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Animal psychophysics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776202/neurotrophin-gene-therapy-in-deafened-ears-with-cochlear-implants-long-term-effects-on-nerve-survival-and-functional-measures
#1
Bryan E Pfingst, Deborah J Colesa, Donald L Swiderski, Aaron P Hughes, Stefan B Strahl, Moaz Sinan, Yehoash Raphael
Because cochlear implants function by stimulating the auditory nerve, it is assumed that the condition of the nerve plays an important role in the efficacy of the prosthesis. Thus, considerable research has been devoted to methods of preserving the nerve following deafness. Neurotrophins have been identified as a potential contributor to neural health, but most of the research to date has been done in young animals and for short periods (less than 3 to 6 months) after the onset of treatment. The first objective of the current experiment was to examine the effects of a neurotrophin gene therapy delivery method on spiral ganglion neuron (SGN) preservation and function in the long term (5 to 14 months) in mature guinea pigs with cochlear implants...
August 3, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756239/trading-of-dynamic-interaural-time-and-level-difference-cues-and-its-effect-on-the-auditory-motion-onset-response-measured-with-electroencephalography
#2
Christian F Altmann, Ryuhei Ueda, Benoit Bucher, Shigeto Furukawa, Kentaro Ono, Makio Kashino, Tatsuya Mima, Hidenao Fukuyama
Interaural time (ITD) and level differences (ILD) constitute the two main cues for sound localization in the horizontal plane. Despite extensive research in animal models and humans, the mechanism of how these two cues are integrated into a unified percept is still far from clear. In this study, our aim was to test with human electroencephalography (EEG) whether integration of dynamic ITD and ILD cues is reflected in the so-called motion-onset response (MOR), an evoked potential elicited by moving sound sources...
July 27, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746335/adjudicating-between-face-coding-models-with-individual-face-fmri-responses
#3
Johan D Carlin, Nikolaus Kriegeskorte
The perceptual representation of individual faces is often explained with reference to a norm-based face space. In such spaces, individuals are encoded as vectors where identity is primarily conveyed by direction and distinctiveness by eccentricity. Here we measured human fMRI responses and psychophysical similarity judgments of individual face exemplars, which were generated as realistic 3D animations using a computer-graphics model. We developed and evaluated multiple neurobiologically plausible computational models, each of which predicts a representational distance matrix and a regional-mean activation profile for 24 face stimuli...
July 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743932/efficient-probabilistic-inference-in-generic-neural-networks-trained-with-non-probabilistic-feedback
#4
A Emin Orhan, Wei Ji Ma
Animals perform near-optimal probabilistic inference in a wide range of psychophysical tasks. Probabilistic inference requires trial-to-trial representation of the uncertainties associated with task variables and subsequent use of this representation. Previous work has implemented such computations using neural networks with hand-crafted and task-dependent operations. We show that generic neural networks trained with a simple error-based learning rule perform near-optimal probabilistic inference in nine common psychophysical tasks...
July 26, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639470/identifying-computer-generated-portraits-the-importance-of-training-and-incentives
#5
Brandon Mader, Martin S Banks, Hany Farid
The past two decades have seen remarkable advances in photo-realistic rendering of everything from inanimate objects to landscapes, animals, and humans. We previously showed that despite these tremendous advances, human observers remain fairly good at distinguishing computer-generated from photographic images. Building on these results, we describe a series of follow-up experiments that reveal how to improve observer performance. Of general interest to anyone performing psychophysical studies on Mechanical Turk or similar platforms, we find that observer performance can be significantly improved with the proper incentives...
September 2017: Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582535/perceived-synchrony-of-frog-multimodal-signal-components-is%C3%A2-influenced-by-content-and-order
#6
Ryan C Taylor, Rachel A Page, Barrett A Klein, Michael J Ryan, Kimberly L Hunter
Multimodal signaling is common in communication systems. Depending on the species, individual signal components may be produced synchronously as a result of physiological constraint (fixed) or each component may be produced independently (fluid) in time. For animals that rely on fixed signals, a basic prediction is that asynchrony between the components should degrade the perception of signal salience, reducing receiver response. Male túngara frogs, Physalaemus pustulosus, produce a fixed multisensory courtship signal by vocalizing with two call components (whines and chucks) and inflating a vocal sac (visual component)...
June 5, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533465/human-colour-in-mate-choice-and-competition
#7
REVIEW
Hannah M Rowland, Robert P Burriss
The colour of our skin and clothing affects how others perceive us and how we behave. Human skin colour varies conspicuously with genetic ancestry, but even subtle changes in skin colour due to diet, blood oxygenation and hormone levels influence social perceptions. In this review, we describe the theoretical and empirical frameworks in which human colour is researched. We explore how subtle skin colour differences relate to judgements of health and attractiveness. Also, because humans are one of the few organisms able to manipulate their apparent colour, we review how cosmetics and clothing are implicated in courtship and competition, both inside the laboratory and in the real world...
July 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532359/visual-confidence
#8
Pascal Mamassian
Visual confidence refers to an observer's ability to judge the accuracy of her perceptual decisions. Even though confidence judgments have been recorded since the early days of psychophysics, only recently have they been recognized as essential for a deeper understanding of visual perception. The reluctance to study visual confidence may have come in part from obtaining convincing experimental evidence in favor of metacognitive abilities rather than just perceptual sensitivity. Some effort has thus been dedicated to offer different experimental paradigms to study visual confidence in humans and nonhuman animals...
October 14, 2016: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505665/visual-wetness-perception-based-on-image-color-statistics
#9
Masataka Sawayama, Edward H Adelson, Shin'ya Nishida
Color vision provides humans and animals with the abilities to discriminate colors based on the wavelength composition of light and to determine the location and identity of objects of interest in cluttered scenes (e.g., ripe fruit among foliage). However, we argue that color vision can inform us about much more than color alone. Since a trichromatic image carries more information about the optical properties of a scene than a monochromatic image does, color can help us recognize complex material qualities...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408237/habituation-and-adaptation-to-odors-in-humans
#10
REVIEW
R Pellegrino, C Sinding, R A de Wijk, T Hummel
Habituation, or decreased behavioral response, to odors is created by repeated exposure and several detailed characteristics, whereas adaptation relates to the neural processes that constitute this decrease in a behavioral response. As with all senses, the olfactory system continually encounters an enormous variety of odorants which is why mechanisms must exist to segment them and respond to changes. Although most olfactory habitation studies have focused on animal models, this non-systematic review provides an overview of olfactory habituation and adaptation in humans, and techniques that have been used to measure them...
April 10, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406373/true-numerical-cognition-in-the-wild
#11
Steven T Piantadosi, Jessica F Cantlon
Cognitive and neural research over the past few decades has produced sophisticated models of the representations and algorithms underlying numerical reasoning in humans and other animals. These models make precise predictions for how humans and other animals should behave when faced with quantitative decisions, yet primarily have been tested only in laboratory tasks. We used data from wild baboons' troop movements recently reported by Strandburg-Peshkin, Farine, Couzin, and Crofoot (2015) to compare a variety of models of quantitative decision making...
April 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269322/a-study-on-the-effect-of-multisensory-stimulation-in-behaving-rats
#12
Marianna Semprini, Fabio Boi, Valter Tucci, Alessandro Vato
This study explored the psychophysical effects of intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) coupled to auditory stimulation during a behavioral detection task in rats. ICMS directed to the sensory areas of the cortex can be instrumental in facilitating operant conditioning behavior. Moreover, multisensory stimulation promotes learning by enabling the subject to access multiple information channels. However, the extent to which multisensory information can be used as a cue to make decisions has not been fully understood...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268958/reward-value-is-encoded-in-primary-somatosensory-cortex-and-can-be-decoded-from-neural-activity-during-performance-of-a-psychophysical-task
#13
David B McNiel, John S Choi, John P Hessburg, Joseph T Francis
Encoding of reward valence has been shown in various brain regions, including deep structures such as the substantia nigra as well as cortical structures such as the orbitofrontal cortex. While the correlation between these signals and reward valence have been shown in aggregated data comprised of many trials, little work has been done investigating the feasibility of decoding reward valence on a single trial basis. Towards this goal, one non-human primate (macaca radiata) was trained to grip and hold a target level of force in order to earn zero, one, two, or three juice rewards...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238657/frogs-exploit-statistical-regularities-in-noisy-acoustic-scenes-to-solve-cocktail-party-like-problems
#14
Norman Lee, Jessica L Ward, Alejandro Vélez, Christophe Micheyl, Mark A Bee
Noise is a ubiquitous source of errors in all forms of communication [1]. Noise-induced errors in speech communication, for example, make it difficult for humans to converse in noisy social settings, a challenge aptly named the "cocktail party problem" [2]. Many nonhuman animals also communicate acoustically in noisy social groups and thus face biologically analogous problems [3]. However, we know little about how the perceptual systems of receivers are evolutionarily adapted to avoid the costs of noise-induced errors in communication...
March 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227563/a-study-on-the-effect-of-multisensory-stimulation-in-behaving-rats
#15
Marianna Semprini, Fabio Boi, Valter Tucci, Alessandro Vato, Marianna Semprini, Fabio Boi, Valter Tucci, Alessandro Vato, Fabio Boi, Valter Tucci, Marianna Semprini, Alessandro Vato
This study explored the psychophysical effects of intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) coupled to auditory stimulation during a behavioral detection task in rats. ICMS directed to the sensory areas of the cortex can be instrumental in facilitating operant conditioning behavior. Moreover, multisensory stimulation promotes learning by enabling the subject to access multiple information channels. However, the extent to which multisensory information can be used as a cue to make decisions has not been fully understood...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227165/reward-value-is-encoded-in-primary-somatosensory-cortex-and-can-be-decoded-from-neural-activity-during-performance-of-a-psychophysical-task
#16
David B McNiel, John S Choi, John P Hessburg, Joseph T Francis, David B McNiel, John S Choi, John P Hessburg, Joseph T Francis, John P Hessburg, Joseph T Francis, John S Choi, David B McNiel
Encoding of reward valence has been shown in various brain regions, including deep structures such as the substantia nigra as well as cortical structures such as the orbitofrontal cortex. While the correlation between these signals and reward valence have been shown in aggregated data comprised of many trials, little work has been done investigating the feasibility of decoding reward valence on a single trial basis. Towards this goal, one non-human primate (macaca radiata) was trained to grip and hold a target level of force in order to earn zero, one, two, or three juice rewards...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224320/forward-masking-in-cochlear-implant-users-electrophysiological-and-psychophysical-data-using-pulse-train-maskers
#17
Youssef Adel, Gaston Hilkhuysen, Arnaud Noreña, Yves Cazals, Stéphane Roman, Olivier Macherey
Electrical stimulation of auditory nerve fibers using cochlear implants (CI) shows psychophysical forward masking (pFM) up to several hundreds of milliseconds. By contrast, recovery of electrically evoked compound action potentials (eCAPs) from forward masking (eFM) was shown to be more rapid, with time constants no greater than a few milliseconds. These discrepancies suggested two main contributors to pFM: a rapid-recovery process due to refractory properties of the auditory nerve and a slow-recovery process arising from more central structures...
June 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207576/relationship-between-peripheral-and-psychophysical-measures-of-amplitude-modulation-detection-in-cochlear-implant-users
#18
Viral D Tejani, Paul J Abbas, Carolyn J Brown
OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the relationship between electrophysiological and psychophysical measures of amplitude modulation (AM) detection. Prior studies have reported both measures of AM detection recorded separately from cochlear implant (CI) users and acutely deafened animals, but no study has made both measures in the same CI users. Animal studies suggest a progressive loss of high-frequency encoding as one ascends the auditory pathway from the auditory nerve to the cortex...
February 15, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100823/conspicuous-plumage-colours-are-highly-variable
#19
Kaspar Delhey, Beatrice Szecsenyi, Shinichi Nakagawa, Anne Peters
Elaborate ornamental traits are often under directional selection for greater elaboration, which in theory should deplete underlying genetic variation. Despite this, many ornamental traits appear to remain highly variable and how this essential variation is maintained is a key question in evolutionary biology. One way to address this question is to compare differences in intraspecific variability across different types of traits to determine whether high levels of variation are associated with specific trait characteristics...
January 25, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044022/animal-models-for-auditory-streaming
#20
REVIEW
Naoya Itatani, Georg M Klump
Sounds in the natural environment need to be assigned to acoustic sources to evaluate complex auditory scenes. Separating sources will affect the analysis of auditory features of sounds. As the benefits of assigning sounds to specific sources accrue to all species communicating acoustically, the ability for auditory scene analysis is widespread among different animals. Animal studies allow for a deeper insight into the neuronal mechanisms underlying auditory scene analysis. Here, we will review the paradigms applied in the study of auditory scene analysis and streaming of sequential sounds in animal models...
February 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
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