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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639818/a-critical-examination-of-the-research-and-theoretical-underpinnings-discussed-in-thomson-besner-and-smilek-2016
#1
Nicholas W Fraulini, Gabriella M Hancock, Alexis R Neigel, Victoria L Claypoole, James L Szalma
Thomson, Besner, and Smilek (2016) propose that performance decrements associated with sustained attention are not consistently the result of a decline in perceptual sensitivity. Thomson et al. (2016) present empirical evidence using a novel, nontraditional vigilance task to support their assumptions. However, in the present rebuttal, we argue that the authors have not only have misinterpreted previous research in sustained attention, but also have misapplied those interpretations to their study. Thomson et al...
July 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639168/sensitivity-of-chaos-measures-in-detecting-stress-in-the-focusing-control-mechanism-of-the-short-sighted-eye
#2
Karen M Hampson, Matthew P Cufflin, Edward A H Mallen
When fixating on a stationary object, the power of the eye's lens fluctuates. Studies have suggested that changes in these so-called microfluctuations in accommodation may be a factor in the onset and progression of short-sightedness. Like many physiological signals, the fluctuations in the power of the lens exhibit chaotic behaviour. A breakdown or reduction in chaos in physiological systems indicates stress to the system or pathology. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the chaos in fluctuations of the power of the lens changes with refractive error, i...
June 21, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618829/detection-of-an-undersea-acoustic-communications-network-by-an-energy-detector
#3
Richard C Shockley, Paul J Gendron, J Mark Stevenson
A theory is presented for the upper bound on the mean time τ to the detection of an undersea acoustic communications network by an energy detector whose initial position and heading are uniformly distributed random variables. The network is an infinite square grid of omnidirectional transmit-receive nodes on a flat bottom. Each node transmits to one nearest neighbor at a bit-rate R equal to Shannon's capacity, maximizing τ. The network sets a signaling bandwidth W and node-spacing D. The detector sets a false-alarm rate, integration time, height above the bottom, and speed...
June 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609991/the-use-of-bioacoustics-in-anuran-taxonomy-theory-terminology-methods-and-recommendations-for-best-practice
#4
Jörn Köhler, Martin Jansen, Ariel Rodríguez, Philippe J R Kok, Luís Felipe Toledo, Mike Emmrich, Frank Glaw, Célio F B Haddad, Mark-Oliver Rödel, Miguel Vences
Vocalizations of anuran amphibians have received much attention in studies of behavioral ecology and physiology, but also provide informative characters for identifying and delimiting species. We here review the terminology and variation of frog calls from a perspective of integrative taxonomy, and provide hands-on protocols for recording, analyzing, comparing, interpreting and describing these sounds. Our focus is on advertisement calls, which serve as premating isolation mechanisms and, therefore, convey important taxonomic information...
April 11, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608985/statistical-performance-of-image-cytometry-for-dna-lipids-cytokeratin-cd45-in-a-model-system-for-circulation-tumor-cell-detection
#5
Gregory L Futia, Isabel R Schlaepfer, Lubna Qamar, Kian Behbakht, Emily A Gibson
Detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in a blood sample is limited by the sensitivity and specificity of the biomarker panel used to identify CTCs over other blood cells. In this work, we present Bayesian theory that shows how test sensitivity and specificity set the rarity of cell that a test can detect. We perform our calculation of sensitivity and specificity on our image cytometry biomarker panel by testing on pure disease positive (D(+) ) populations (MCF7 cells) and pure disease negative populations (D(-) ) (leukocytes)...
June 13, 2017: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607218/improved-signal-recovery-for-flow-cytometry-based-on-spatially-modulated-emission
#6
Stephan Quint, Jörn Wittek, Peter Spang, Nadav Levanon, T Walther, Michael Baßler
Recently, the technique of `spatially modulated emission' has been introduced which improves the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for detecting biological cells in the field of flow cytometry. Based on this concept, we developed two advanced signal processing methods which further enhance the SNR and selectivity for cell detection. The improvements are achieved by adapting digital filtering methods from RADAR technology and mainly address inherent offset elimination, increased signal dynamics and moreover reduction of erroneous detections due to processing artifacts...
June 13, 2017: Methods and Applications in Fluorescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604603/acoustic-emission-and-echo-signal-compensation-techniques-applied-to-an-ultrasonic-logging-while-drilling-caliper
#7
Yongchao Yao, Xiaodong Ju, Junqiang Lu, Baiyong Men
A logging-while-drilling (LWD) caliper is a tool used for the real-time measurement of a borehole diameter in oil drilling engineering. This study introduces the mechanical structure and working principle of a new LWD caliper based on ultrasonic distance measurement (UDM). The detection range is a major performance index of a UDM system. This index is determined by the blind zone length and remote reflecting interface detection capability of the system. To reduce the blind zone length and detect near the reflecting interface, a full bridge acoustic emission technique based on bootstrap gate driver (BGD) and metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) is designed by analyzing the working principle and impedance characteristics of a given piezoelectric transducer...
June 10, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596797/causality-in-cancer-research-a-journey-through-models-in-molecular-epidemiology-and-their-philosophical-interpretation
#8
Paolo Vineis, Phyllis Illari, Federica Russo
In the last decades, Systems Biology (including cancer research) has been driven by technology, statistical modelling and bioinformatics. In this paper we try to bring biological and philosophical thinking back. We thus aim at making different traditions of thought compatible: (a) causality in epidemiology and in philosophical theorizing-notably, the "sufficient-component-cause framework" and the "mark transmission" approach; (b) new acquisitions about disease pathogenesis, e.g. the "branched model" in cancer, and the role of biomarkers in this process; (c) the burgeoning of omics research, with a large number of "signals" and of associations that need to be interpreted...
2017: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588513/testing-separability-and-independence-of-perceptual-dimensions-with-general-recognition-theory-a-tutorial-and-new-r-package-grtools
#9
Fabian A Soto, Emily Zheng, Johnny Fonseca, F Gregory Ashby
Determining whether perceptual properties are processed independently is an important goal in perceptual science, and tools to test independence should be widely available to experimental researchers. The best analytical tools to test for perceptual independence are provided by General Recognition Theory (GRT), a multidimensional extension of signal detection theory. Unfortunately, there is currently a lack of software implementing GRT analyses that is ready-to-use by experimental psychologists and neuroscientists with little training in computational modeling...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587377/network-of-microrna-transcription-factors-target-genes-and-host-genes-in-human-mesothelioma
#10
Guanhua Zhang, Zhiwen Xu, Ning Wang
Significant progress has been made into the elucidation of the etiology of mesothelioma at the level of the genes and miRNA. Nevertheless, researchers in this field remain unable to systematically construct a network that demonstrates the specific relationships between genes, miRNA and transcription factors (TFs). TFs are key regulatory elements that control gene expression. In the present study, according to the transcriptional regulatory rule, three regulatory networks were constructed using experimentally validated elements to explore the pathogenesis of mesothelioma...
June 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587240/adaptive-temporal-matched-filtering-for-noise-suppression-in-fiber-optic-distributed-acoustic-sensing
#11
İbrahim Ölçer, Ahmet Öncü
Distributed vibration sensing based on phase-sensitive optical time domain reflectometry ( ϕ -OTDR) is being widely used in several applications. However, one of the main challenges in coherent detection-based ϕ -OTDR systems is the fading noise, which impacts the detection performance. In addition, typical signal averaging and differentiating techniques are not suitable for detecting high frequency events. This paper presents a new approach for reducing the effect of fading noise in fiber optic distributed acoustic vibration sensing systems without any impact on the frequency response of the detection system...
June 5, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577902/directional-sensitivity-of-anomalous-diffusion-in-human-brain-assessed-by-tensorial-fractional-motion-model
#12
Boyan Xu, Gaolang Gong, Yang Fan, Bing Wu, Jia-Hong Gao
Anisotropic diffusion in the nervous system is most commonly modeled by apparent diffusion tensor, which is based on regular diffusion theory. However, the departure of diffusion-induced signal attenuation from a mono-exponential form implies that there is anomalous diffusion. Recently, a novel diffusion NMR theory based on the fractional motion (FM) model, which is an anomalous diffusion model, has been proposed. While the FM model has been applied to both healthy subjects and tumor patients, its anisotropy in the nervous system remains elusive...
June 1, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557801/a-comprehensive-model-for-x-ray-projection-imaging-system-efficiency-and-image-quality-characterization-in-the-presence-of-scattered-radiation
#13
P Monnin, F R Verdun, H Bosmans, S Rodríguez Pérez, N W Marshall
This work proposes a method for assessing the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of radiographic imaging systems that include both the x-ray detector and the antiscatter device. Cascaded linear analysis of the antiscatter device efficiency (DQEASD) with the x-ray detector DQE is used to develop a metric of system efficiency (DQEsys); the new metric is then related to the existing system efficiency parameters of effective DQE (eDQE) and generalized DQE (gDQE). The effect of scatter on signal transfer was modelled through its point spread function (PSF), leading to an x-ray beam transfer function (BTF) that multiplies with the classical presampling modulation transfer function (MTF) to give the system MTF...
June 23, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556198/can-bottom-up-processes-of-attention-be-a-source-of-interference-in%C3%A2-situations-where-top-down-control-of-attention-is-crucial
#14
Dritan Nikolla, Graham Edgar, Dianne Catherwood, Tristan Matthews
In this study, we investigate whether emotionally engaged bottom-up processes of attention can be a source of 'interference' in situations where top-down control of attention is necessary. Participants were asked to monitor and report on a video of a war scenario showing a developing battle in two conditions: emotionally positive and emotionally negative. Half of the participants (n = 15) were exposed to task-irrelevant pictures of positive emotional valence embedded within the scenario; the other half were exposed to task-irrelevant pictures of negative emotional valence...
May 29, 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505085/sparsity-adaptive-matching-pursuit-detection-algorithm-based-on-compressed-sensing-for-radar-signals
#15
Yanbo Wei, Zhizhong Lu, Gannan Yuan, Zhao Fang, Yu Huang
In this paper, the application of the emerging compressed sensing (CS) theory and the geometric characteristics of the targets in radar images are investigated. Currently, the signal detection algorithms based on the CS theory require knowing the prior knowledge of the sparsity of target signals. However, in practice, it is often impossible to know the sparsity in advance. To solve this problem, a novel sparsity adaptive matching pursuit (SAMP) detection algorithm is proposed. This algorithm executes the detection task by updating the support set and gradually increasing the sparsity to approximate the original signal...
May 13, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490500/the-wisdom-of-crowds-for-visual-search
#16
Mordechai Z Juni, Miguel P Eckstein
Decision-making accuracy typically increases through collective integration of people's judgments into group decisions, a phenomenon known as the wisdom of crowds. For simple perceptual laboratory tasks, classic signal detection theory specifies the upper limit for collective integration benefits obtained by weighted averaging of people's confidences, and simple majority voting can often approximate that limit. Life-critical perceptual decisions often involve searching large image data (e.g., medical, security, and aerial imagery), but the expected benefits and merits of using different pooling algorithms are unknown for such tasks...
May 23, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484763/electron-stimulated-desorption-from-condensed-pyrimidine-and-pyridazine
#17
L Ellis-Gibbings, A D Bass, P Cloutier, G García, L Sanche
Low energy electron (LEE) interactions and the formation of transient negative ions play a dominant role in radiation-induced dissociation of condensed-phase biomolecules (e.g. in radiotherapy). Here we present data on the LEE-induced dissociation and desorption of the DNA/RNA-base and radiosensitizing agent analogues pyrimidine and pyridazine. Vapors of each molecule were condensed on either a Pt or Ar substrate to form a multilayer film or a submonolayer molecular target, respectively. These were irradiated with electrons of 0-80 eV and the desorbing anionic and cationic fragments analysed via time of flight mass spectrometry...
May 24, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484416/neuromyths-in-music-education-prevalence-and-predictors-of-misconceptions-among-teachers-and-students
#18
Nina Düvel, Anna Wolf, Reinhard Kopiez
In the last decade, educational neuroscience has become increasingly important in the context of instruction, and its applications have been transformed into new teaching methods. Although teachers are interested in educational neuroscience, communication between scientists and teachers is not always straightforward. Thus, misunderstandings of neuroscientific research results can evolve into so-called neuromyths. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of such music-related neuromyths among music teachers and music students...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481593/john-a-swets-1928-2016
#19
Raymond S Nickerson
This article memorializes John A. Swets (1928 -2016). Swets's scientific work included empirical experimentation, theory development, and practical applications. It attracted much attention, not only in psychology, but in other fields as well, especially medicine, education, and engineering. His work on the application of the theory of signal detection-which he began while still a graduate student- is very well known and has been influential in essentially every context in which people have to deal with noisy data...
May 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474181/sexual-selection-on-receptor-organ-traits-younger-females-attract-males-with-longer-antennae
#20
Tamara L Johnson, Matthew R E Symonds, Mark A Elgar
Sexual selection theory predicts that female choice may favour the evolution of elaborate male signals. Darwin also suggested that sexual selection can favour elaborate receiver structures in order to better detect sexual signals, an idea that has been largely ignored. We evaluated this unorthodox perspective by documenting the antennal lengths of male Uraba lugens Walker (Lepidoptera: Nolidae) moths that were attracted to experimentally manipulated emissions of female sex pheromone. Either one or two females were placed in field traps for the duration of their adult lives in order to create differences in the quantity of pheromone emissions from the traps...
June 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
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