstem-pain-control-circuitry-connectivity-in-chronic-neuropathic-pain
#12
Emily P Mills, Flavia Di Pietro, Zeynab Alshelh, Chris C Peck, Greg M Murray, E Russell Vickers, Luke A Henderson
Preclinical investigations have suggested that altered functioning of brainstem pain-modulation circuits may be crucial for the maintenance of some chronic pain conditions. While some human psychophysical studies show that patients with chronic pain display altered pain-modulation efficacy, it remains unknown whether brainstem pain-modulation circuits are altered in individuals with chronic pain. The aim of the present investigation was to determine whether, in humans, chronic pain following nerve injury is associated with altered ongoing functioning of the brainstem descending modulation systems...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065362/pharmacological-augmentation-of-endocannabinoid-signaling-reduces-the-neuroendocrine-response-to-stress
#13
Pablo Nicolás Surkin, Sofia Ludmila Gallino, Valeria Luce, Fernando Correa, Javier Fernandez-Solari, Andrea De Laurentiis
Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) is critical for survival when the organism is exposed to a stressful stimulus. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is currently considered an important neuromodulator involved in numerous pathophysiological processes and whose primary function is to maintain homeostasis. In the tissues constituting the HPA axis, all the components of the ECS are present and the activation of this system acts in parallel with changes in the activity of numerous neurotransmitters, including nitric oxide (NO)...
January 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035690/the-psychology-of-music-rhythm-and-movement
#14
Daniel J Levitin, Jessica A Grahn, Justin London
The urge to move to music is universal among humans. Unlike visual art, which is manifest across space, music is manifest across time. When listeners get carried away by the music, either through movement (such as dancing) or through reverie (such as trance), it is usually the temporal qualities of the music-its pulse, tempo, and rhythmic patterns-that put them in this state. In this article, we review studies addressing rhythm, meter, movement, synchronization, entrainment, the perception of groove, and other temporal factors that constitute a first step to understanding how and why music literally moves us...
January 4, 2018: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971012/neuromagnetic-responses-to-tactile-stimulation-of-the-fingers-evidence-for-reduced-cortical-inhibition-for-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-children-with-epilepsy
#15
William Gaetz, Michael T Jurkiewicz, Sudha Kilaru Kessler, Lisa Blaskey, Erin S Schwartz, Timothy P L Roberts
The purpose of this study was to compare somatosensory responses from a group of children with epilepsy and a group of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), with age matched TD controls. We hypothesized that the magnitude of the tactile "P50m" somatosensory response would be reduced in both patient groups, possibly due to reduced GABAergic signaling as has been implicated in a variety of previous animal models and in vivo human MRS studies. We observed significant (~ 25%) decreases in tactile P50m dipole moment values from the source localized tactile P50m response, both for children with epilepsy and for children with ASD...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857606/on-the-clock-interval-timing-and-overshadowing-in-domestic-dogs-canis-familiaris
#16
Krista Macpherson, William A Roberts
Interval timing is an important skill that allows animals to approximate how much time has elapsed since a given event. Little, however, is known about interval timing in domestic dogs. In an initial experiment, dogs were trained to make an operant response on 30-s fixed intervals, with either a light or a tone + light compound signaling the beginning of the fixed interval. When dogs in the compound group were subsequently tested with nonreinforced 60-s tone-only probe trials, the dogs' rate of responding peaked near 30 s...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776202/neurotrophin-gene-therapy-in-deafened-ears-with-cochlear-implants-long-term-effects-on-nerve-survival-and-functional-measures
#17
Bryan E Pfingst, Deborah J Colesa, Donald L Swiderski, Aaron P Hughes, Stefan B Strahl, Moaz Sinan, Yehoash Raphael
Because cochlear implants function by stimulating the auditory nerve, it is assumed that the condition of the nerve plays an important role in the efficacy of the prosthesis. Thus, considerable research has been devoted to methods of preserving the nerve following deafness. Neurotrophins have been identified as a potential contributor to neural health, but most of the research to date has been done in young animals and for short periods (less than 3 to 6 months) after the onset of treatment. The first objective of the current experiment was to examine the effects of a neurotrophin gene therapy delivery method on spiral ganglion neuron (SGN) preservation and function in the long term (5 to 14 months) in mature guinea pigs with cochlear implants...
December 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756239/trading-of-dynamic-interaural-time-and-level-difference-cues-and-its-effect-on-the-auditory-motion-onset-response-measured-with-electroencephalography
#18
Christian F Altmann, Ryuhei Ueda, Benoit Bucher, Shigeto Furukawa, Kentaro Ono, Makio Kashino, Tatsuya Mima, Hidenao Fukuyama
Interaural time (ITD) and level differences (ILD) constitute the two main cues for sound localization in the horizontal plane. Despite extensive research in animal models and humans, the mechanism of how these two cues are integrated into a unified percept is still far from clear. In this study, our aim was to test with human electroencephalography (EEG) whether integration of dynamic ITD and ILD cues is reflected in the so-called motion-onset response (MOR), an evoked potential elicited by moving sound sources...
July 27, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746335/adjudicating-between-face-coding-models-with-individual-face-fmri-responses
#19
Johan D Carlin, Nikolaus Kriegeskorte
The perceptual representation of individual faces is often explained with reference to a norm-based face space. In such spaces, individuals are encoded as vectors where identity is primarily conveyed by direction and distinctiveness by eccentricity. Here we measured human fMRI responses and psychophysical similarity judgments of individual face exemplars, which were generated as realistic 3D animations using a computer-graphics model. We developed and evaluated multiple neurobiologically plausible computational models, each of which predicts a representational distance matrix and a regional-mean activation profile for 24 face stimuli...
July 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743932/efficient-probabilistic-inference-in-generic-neural-networks-trained-with-non-probabilistic-feedback
#20
A Emin Orhan, Wei Ji Ma
Animals perform near-optimal probabilistic inference in a wide range of psychophysical tasks. Probabilistic inference requires trial-to-trial representation of the uncertainties associated with task variables and subsequent use of this representation. Previous work has implemented such computations using neural networks with hand-crafted and task-dependent operations. We show that generic neural networks trained with a simple error-based learning rule perform near-optimal probabilistic inference in nine common psychophysical tasks...
July 26, 2017: Nature Communications
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