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Signal detection theory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230091/the-integration-of-color-selective-mechanisms-in-symmetry-detection
#1
Chia-Ching Wu, Chien-Chung Chen
We studied how the visual system detects multicolor symmetric patterns by manipulating the number of colors in an image in both isoluminance and luminance conditions. With a two-interval forced choice noise masking paradigm, we presented a noise mask in both intervals of each trial. A vertically symmetric target was randomly presented in one interval while a noise control was presented in the other. The task of the observers was to determine which interval contained the target. The target detection threshold was measured at various noise mask densities, which was found to decrease 1...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208303/a-photothermal-spectrometer-for-fast-and-background-free-detection-of-individual-nanoparticles-in-flow
#2
Richard Maceiczyk, Hisashi Shimizu, David Müller, Takehiko Kitamori, Andrew deMello
Sensitive detection and quantification of individual plasmonic nanoparticles is critical in a range of applications in the biological, nanomaterials, and analytical sciences. Although a wide range of techniques can be applied to the analysis of immobilized particles, high-throughput analysis of nanoscale species in flow is surprisingly underdeveloped. To address this shortcoming, we present an ultrasensitive, background-free technique based on the photothermal effect and termed differential detection photothermal interferometry (DDPI)...
February 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192502/theta-burst-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-to-the-prefrontal-or-parietal-cortex-does-not-impair-metacognitive-visual-awareness
#3
Daniel Bor, David J Schwartzman, Adam B Barrett, Anil K Seth
Neuroimaging studies commonly associate dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and posterior parietal cortex with conscious perception. However, such studies only investigate correlation, rather than causation. In addition, many studies conflate objective performance with subjective awareness. In an influential recent paper, Rounis and colleagues addressed these issues by showing that continuous theta burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (cTBS) applied to the DLPFC impaired metacognitive (subjective) awareness for a perceptual task, while objective performance was kept constant...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157560/time-domain-shape-of-electron-spin-echo-signal-of-spin-correlated-radical-pairs-in-polymer-fullerene-blends
#4
Alexander A Popov, Ekaterina A Lukina, Leonid Rapatskiy, Leonid V Kulik
Temporal shape of electron spin echo (ESE) signal of photoinduced spin-correlated radical pairs (SCRP) in composite of conductive polymer P3HT and substituted fullerene PCBM is studied in details. ESE signals of radical pairs (RP) P3HT(+)/PCBM(-) are calculated in realistic model, taking into account finite microwave pulse length. Inhomogeneous broadening of resonant lines and interradical distance distribution are included. Experimentally observed ESE time-domain shape was found to contradict predictions of conventional SCRP theory, which would be valid in the case of very fast electron transfer...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146674/rest-is-still-best
#5
William S Helton, Paul N Russell
OBJECTIVE: We examined the impact task interruptions of differing qualitative and quantitative load have on visuospatial vigilance sensitivity. BACKGROUND: The vigilance decrement and attempts to develop countermeasures to the decrement is one of the most important human factors issues. There is an ongoing debate between those who interpret the increase in the rate of failures to detect signals over time as being due to objective task monotony or task underload and those who interpret this increased failure proneness as being predominately due to cognitive-resource depletion and task overload...
February 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135636/phasic-valence-and-arousal-do-not-influence-post-conflict-adjustments-in-the-simon-task
#6
David Dignath, Markus Janczyk, Andreas B Eder
According to theoretical accounts of cognitive control, conflict between competing responses is monitored and triggers post conflict behavioural adjustments. Some models proposed that conflict is detected as an affective signal. While the conflict monitoring theory assumed that conflict is registered as a negative valence signal, the adaptation by binding model hypothesized that conflict provides a high arousal signal. The present research induced phasic affect in a Simon task with presentations of pleasant and unpleasant pictures that were high or low in arousal...
January 27, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130715/exploring-the-origin-of-the-number-size-congruency-effect-sensitivity-or-response-bias
#7
Dennis Reike, Wolf Schwarz
Physical size modulates the efficiency of digit comparison, depending on whether the relation of numerical magnitude and physical size is congruent or incongruent (Besner & Coltheart, Neuropsychologia, 17, 467-472, 1979), the number-size congruency effect (NSCE). In addition, Henik and Tzelgov (Memory & Cognition, 10, 389-395, 1982) first reported an NSCE for the reverse task of comparing the physical size of digits such that the numerical magnitude of digits modulated the time required to compare their physical sizes...
January 27, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120817/re-scan-confocal-microscopy-rcm-improves-the-resolution-of-confocal-microscopy-and-increases-the-sensitivity
#8
Giulia De Luca, Ronald Breedijk, Ron Hoebe, Sjoerd Stallinga, Erik Manders
Re-scan confocal microscopy (RCM) is a new super-resolution technique based on a standard confocal microscope extended with a re-scan unit in the detection path that projects the emitted light onto a sensitive camera. In this paper the fundamental properties of RCM, lateral resolution, axial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio, are characterized and compared with properties of standard confocal microscopy. The results show that the lateral resolution of RCM is ~170 nm compared to ~240 nm of confocal microscopy for 488 nm excitation and 1...
January 25, 2017: Methods and Applications in Fluorescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108588/inferring-recent-demography-from-isolation-by-distance-of-long-shared-sequence-blocks
#9
Harald Ringbauer, Graham Coop, Nicholas H Barton
Recently it has become feasible to detect long blocks of nearly identical sequence shared between pairs of genomes. These IBD blocks are direct traces of recent coalescence events and, as such, contain ample signal to infer recent demography. Here, we examine sharing of such blocks in two-dimensional populations with local migration. Using a diffusion approximation to trace genetic ancestry, we derive analytical formulae for patterns of isolation by distance of IBD blocks, which can also incorporate recent population density changes...
January 20, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107204/non-invasive-blood-glucose-detection-system-based-on-conservation-of-energy-method
#10
Yang Zhang, Jian-Ming Zhu, Yong-Bo Liang, Hong-Bo Chen, Shi-Min Yin, Zhen-Cheng Chen
The most common method used for minimizing the occurrence of diabetes complications is frequent glucose testing to adjust the insulin dose. However, using blood glucose (BG) meters presents a risk of infection. It is of great importance to develop non-invasive BG detection techniques. To realize high-accuracy, low-cost and continuous glucose monitoring, we have developed a non-invasive BG detection system using a mixed signal processor 430 (MSP430) microcontroller. This method is based on the combination of the conservation-of-energy method with a sensor integration module, which collects physiological parameters, such as the blood oxygen saturation (SPO2), blood flow velocity and heart rate...
January 20, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106123/visual-area-v5-hmt-contributes-to-perception-of-tactile-motion-direction-a-tms-study
#11
Tomohiro Amemiya, Brianna Beck, Vincent Walsh, Hiroaki Gomi, Patrick Haggard
Human imaging studies have reported activations associated with tactile motion perception in visual motion area V5/hMT+, primary somatosensory cortex (SI) and posterior parietal cortex (PPC; Brodmann areas 7/40). However, such studies cannot establish whether these areas are causally involved in tactile motion perception. We delivered double-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) while moving a single tactile point across the fingertip, and used signal detection theory to quantify perceptual sensitivity to motion direction...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100814/predicting-behavioural-responses-to-novel-organisms-state-dependent-detection-theory
#12
Pete C Trimmer, Sean M Ehlman, Andrew Sih
Human activity alters natural habitats for many species. Understanding variation in animals' behavioural responses to these changing environments is critical. We show how signal detection theory can be used within a wider framework of state-dependent modelling to predict behavioural responses to a major environmental change: novel, exotic species. We allow thresholds for action to be a function of reserves, and demonstrate how optimal thresholds can be calculated. We term this framework 'state-dependent detection theory' (SDDT)...
January 25, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100734/does-the-superior-colliculus-control-perceptual-sensitivity-or-choice-bias-during-attention-evidence-from-a-multialternative-decision-framework
#13
Devarajan Sridharan, Nicholas A Steinmetz, Tirin Moore, Eric I Knudsen
: Distinct networks in the forebrain and the midbrain coordinate to control spatial attention. The critical involvement of the superior colliculus (SC)-the central structure in the midbrain network-in visuospatial attention has been shown by four seminal, published studies in monkeys (Macaca mulatta) performing multialternative tasks. However, due to the lack of a mechanistic framework for interpreting behavioral data in such tasks, the nature of the SC's contribution to attention remains unclear...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088350/the-emotive-nature-of-conflict-monitoring-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#14
Blair Saunders, Hause Lin, Marina Milyavskaya, Michael Inzlicht
The detection of conflict between incompatible impulses, thoughts, and actions is a ubiquitous source of motivation across theories of goal-directed action. In this overview, we explore the hypothesis that conflict is emotive, integrating perspectives from affective science and cognitive neuroscience. Initially, we review evidence suggesting that the mental and biological processes that monitor for information processing conflict-particularly those generated by the anterior midcingulate cortex-track the affective significance of conflict and use this signal to motivate increased control...
January 11, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071715/in-situ-characterization-of-nanoparticles-using-rayleigh-scattering
#15
Biswajit Santra, Mikhail N Shneider, Roberto Car
We report a theoretical analysis showing that Rayleigh scattering could be used to monitor the growth of nanoparticles under arc discharge conditions. We compute the Rayleigh scattering cross sections of the nanoparticles by combining light scattering theory for gas-particle mixtures with calculations of the dynamic electronic polarizability of the nanoparticles. We find that the resolution of the Rayleigh scattering probe is adequate to detect nanoparticles as small as C60 at the expected concentrations of synthesis conditions in the arc periphery...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069445/person-perception-involves-functional-integration-between-the-extrastriate-body-area-and-temporal-pole
#16
Inez M Greven, Richard Ramsey
The majority of human neuroscience research has focussed on understanding functional organisation within segregated patches of cortex. The ventral visual stream has been associated with the detection of physical features such as faces and body parts, whereas the theory-of-mind network has been associated with making inferences about mental states and underlying character, such as whether someone is friendly, selfish, or generous. To date, however, it is largely unknown how such distinct processing components integrate neural signals...
February 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067218/nonlinear-detection-of-secondary-isotopic-chemical-shifts-in-nmr-through-spin-noise
#17
Maria Theresia Pöschko, Victor V Rodin, Judith Schlagnitweit, Norbert Müller, Hervé Desvaux
The detection of minor species in the presence of large amounts of similar main components remains a key challenge in analytical chemistry, for instance, to obtain isotopic fingerprints. As an alternative to the classical NMR scheme based on coherent excitation and detection, here we introduce an approach based on spin-noise detection. Chemical shifts and transverse relaxation rates are determined using only the detection circuit. Thanks to a nonlinear effect in mixtures with small chemical shift dispersion, small signals on top of a larger one can be observed with increased sensitivity as bumps on a dip; the latter being the signature of the main magnetization...
January 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046006/suboptimal-criterion-learning-in-static-and-dynamic-environments
#18
Elyse H Norton, Stephen M Fleming, Nathaniel D Daw, Michael S Landy
Humans often make decisions based on uncertain sensory information. Signal detection theory (SDT) describes detection and discrimination decisions as a comparison of stimulus "strength" to a fixed decision criterion. However, recent research suggests that current responses depend on the recent history of stimuli and previous responses, suggesting that the decision criterion is updated trial-by-trial. The mechanisms underpinning criterion setting remain unknown. Here, we examine how observers learn to set a decision criterion in an orientation-discrimination task under both static and dynamic conditions...
January 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042992/are-rapidly-growing-cancers-more-lethal
#19
Hans-Olov Adami, Peter Csermely, Daniel V Veres, Louise Emilsson, Magnus Løberg, Michael Bretthauer, Mette Kalager
The view, that rapidly growing tumours are more likely than slow-growing tumours to metastasize and become lethal, has remained almost axiomatic for decades. Unaware of any solid evidence supporting this view, we undertook an exhaustive system-level analysis of intra- and intercellular signalling networks. This analysis indicated that rapid growth and metastasis are often different outcomes of complex integrated molecular events. Evidence from humans can be derived chiefly from screening interventions because interval cancers that surface clinically shortly after a negative screening test are, on average, more rapidly growing than cancers not detected by screening...
February 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041797/sharp-wave-ripples-in-primates-are-enhanced-near-remembered-visual-objects
#20
Timothy K Leonard, Kari L Hoffman
The hippocampus plays an important role in memory for events that are distinct in space and time. One of the strongest, most synchronous neural signals produced by the hippocampus is the sharp-wave ripple (SWR), observed in a variety of mammalian species during offline behaviors, such as slow-wave sleep [1-3] and quiescent waking and pauses in exploration [4-8], leading to long-standing and widespread theories of its contribution to plasticity and memory during these inactive or immobile states [9-14]. Indeed, during sleep and waking inactivity, hippocampal SWRs in rodents appear to support spatial long-term and working memory [4, 15-23], but so far, they have not been linked to memory in primates...
January 23, 2017: Current Biology: CB
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