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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715329/phased-array-imaging-of-complex-geometry-composite-components
#1
Alex J Brath, Francesco Simonetti, Francesco Simonetti
Progress in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and the availability of new composite materials are driving major advances in the design of aerospace engine components which now have highly complex geometries optimized to maximize system performance. However, shape complexity poses significant challenges to traditional non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methods whose sensitivity and selectivity rapidly decrease as surface curvature increases. Additionally, new aerospace materials typically exhibit an intricate microstructure that further complicates the inspection...
July 13, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680950/change-deafness-for-real-spatialized-environmental-scenes
#2
Jeremy Gaston, Kelly Dickerson, Daniel Hipp, Peter Gerhardstein
The everyday auditory environment is complex and dynamic; often, multiple sounds co-occur and compete for a listener's cognitive resources. 'Change deafness', framed as the auditory analog to the well-documented phenomenon of 'change blindness', describes the finding that changes presented within complex environments are often missed. The present study examines a number of stimulus factors that may influence change deafness under real-world listening conditions. Specifically, an AX (same-different) discrimination task was used to examine the effects of both spatial separation over a loudspeaker array and the type of change (sound source additions and removals) on discrimination of changes embedded in complex backgrounds...
2017: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678795/quantifying-critical-states-of-complex-diseases-using-single-sample-dynamic-network-biomarkers
#3
Xiaoping Liu, Xiao Chang, Rui Liu, Xiangtian Yu, Luonan Chen, Kazuyuki Aihara
Dynamic network biomarkers (DNB) can identify the critical state or tipping point of a disease, thereby predicting rather than diagnosing the disease. However, it is difficult to apply the DNB theory to clinical practice because evaluating DNB at the critical state required the data of multiple samples on each individual, which are generally not available, and thus limit the applicability of DNB. In this study, we developed a novel method, i.e., single-sample DNB (sDNB), to detect early-warning signals or critical states of diseases in individual patients with only a single sample for each patient, thus opening a new way to predict diseases in a personalized way...
July 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676311/the-seattle-spine-score-predicting-30-day-complication-risk-in-adult-spinal-deformity-surgery
#4
Quinlan D Buchlak, Vijay Yanamadala, Jean-Christophe Leveque, Alicia Edwards, Kellen Nold, Rajiv Sethi
BACKGROUND: Complication rates in complex spine surgery range from 25% to 80% in published studies. Numerous studies have shown that surgeons are not able to accurately predict whether patients are likely to face post-operative complications, in part due to biases based on individual experience. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a predictive risk model and decision support system that could accurately predict the likelihood of 30-day postoperative complications in complex spine surgery based on routinely measured preoperative variables...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673921/two-social-brains-neural-mechanisms-of-intersubjectivity
#5
REVIEW
Kai Vogeley
It is the aim of this article to present an empirically justified hypothesis about the functional roles of the two social neural systems, namely the so-called 'mirror neuron system' (MNS) and the 'mentalizing system' (MENT, also 'theory of mind network' or 'social neural network'). Both systems are recruited during cognitive processes that are either related to interaction or communication with other conspecifics, thereby constituting intersubjectivity. The hypothesis is developed in the following steps: first, the fundamental distinction that we make between persons and things is introduced; second, communication is presented as the key process that allows us to interact with others; third, the capacity to 'mentalize' or to understand the inner experience of others is emphasized as the fundamental cognitive capacity required to establish successful communication...
August 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654635/two-different-mechanisms-support-selective-attention-at-different-phases-of-training
#6
Sirawaj Itthipuripat, Kexin Cha, Anna Byers, John T Serences
Selective attention supports the prioritized processing of relevant sensory information to facilitate goal-directed behavior. Studies in human subjects demonstrate that attentional gain of cortical responses can sufficiently account for attention-related improvements in behavior. On the other hand, studies using highly trained nonhuman primates suggest that reductions in neural noise can better explain attentional facilitation of behavior. Given the importance of selective information processing in nearly all domains of cognition, we sought to reconcile these competing accounts by testing the hypothesis that extensive behavioral training alters the neural mechanisms that support selective attention...
June 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652323/constrained-sampling-experiments-reveal-principles-of-detection-in-natural-scenes
#7
Stephen Sebastian, Jared Abrams, Wilson S Geisler
A fundamental everyday visual task is to detect target objects within a background scene. Using relatively simple stimuli, vision science has identified several major factors that affect detection thresholds, including the luminance of the background, the contrast of the background, the spatial similarity of the background to the target, and uncertainty due to random variations in the properties of the background and in the amplitude of the target. Here we use an experimental approach based on constrained sampling from multidimensional histograms of natural stimuli, together with a theoretical analysis based on signal detection theory, to discover how these factors affect detection in natural scenes...
July 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648080/sensitive-detection-of-competitive-molecular-adsorption-by-surface-enhanced-raman-spectroscopy
#8
Ali O Altun, Tiziana Bond, Wouter Pronk, Hyung Gyu Park
Surface adsorption plays a critical role in a wide variety of fields from surface catalysis to molecular separation. Despite the importance, limited access to simultaneously sensitive and selective detection mechanisms has hampered the acquisition of comprehensive and versatile experimental data needed to understand the complex aspects of mixture adsorption, calling for a molecular detection method capable of obtaining the surface adsorption isotherms over a wide range of concentrations as well as distinguishing the competitive adsorption of different adsorbates...
July 10, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639818/a-critical-examination-of-the-research-and-theoretical-underpinnings-discussed-in-thomson-besner-and-smilek-2016
#9
Nicholas W Fraulini, Gabriella M Hancock, Alexis R Neigel, Victoria L Claypoole, James L Szalma
Thomson, Besner, and Smilek (2016) propose that performance decrements associated with sustained attention are not consistently the result of a decline in perceptual sensitivity. Thomson et al. (2016) present empirical evidence using a novel, nontraditional vigilance task to support their assumptions. However, in the present rebuttal, we argue that the authors have not only have misinterpreted previous research in sustained attention, but also have misapplied those interpretations to their study. Thomson et al...
July 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639168/sensitivity-of-chaos-measures-in-detecting-stress-in-the-focusing-control-mechanism-of-the-short-sighted-eye
#10
Karen M Hampson, Matthew P Cufflin, Edward A H Mallen
When fixating on a stationary object, the power of the eye's lens fluctuates. Studies have suggested that changes in these so-called microfluctuations in accommodation may be a factor in the onset and progression of short-sightedness. Like many physiological signals, the fluctuations in the power of the lens exhibit chaotic behaviour. A breakdown or reduction in chaos in physiological systems indicates stress to the system or pathology. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the chaos in fluctuations of the power of the lens changes with refractive error, i...
June 21, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618829/detection-of-an-undersea-acoustic-communications-network-by-an-energy-detector
#11
Richard C Shockley, Paul J Gendron, J Mark Stevenson
A theory is presented for the upper bound on the mean time τ to the detection of an undersea acoustic communications network by an energy detector whose initial position and heading are uniformly distributed random variables. The network is an infinite square grid of omnidirectional transmit-receive nodes on a flat bottom. Each node transmits to one nearest neighbor at a bit-rate R equal to Shannon's capacity, maximizing τ. The network sets a signaling bandwidth W and node-spacing D. The detector sets a false-alarm rate, integration time, height above the bottom, and speed...
June 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609991/the-use-of-bioacoustics-in-anuran-taxonomy-theory-terminology-methods-and-recommendations-for-best-practice
#12
Jörn Köhler, Martin Jansen, Ariel Rodríguez, Philippe J R Kok, Luís Felipe Toledo, Mike Emmrich, Frank Glaw, Célio F B Haddad, Mark-Oliver Rödel, Miguel Vences
Vocalizations of anuran amphibians have received much attention in studies of behavioral ecology and physiology, but also provide informative characters for identifying and delimiting species. We here review the terminology and variation of frog calls from a perspective of integrative taxonomy, and provide hands-on protocols for recording, analyzing, comparing, interpreting and describing these sounds. Our focus is on advertisement calls, which serve as premating isolation mechanisms and, therefore, convey important taxonomic information...
April 11, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608985/statistical-performance-of-image-cytometry-for-dna-lipids-cytokeratin-cd45-in-a-model-system-for-circulation-tumor-cell-detection
#13
Gregory L Futia, Isabel R Schlaepfer, Lubna Qamar, Kian Behbakht, Emily A Gibson
Detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in a blood sample is limited by the sensitivity and specificity of the biomarker panel used to identify CTCs over other blood cells. In this work, we present Bayesian theory that shows how test sensitivity and specificity set the rarity of cell that a test can detect. We perform our calculation of sensitivity and specificity on our image cytometry biomarker panel by testing on pure disease positive (D(+) ) populations (MCF7 cells) and pure disease negative populations (D(-) ) (leukocytes)...
June 13, 2017: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607218/improved-signal-recovery-for-flow-cytometry-based-on-spatially-modulated-emission
#14
Stephan Quint, Jörn Wittek, Peter Spang, Nadav Levanon, T Walther, Michael Baßler
Recently, the technique of `spatially modulated emission' has been introduced which improves the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for detecting biological cells in the field of flow cytometry. Based on this concept, we developed two advanced signal processing methods which further enhance the SNR and selectivity for cell detection. The improvements are achieved by adapting digital filtering methods from RADAR technology and mainly address inherent offset elimination, increased signal dynamics and moreover reduction of erroneous detections due to processing artifacts...
June 13, 2017: Methods and Applications in Fluorescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604603/acoustic-emission-and-echo-signal-compensation-techniques-applied-to-an-ultrasonic-logging-while-drilling-caliper
#15
Yongchao Yao, Xiaodong Ju, Junqiang Lu, Baiyong Men
A logging-while-drilling (LWD) caliper is a tool used for the real-time measurement of a borehole diameter in oil drilling engineering. This study introduces the mechanical structure and working principle of a new LWD caliper based on ultrasonic distance measurement (UDM). The detection range is a major performance index of a UDM system. This index is determined by the blind zone length and remote reflecting interface detection capability of the system. To reduce the blind zone length and detect near the reflecting interface, a full bridge acoustic emission technique based on bootstrap gate driver (BGD) and metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) is designed by analyzing the working principle and impedance characteristics of a given piezoelectric transducer...
June 10, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596797/causality-in-cancer-research-a-journey-through-models-in-molecular-epidemiology-and-their-philosophical-interpretation
#16
Paolo Vineis, Phyllis Illari, Federica Russo
In the last decades, Systems Biology (including cancer research) has been driven by technology, statistical modelling and bioinformatics. In this paper we try to bring biological and philosophical thinking back. We thus aim at making different traditions of thought compatible: (a) causality in epidemiology and in philosophical theorizing-notably, the "sufficient-component-cause framework" and the "mark transmission" approach; (b) new acquisitions about disease pathogenesis, e.g. the "branched model" in cancer, and the role of biomarkers in this process; (c) the burgeoning of omics research, with a large number of "signals" and of associations that need to be interpreted...
2017: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588513/testing-separability-and-independence-of-perceptual-dimensions-with-general-recognition-theory-a-tutorial-and-new-r-package-grtools
#17
Fabian A Soto, Emily Zheng, Johnny Fonseca, F Gregory Ashby
Determining whether perceptual properties are processed independently is an important goal in perceptual science, and tools to test independence should be widely available to experimental researchers. The best analytical tools to test for perceptual independence are provided by General Recognition Theory (GRT), a multidimensional extension of signal detection theory. Unfortunately, there is currently a lack of software implementing GRT analyses that is ready-to-use by experimental psychologists and neuroscientists with little training in computational modeling...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587377/network-of-microrna-transcription-factors-target-genes-and-host-genes-in-human-mesothelioma
#18
Guanhua Zhang, Zhiwen Xu, Ning Wang
Significant progress has been made into the elucidation of the etiology of mesothelioma at the level of the genes and miRNA. Nevertheless, researchers in this field remain unable to systematically construct a network that demonstrates the specific relationships between genes, miRNA and transcription factors (TFs). TFs are key regulatory elements that control gene expression. In the present study, according to the transcriptional regulatory rule, three regulatory networks were constructed using experimentally validated elements to explore the pathogenesis of mesothelioma...
June 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587240/adaptive-temporal-matched-filtering-for-noise-suppression-in-fiber-optic-distributed-acoustic-sensing
#19
İbrahim Ölçer, Ahmet Öncü
Distributed vibration sensing based on phase-sensitive optical time domain reflectometry ( ϕ -OTDR) is being widely used in several applications. However, one of the main challenges in coherent detection-based ϕ -OTDR systems is the fading noise, which impacts the detection performance. In addition, typical signal averaging and differentiating techniques are not suitable for detecting high frequency events. This paper presents a new approach for reducing the effect of fading noise in fiber optic distributed acoustic vibration sensing systems without any impact on the frequency response of the detection system...
June 5, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577902/directional-sensitivity-of-anomalous-diffusion-in-human-brain-assessed-by-tensorial-fractional-motion-model
#20
Boyan Xu, Gaolang Gong, Yang Fan, Bing Wu, Jia-Hong Gao
Anisotropic diffusion in the nervous system is most commonly modeled by apparent diffusion tensor, which is based on regular diffusion theory. However, the departure of diffusion-induced signal attenuation from a mono-exponential form implies that there is anomalous diffusion. Recently, a novel diffusion NMR theory based on the fractional motion (FM) model, which is an anomalous diffusion model, has been proposed. While the FM model has been applied to both healthy subjects and tumor patients, its anisotropy in the nervous system remains elusive...
June 1, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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