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Signal detection theory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108588/inferring-recent-demography-from-isolation-by-distance-of-long-shared-sequence-blocks
#1
Harald Ringbauer, Graham Coop, Nicholas H Barton
Recently it has become feasible to detect long blocks of nearly identical sequence shared between pairs of genomes. These IBD blocks are direct traces of recent coalescence events and, as such, contain ample signal to infer recent demography. Here, we examine sharing of such blocks in two-dimensional populations with local migration. Using a diffusion approximation to trace genetic ancestry, we derive analytical formulae for patterns of isolation by distance of IBD blocks, which can also incorporate recent population density changes...
January 20, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107204/non-invasive-blood-glucose-detection-system-based-on-conservation-of-energy-method
#2
Yang Zhang, Jian-Ming Zhu, Yong-Bo Liang, Hong-Bo Chen, Shi-Min Yin, Zhen-Cheng Chen
The most common method used for minimizing the occurrence of diabetes complications is frequent glucose testing to adjust the insulin dose. However, using blood glucose (BG) meters presents a risk of infection. It is of great importance to develop non-invasive BG detection techniques. To realize high-accuracy, low-cost and continuous glucose monitoring, we have developed a non-invasive BG detection system using a mixed signal processor 430 (MSP430) microcontroller. This method is based on the combination of the conservation-of-energy method with a sensor integration module, which collects physiological parameters, such as the blood oxygen saturation (SPO2), blood flow velocity and heart rate...
January 20, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106123/visual-area-v5-hmt-contributes-to-perception-of-tactile-motion-direction-a-tms-study
#3
Tomohiro Amemiya, Brianna Beck, Vincent Walsh, Hiroaki Gomi, Patrick Haggard
Human imaging studies have reported activations associated with tactile motion perception in visual motion area V5/hMT+, primary somatosensory cortex (SI) and posterior parietal cortex (PPC; Brodmann areas 7/40). However, such studies cannot establish whether these areas are causally involved in tactile motion perception. We delivered double-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) while moving a single tactile point across the fingertip, and used signal detection theory to quantify perceptual sensitivity to motion direction...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100814/predicting-behavioural-responses-to-novel-organisms-state-dependent-detection-theory
#4
Pete C Trimmer, Sean M Ehlman, Andrew Sih
Human activity alters natural habitats for many species. Understanding variation in animals' behavioural responses to these changing environments is critical. We show how signal detection theory can be used within a wider framework of state-dependent modelling to predict behavioural responses to a major environmental change: novel, exotic species. We allow thresholds for action to be a function of reserves, and demonstrate how optimal thresholds can be calculated. We term this framework 'state-dependent detection theory' (SDDT)...
January 25, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100734/does-the-superior-colliculus-control-perceptual-sensitivity-or-choice-bias-during-attention-evidence-from-a-multialternative-decision-framework
#5
Devarajan Sridharan, Nicholas A Steinmetz, Tirin Moore, Eric I Knudsen
: Distinct networks in the forebrain and the midbrain coordinate to control spatial attention. The critical involvement of the superior colliculus (SC)-the central structure in the midbrain network-in visuospatial attention has been shown by four seminal, published studies in monkeys (Macaca mulatta) performing multialternative tasks. However, due to the lack of a mechanistic framework for interpreting behavioral data in such tasks, the nature of the SC's contribution to attention remains unclear...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088350/the-emotive-nature-of-conflict-monitoring-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#6
Blair Saunders, Hause Lin, Marina Milyavskaya, Michael Inzlicht
The detection of conflict between incompatible impulses, thoughts, and actions is a ubiquitous source of motivation across theories of goal-directed action. In this overview, we explore the hypothesis that conflict is emotive, integrating perspectives from affective science and cognitive neuroscience. Initially, we review evidence suggesting that the mental and biological processes that monitor for information processing conflict-particularly those generated by the anterior midcingulate cortex-track the affective significance of conflict and use this signal to motivate increased control...
January 11, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071715/in-situ-characterization-of-nanoparticles-using-rayleigh-scattering
#7
Biswajit Santra, Mikhail N Shneider, Roberto Car
We report a theoretical analysis showing that Rayleigh scattering could be used to monitor the growth of nanoparticles under arc discharge conditions. We compute the Rayleigh scattering cross sections of the nanoparticles by combining light scattering theory for gas-particle mixtures with calculations of the dynamic electronic polarizability of the nanoparticles. We find that the resolution of the Rayleigh scattering probe is adequate to detect nanoparticles as small as C60 at the expected concentrations of synthesis conditions in the arc periphery...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069445/person-perception-involves-functional-integration-between-the-extrastriate-body-area-and-temporal-pole
#8
Inez M Greven, Richard Ramsey
The majority of human neuroscience research has focussed on understanding functional organisation within segregated patches of cortex. The ventral visual stream has been associated with the detection of physical features such as faces and body parts, whereas the theory-of-mind network has been associated with making inferences about mental states and underlying character, such as whether someone is friendly, selfish, or generous. To date, however, it is largely unknown how such distinct processing components integrate neural signals...
January 6, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067218/nonlinear-detection-of-secondary-isotopic-chemical-shifts-in-nmr-through-spin-noise
#9
Maria Theresia Pöschko, Victor V Rodin, Judith Schlagnitweit, Norbert Müller, Hervé Desvaux
The detection of minor species in the presence of large amounts of similar main components remains a key challenge in analytical chemistry, for instance, to obtain isotopic fingerprints. As an alternative to the classical NMR scheme based on coherent excitation and detection, here we introduce an approach based on spin-noise detection. Chemical shifts and transverse relaxation rates are determined using only the detection circuit. Thanks to a nonlinear effect in mixtures with small chemical shift dispersion, small signals on top of a larger one can be observed with increased sensitivity as bumps on a dip; the latter being the signature of the main magnetization...
January 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046006/suboptimal-criterion-learning-in-static-and-dynamic-environments
#10
Elyse H Norton, Stephen M Fleming, Nathaniel D Daw, Michael S Landy
Humans often make decisions based on uncertain sensory information. Signal detection theory (SDT) describes detection and discrimination decisions as a comparison of stimulus "strength" to a fixed decision criterion. However, recent research suggests that current responses depend on the recent history of stimuli and previous responses, suggesting that the decision criterion is updated trial-by-trial. The mechanisms underpinning criterion setting remain unknown. Here, we examine how observers learn to set a decision criterion in an orientation-discrimination task under both static and dynamic conditions...
January 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042992/are-rapidly-growing-cancers-more-lethal
#11
Hans-Olov Adami, Peter Csermely, Daniel V Veres, Louise Emilsson, Magnus Løberg, Michael Bretthauer, Mette Kalager
The view, that rapidly growing tumours are more likely than slow-growing tumours to metastasize and become lethal, has remained almost axiomatic for decades. Unaware of any solid evidence supporting this view, we undertook an exhaustive system-level analysis of intra- and intercellular signalling networks. This analysis indicated that rapid growth and metastasis are often different outcomes of complex integrated molecular events. Evidence from humans can be derived chiefly from screening interventions because interval cancers that surface clinically shortly after a negative screening test are, on average, more rapidly growing than cancers not detected by screening...
December 30, 2016: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041797/sharp-wave-ripples-in-primates-are-enhanced-near-remembered-visual-objects
#12
Timothy K Leonard, Kari L Hoffman
The hippocampus plays an important role in memory for events that are distinct in space and time. One of the strongest, most synchronous neural signals produced by the hippocampus is the sharp-wave ripple (SWR), observed in a variety of mammalian species during offline behaviors, such as slow-wave sleep [1-3] and quiescent waking and pauses in exploration [4-8], leading to long-standing and widespread theories of its contribution to plasticity and memory during these inactive or immobile states [9-14]. Indeed, during sleep and waking inactivity, hippocampal SWRs in rodents appear to support spatial long-term and working memory [4, 15-23], but so far, they have not been linked to memory in primates...
December 21, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040909/mri-surface-coil-pair-with-strong-inductive-coupling
#13
Richard R Mett, Jason W Sidabras, James S Hyde
A novel inductively coupled coil pair was used to obtain magnetic resonance phantom images. Rationale for using such a structure is described in R. R. Mett et al. [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87, 084703 (2016)]. The original rationale was to increase the Q-value of a small diameter surface coil in order to achieve dominant loading by the sample. A significant improvement in the vector reception field (VRF) is also seen. The coil assembly consists of a 3-turn 10 mm tall meta-metallic self-resonant spiral (SRS) of inner diameter 10...
December 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034910/yeast-gpcr-signaling-reflects-the-fraction-of-occupied-receptors-not-the-number
#14
Alan Bush, Gustavo Vasen, Andreas Constantinou, Paula Dunayevich, Inés Lucía Patop, Matías Blaustein, Alejandro Colman-Lerner
According to receptor theory, the effect of a ligand depends on the amount of agonist-receptor complex. Therefore, changes in receptor abundance should have quantitative effects. However, the response to pheromone in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is robust (unaltered) to increases or reductions in the abundance of the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), Ste2, responding instead to the fraction of occupied receptor. We found experimentally that this robustness originates during G-protein activation. We developed a complete mathematical model of this step, which suggested the ability to compute fractional occupancy depends on the physical interaction between the inhibitory regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS), Sst2, and the receptor...
December 29, 2016: Molecular Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027308/cell-fate-decision-as-high-dimensional-critical-state-transition
#15
Mitra Mojtahedi, Alexander Skupin, Joseph Zhou, Ivan G Castaño, Rebecca Y Y Leong-Quong, Hannah Chang, Kalliopi Trachana, Alessandro Giuliani, Sui Huang
Cell fate choice and commitment of multipotent progenitor cells to a differentiated lineage requires broad changes of their gene expression profile. But how progenitor cells overcome the stability of their gene expression configuration (attractor) to exit the attractor in one direction remains elusive. Here we show that commitment of blood progenitor cells to the erythroid or myeloid lineage is preceded by the destabilization of their high-dimensional attractor state, such that differentiating cells undergo a critical state transition...
December 2016: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024462/predicting-the-perceptual-consequences-of-hidden-hearing-loss
#16
Andrew J Oxenham
Recent physiological studies in several rodent species have revealed that permanent damage can occur to the auditory system after exposure to a noise that produces only a temporary shift in absolute thresholds. The damage has been found to occur in the synapses between the cochlea's inner hair cells and the auditory nerve, effectively severing part of the connection between the ear and the brain. This synaptopathy has been termed hidden hearing loss because its effects are not thought to be revealed in standard clinical, behavioral, or physiological measures of absolute threshold...
January 2016: Trends in Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006708/integrating-physically-based-simulators-with-event-detection-systems-multi-site-detection-approach
#17
Mashor Housh, Ziv Ohar
The Fault Detection (FD) Problem in control theory concerns of monitoring a system to identify when a fault has occurred. Two approaches can be distinguished for the FD: Signal processing based FD and Model-based FD. The former concerns of developing algorithms to directly infer faults from sensors' readings, while the latter uses a simulation model of the real-system to analyze the discrepancy between sensors' readings and expected values from the simulation model. Most contamination Event Detection Systems (EDSs) for water distribution systems have followed the signal processing based FD, which relies on analyzing the signals from monitoring stations independently of each other, rather than evaluating all stations simultaneously within an integrated network...
December 8, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000965/the-generalized-quantum-episodic-memory-model
#18
Jennifer S Trueblood, Pernille Hemmer
Recent evidence suggests that experienced events are often mapped to too many episodic states, including those that are logically or experimentally incompatible with one another. For example, episodic over-distribution patterns show that the probability of accepting an item under different mutually exclusive conditions violates the disjunction rule. A related example, called subadditivity, occurs when the probability of accepting an item under mutually exclusive and exhaustive instruction conditions sums to a number >1...
December 21, 2016: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000607/polychromatic-ssvep-stimuli-with-subtle-flickering-adapted-to-brain-display-interactions
#19
Yu-Yi Chien, Fang-Cheng Lin, John Zao, Ching-Chi Chou, Yi-Pai Huang, Heng-Yuan Kuo, Yijun Wang, Tzyy-Ping Jung, Han-Ping D Shieh
OBJECTIVE: Interactive displays armed with natural user interfaces (NUIs) will likely lead the next breakthrough in consumer electronics, and brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are often regarded as the ultimate NUI-enabling machines to respond to human emotions and mental states. Steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) are a commonly used BCI modality due to the ease of detection and high information transfer rates. However, the presence of flickering stimuli may cause user discomfort and can even induce migraines and seizures...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999375/a-method-of-detections-fusion-for-gnss-anti-spoofing
#20
Huiqi Tao, Hong Li, Mingquan Lu
The spoofing attack is one of the security threats of systems depending on the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). There have been many GNSS spoofing detection methods, and each of them focuses on a characteristic of the GNSS signal or a measurement that the receiver has obtained. The method based on a single detector is insufficient against spoofing attacks in some scenarios. How to fuse multiple detections together is a problem that concerns the performance of GNSS anti-spoofing. Scholars have put forward a model to fuse different detection results based on the Dempster-Shafer theory (DST) of evidence combination...
December 19, 2016: Sensors
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