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Signal detection theory

Yao-Kun Xu, Shi-Hai Sun, Wei-Tao Liu, Guang-Zhao Tang, Ji-Ying Liu, Ping-Xing Chen
Measurement of fast signal is getting more and more important in many fields. In this paper, we propose to detect a temporal signal based on the idea of computational ghost imaging (GI), which can greatly reduce requirements on bandwidth of detectors. In experiments, we implement retrieving of a temporal signal with time scale of 50ns using a detector of 1kHz bandwidth, which is much lower than the requirement on bandwidth of detector according to information theory. The performance of our technique are also investigated under different detection bandwidths...
January 8, 2018: Optics Express
Jiahua Zhu, Xuezhi Wang, Xiaotao Huang, Sofia Suvorova, Bill Moran
Golay complementary waveforms can, in theory, yield radar returns of high range resolution with essentially zero sidelobes. In practice, when deployed conventionally, while high signal-to-noise ratios can be achieved for static target detection, significant range sidelobes are generated by target returns of nonzero Doppler causing unreliable detection. We consider signal processing techniques using Golay complementary waveforms to improve radar detection performance in scenarios involving multiple nonzero Doppler targets...
January 11, 2018: Sensors
Lisa Pfeiffer, Joachim Ruther, John Hofferberth, Johannes Stökl
According to current evolutionary theory, insect pheromones can originate from extant precursor compounds being selected for information transfer. This is exemplified by females of the parasitoid wasp Leptopilina heterotoma whose defensive secretion consisting mainly of (-)-iridomyrmecin has evolved secondary functions as cue to avoid other females during host search and as female sex pheromone. To promote our understanding of pheromone evolution from defensive secretions we studied the chemical ecology of Leptopilina clavipes...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sherysse L Corrow, Andrea Albonico, Jason J S Barton
Adding visual noise to facial images has been used to increase reliance on configural processing. Whether this enhances the ability of tests to diagnose prosopagnosia is not known. We examined 15 subjects with developmental prosopagnosia, 13 subjects with acquired prosopagnosia, and 38 control subjects with the Cambridge Face Memory Test. We compared their performance on the second phase, without visual noise, and on the third phase, which adds visual noise. We analyzed the results with signal detection theory methods...
January 1, 2018: Perception
T Baker, E Bellini, P G Ferreira, M Lagos, J Noller, I Sawicki
The detection of an electromagnetic counterpart (GRB 170817A) to the gravitational-wave signal (GW170817) from the merger of two neutron stars opens a completely new arena for testing theories of gravity. We show that this measurement allows us to place stringent constraints on general scalar-tensor and vector-tensor theories, while allowing us to place an independent bound on the graviton mass in bimetric theories of gravity. These constraints severely reduce the viable range of cosmological models that have been proposed as alternatives to general relativistic cosmology...
December 22, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Jose María Ezquiaga, Miguel Zumalacárregui
Multimessenger gravitational-wave (GW) astronomy has commenced with the detection of the binary neutron star merger GW170817 and its associated electromagnetic counterparts. The almost coincident observation of both signals places an exquisite bound on the GW speed |c_{g}/c-1|≤5×10^{-16}. We use this result to probe the nature of dark energy (DE), showing that a large class of scalar-tensor theories and DE models are highly disfavored. As an example we consider the covariant Galileon, a cosmologically viable, well motivated gravity theory which predicts a variable GW speed at low redshift...
December 22, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Vincent B McGinty
In an elegant synthesis of behavior, modeling, and neurophysiology, Crapse et al. (2018) show that neurons of the superior colliculus influence choice behavior by encoding choice criterion, a quantitative measure of decision bias integral to signal detection theory.
January 3, 2018: Neuron
Yangde Gao, Mohammad Karimi, Aleksey A Kudreyko, Wanqing Song
In the marine systems, engines represent the most important part of ships, the probability of the bearings fault is the highest in the engines, so in the bearing vibration analysis, early weak fault detection is very important for long term monitoring. In this paper, we propose a novel method to solve the early weak fault diagnosis of bearing. Firstly, we should improve the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM), structure of the traditional ADMM is changed, and then the improved ADMM is applied to the compressed sensing (CS) theory, which realizes the sparse optimization of bearing signal for a mount of data...
December 30, 2017: ISA Transactions
Graham K Edgar, Di Catherwood, Steven Baker, Geoff Sallis, Michael Bertels, Helen E Edgar, Dritan Nikolla, Susanna Buckle, Charlotte Goodwin, Allana Whelan
This paper presents a model of situation awareness (SA) that emphasises that SA is necessarily built using a subset of available information. A technique (Quantitative Analysis of Situation Awareness - QASA), based around signal detection theory, has been developed from this model that provides separate measures of actual SA (ASA) and perceived SA (PSA), together with a feature unique to QASA, a measure of bias (information acceptance). These measures allow the exploration of the relationship between actual SA, perceived SA and information acceptance...
December 29, 2017: Ergonomics
Zhibin Yu, Duo Zhao, Zhiqiang Zhang
Due to the non-contact nature, using Doppler radar sensors to detect vital signs such as heart and respiration rates of a human subject is getting more and more attention. However, the related detection-method research meets lots of challenges due to electromagnetic interferences, clutter and random motion interferences. In this paper, a novel third-order cyclic cummulant (TOCC) detection method, which is insensitive to Gaussian interference and non-cyclic signals, is proposed to investigate the heart and respiration rate based on continuous wave Doppler radars...
December 26, 2017: Sensors
Joseph Nathanael Mastron, Andrei Tokmakoff
While time-resolved infrared (IR) vibrational spectroscopy provides insight on structural dynamics of solution-phase systems, current techniques are limited to high concentrations. Fluorescence-encoded infrared spectroscopy (FEIR) can be used to encode IR-driven vibrational excitations into excited electronic states that fluoresce, which can be detected at lower concentrations than a coherently-detected IR signal. Here, we report on the development of Fourier transform FEIR as an alternate approach for high sensitivity IR spectroscopy...
December 18, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Mateo Leganes Fonteneau, Ryan Scott, Theodora Duka
Classical conditioning theories of addiction suggest that stimuli associated with rewards acquire incentive salience, inducing emotional and attentional conditioned responses. It is not clear whether those responses occur without contingency awareness (CA), i.e. are based on explicit or implicit learning processes. Examining implicit aspects of stimulus-reward associations can improve our understanding of addictive behaviours, supporting treatment and prevention strategies. However, the acquisition of conditioned responses without CA has yet to be rigorously demonstrated, as the existing literature shows a lack of methodological agreement regarding the measurement of implicit and explicit processes...
December 13, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
Jian-Hua Zhang, Jing Xin, Lian-Xia Fan, Hua Yin
To clarify the effects of Zuoguiwan containing serum on osteoblast proliferation and alkaline phosphatase(ALP) expression and its effects on the expression of β-catenin, ERK1, ERK2 mRNA and protein of osteoblast through ERK1/2, Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in models with osteoporosis(OP) kidney-Yang-deficiency, osteoporosis(OP) kidney-Yin-deficiency syndrome. Rat osteoporosis models were established by ovariectomy surgery, and 10 weeks after surgery, hydrocortisone was injected and thyroxine was administered by intragastric administration to establish OP kidney-Yang-deficiency rat model, and OP kidney-Yin-deficiency rat model...
October 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Michael P Ziemkiewicz, Christian Pluetzer, Jérôme Loreau, Ad van der Avoird, David J Nesbitt
Vibrationally state selective overtone spectroscopy and state- and nuclear spin-dependent predissociation dynamics of weakly bound ortho- and para-Ne-H2O complexes (D0(ortho) = 34.66 cm-1 and D0(para) = 31.67 cm-1) are reported, based on near-infrared excitation of van der Waals cluster bands correlating with vOH = 2 ← 0 overtone transitions (|02-〉 and |02+〉) out of the ortho (101) and para (000) internal rotor states of the H2O moiety. Quantum theoretical calculations for nuclear motion on a high level potential energy surface [CCSD(T)/VnZf12 (n = 3, 4)], corrected for basis set superposition error and extrapolated to the complete basis set (CBS) limit, are employed to successfully predict and assign Π-Σ, Σ-Σ, and Σ-Π infrared bands in the spectra, where Σ or Π represent approximate projections of the body-fixed H2O angular momentum along the Ne-H2O internuclear axis...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Xiaoyong Zhang, Bensheng Qiu, Zijun Wei, Fei Yan, Caiyun Shi, Shi Su, Xin Liu, Jim X Ji, Guoxi Xie
PURPOSE: To develop and assess a three-dimensional (3D) self-gated technique for the evaluation of myocardial infarction (MI) in mouse model without the use of external electrocardiogram (ECG) trigger and respiratory motion sensor on a 3T clinical MR system. METHODS: A 3D T1-weighted GRE sequence with stack-of-stars sampling trajectories was developed and performed on six mice with MIs that were injected with a gadolinium-based contrast agent at a 3T clinical MR system...
2017: PloS One
Mehmet Soner Gözü, Reyhan Zengin, Nevzat Guneri Gencer
In this study, the performance and implementation of magneto-acousto-electric tomography (MAET) is investigated using a linear phased array (LPA) transducer. The goal of MAET is to image the conductivity distribution in biological bodies. It uses the interaction between ultrasound and a static magnetic field to generate velocity current density distribution inside the body. The resultant voltage due to velocity current density is sensed by surface electrodes attached on the body. In this study, the theory of MAET is reviewed...
December 5, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Pin Wang, Yao Cao, Meifang Yin, Yongming Li, Jun Wu
Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy can effectively detect the changes in the burned tissue. However, due to the complex relationship between the spectral signals and the burn depth, simple methods of data analysis are difficult to solve this problem effectively. Therefore, in this paper, a machine learning method is introduced into the NIR spectral signal analysis, which is used to establish the relationship between NIR spectral signals and burn depth. First, based on the intensity of the spectral signal and the diffuse reflection theory, the optical properties that can reflect the change of burned tissue are extracted...
November 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Haifeng Wu, Daqing Wang, Qing Huang, Lifu Gao
Mechanomyography (MMG) signal has been recently investigated for pattern recognition of human motion. In theory, it is no need of direct skin contact to be detected and unaffected by changes in skin impedance. So, it is hopeful for developing wearable sensing device with clothes. However, there have been no studies so far to detect MMG signal on clothes and verify the feasibility of pattern recognition. For this study, 4-channel MMG signals were detected on clothes from the thigh muscles of 8 able-bodied participants...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
Abigail L Kleinsmith, W Trammell Neill
People easily recognize a familiar melody in a previously unheard key, but they also retain some key-specific information. Does the recognition of a transposed melody depend on either pitch distance or harmonic distance from the initially learned instances? Previous research has shown a stronger effect of pitch closeness than of harmonic similarity, but did not directly test for an additional effect of the latter variable. In the present experiment, we familiarized participants with a simple eight-note melody in two different keys (C and D) and then tested their ability to discriminate the target melody from foils in other keys...
November 27, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Yanan Pan, Jundong Wang, Xiumei Guo, Xiaoyan Liu, Xiaoliang Tang, Haixia Zhang
In this study, a novel three-dimensional zinc-based metal-organic framework (Zn-MOF), i.e., {Zn2(L)2(DMF)2H2O}n (L = 2,5-bis(phenylamino)-1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid) was designed and developed under solvothermal condition. As a proof-of-principle, a π-conjugated framework of carboxylate ligand capable of "bottom up" synthesis was integrated with metal ion to construct a novel MOF for sensing applications. As expected, the synthesized Zn-MOF exhibited fluorescence enhancement for cadmium ion (Cd2+) and sensing of nitrobenzene (NB) through fluorescence quenching...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
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