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Signal detection theory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430779/a-coevolution-analysis-for-identifying-protein-protein-interactions-by-fourier-transform
#1
Changchuan Yin, Stephen S-T Yau
Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) play key roles in life processes, such as signal transduction, transcription regulations, and immune response, etc. Identification of PPIs enables better understanding of the functional networks within a cell. Common experimental methods for identifying PPIs are time consuming and expensive. However, recent developments in computational approaches for inferring PPIs from protein sequences based on coevolution theory avoid these problems. In the coevolution theory model, interacted proteins may show coevolutionary mutations and have similar phylogenetic trees...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427290/a-real-time-method-for-decoding-the-neural-drive-to-muscles-using-single-channel-intra-muscular-emg-recordings
#2
Saeed Karimimehr, Hamid Reza Marateb, Silvia Muceli, Marjan Mansourian, Miguel Angel Mañanas, Dario Farina
The neural command from motor neurons to muscles - sometimes referred to as the neural drive to muscle - can be identified by decomposition of electromyographic (EMG) signals. This approach can be used for inferring the voluntary commands in neural interfaces in patients with limb amputations. This paper proposes for the first time an innovative method for fully automatic and real-time intramuscular EMG (iEMG) decomposition. The method is based on online single-pass density-based clustering and adaptive classification of bivariate features, using the concept of potential measure...
March 20, 2017: International Journal of Neural Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406675/how-does-it-feel-a-signal-detection-approach-to-feeling-generation
#3
Anat Karmon-Presser, Gal Sheppes, Nachshon Meiran
Feeling, or the subjective emotional experience, is a fundamental element of the emotional reaction, yet past attempts to understand the mechanisms of feeling generation remain limited. The current study presents a signal detection theory (SDT) conceptualization of feeling generation. Accordingly, feeling, like other sensations, reflects an outcome of an inner decision regarding the emotional evidence, and, therefore, can be evaluated via 2 processes: evidence differentiation (d')-the ability to emotionally differentiate between external stimuli, given the essentially noisy evidence-and criterion (c)-the report threshold, or amount of evidence needed to have an intense reportable feeling...
April 13, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402880/sedimentation-of-reversibly-interacting-macromolecules-with-changes-in-fluorescence-quantum-yield
#4
Sumit K Chaturvedi, Huaying Zhao, Peter Schuck
Sedimentation velocity analytical ultracentrifugation with fluorescence detection has emerged as a powerful method for the study of interacting systems of macromolecules. It combines picomolar sensitivity with high hydrodynamic resolution, and can be carried out with photoswitchable fluorophores for multicomponent discrimination, to determine the stoichiometry, affinity, and shape of macromolecular complexes with dissociation equilibrium constants from picomolar to micromolar. A popular approach for data interpretation is the determination of the binding affinity by isotherms of weight-average sedimentation coefficients sw...
April 11, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388052/mapping-charge-distribution-in-single-pbs-core-cds-arm-nano-multipod-heterostructures-by-off-axis-electron-holography
#5
Rajesh Chalasani, Alexander Pekin, Alexander Rabkin, Ran E Abutbul, Oswaldo Diéguez, Yaron Kauffmann, Yuval Golan, Amit Kohn
We synthesized PbS core-CdS arm nanomultipod heterostructures (NMHs) that exhibit PbS{111}/CdS{0002} epitaxial relations. The PbS-CdS interface is chemically sharp as determined by aberration corrected transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and compared to density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Ensemble fluorescence measurements show quenching of the optical signal from the CdS arms indicating charge separation due to the heterojunction with PbS. A finite-element three-dimensional (3D) calculation of the Poisson equation shows a type-I heterojunction, which would prevent recombination in the CdS arm after optical excitation...
April 13, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388031/identification-of-lanthanide-iii-luminophores-in-magnetic-circularly-polarized-luminescence-using-raman-optical-activity-instrumentation
#6
Tao Wu, Josef Kapitán, Valery Andrushchenko, Petr Bouř
Luminescence of lanthanide(III) ions sensitively reflects atomic environment. However, the signal may be weak and covered by Raman scattering. In the present study magnetic circularly polarized luminescence (MCPL) is explored as a more sensitive tool to recognize the lanthanide signal and assign underlying electronic transitions. MCPL spectra of the Na3[Ln(DPA)3] (Ln = Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, and Er) complexes were recorded on a Raman optical activity (ROA) instrument. The ROA spectrometer equipped with the 532 nm laser excitation sensitively detects differences in scattering of left- and right-circularly polarized light caused by the magnetic field...
April 13, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374658/the-inner-world-of-overactive-monitoring-neural-markers-of-interoception-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#7
A Yoris, A M García, L Traiber, H Santamaría-García, M Martorell, F Alifano, R Kichic, J S Moser, M Cetkovich, F Manes, A Ibáñez, L Sedeño
BACKGROUND: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients typically overmonitor their own behavior, as shown by symptoms of excessive doubt and checking. Although this is well established for the patients' relationship with external stimuli in the environment, no study has explored their monitoring of internal body signals, a process known to be affected in anxiety-related syndromes. Here, we explored this issue through a cardiac interoception task that measures sensing of heartbeats. Our aim was to explore key behavioral and electrophysiological aspects of internal-cue monitoring in OCD, while examining their potential distinctiveness in this condition...
April 4, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369631/microfabrication-of-a-gadolinium-derived-solid-state-sensor-for-thermal-neutrons
#8
Kent B Pfeifer, Komandoor E Achyuthan, Matthew Allen, Michele L B Denton, Michael P Siegal, Ronald P Manginell
Neutron sensing is critical in civilian and military applications. Conventional neutron sensors are limited by size, weight, cost, portability and helium supply. Here the microfabrication of gadolinium (Gd) conversion material-based heterojunction diodes for detecting thermal neutrons using electrical signals produced by internal conversion electrons (ICEs) is described. Films with negligible stress were produced at the tensile-compressive crossover point, enabling Gd coatings of any desired thickness by controlling the radiofrequency sputtering power and using the zero-point near p(Ar) of 50 mTorr at 100 W...
March 25, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369103/chemical-reaction-network-theory-elucidates-sources-of-multistability-in-interferon-signaling
#9
Irene Otero-Muras, Pencho Yordanov, Joerg Stelling
Bistability has important implications in signaling pathways, since it indicates a potential cell decision between alternative outcomes. We present two approaches developed in the framework of the Chemical Reaction Network Theory for easy and efficient search of multiple steady state behavior in signaling networks (both with and without mass conservation), and apply them to search for sources of bistability at different levels of the interferon signaling pathway. Different type I interferon subtypes and/or doses are known to elicit differential bioactivities (ranging from antiviral, antiproliferative to immunomodulatory activities)...
April 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368167/the-magical-number-one-on-square-root-two-the-double-target-detection-deficit-in-brief-visual-displays
#10
Elaine A Corbett, Philip L Smith
How limited representational capacity is divided when multiple items need to be processed simultaneously is a fundamental question in cognitive psychology. The double-target deficit is the finding that, when monitoring multiple locations or information streams for targets, identification of 2 simultaneous targets is substantially worse than is predicted from the cost of divided attention alone. This finding suggests that targets and nontargets are treated differently by the cognitive system. We investigated the double-target deficit in 4 different visual decision tasks using noisy, backwardly masked targets presented for a range of exposure durations to test the theory that the deficit reflects a capacity limitation of visual short-term memory (VSTM)...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363836/multi-echo-fmri-a-review-of-applications-in-fmri-denoising-and-analysis-of-bold-signals
#11
Prantik Kundu, Valerie Voon, Priti Balchandani, Michael V Lombardo, Benedikt A Poser, Peter Bandettini
In recent years the field of fMRI research has enjoyed expanded technical abilities related to resolution, as well as use across many fields of brain research. At the same time, the field has also dealt with uncertainty related to many known and unknown effects of artifact in fMRI data. In this review we discuss an emerging fMRI technology, called multi-echo (ME)-fMRI, which focuses on improving the fidelity and interpretability of fMRI. Where the essential problem of standard single-echo fMRI is the indeterminacy of sources of signals, whether BOLD or artifact, this is not the case for ME-fMRI...
March 28, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357691/selective-detection-of-cyanogen-halides-by-bn-nanocluster-a-dft-study
#12
E Vessally, F Behmagham, B Massuomi, A Hosseinian, K Nejati
The electronic sensitivity and adsorption behavior toward cyanogen halides (X-CN; X = F, Cl, and Br) of a B12N12 nanocluster were investigated by means of density functional theory calculations. The X-head of these molecules was predicted to interact weakly with the BN cluster because of the positive σ-hole on the electronic potential surface of halogens. The X-CN molecules interact somewhat strongly with the boron atoms of the cluster via the N-head, which is accompanied by a large charge transfer from the X-CN to the cluster...
April 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343279/the-independent-influences-of-heat-strain-and-dehydration-upon-cognition
#13
Anne M J van den Heuvel, Benjamin J Haberley, David J R Hoyle, Nigel A S Taylor, Rodney J Croft
PURPOSE: Many researchers have addressed the potential effects of hyperthermia and dehydration on cognition, often revealing contradictory outcomes. A possible reason for this inconsistency is that experiments may have been inadequately designed for such effects. In this study, the impact of hyperthermia, dehydration and their combination on cognition were evaluated in eight young males, after accounting for a range of experimental limitations. METHODS: Passive heating and thermal clamping at two mean body temperatures (36...
March 25, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331778/identification-of-scintillation-signatures-on-gps-signals-originating-from-plasma-structures-detected-with-eiscat-incoherent-scatter-radar-along-the-same-line-of-sight
#14
Biagio Forte, Chris Coleman, Susan Skone, Ingemar Häggström, Cathryn Mitchell, Federico Da Dalt, Tommaso Panicciari, Joe Kinrade, Gary Bust
Ionospheric scintillation originates from the scattering of electromagnetic waves through spatial gradients in the plasma density distribution, drifting across a given propagation direction. Ionospheric scintillation represents a disruptive manifestation of adverse space weather conditions through degradation of the reliability and continuity of satellite telecommunication and navigation systems and services (e.g., European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service, EGNOS). The purpose of the experiment presented here was to determine the contribution of auroral ionization structures to GPS scintillation...
January 2017: Journal of Geophysical Research. Space Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290478/systematic-errors-in-detecting-biased-agonism-analysis-of-current-methods-and-development-of-a-new-model-free-approach
#15
H Ongun Onaran, Caterina Ambrosio, Özlem Uğur, Erzsebet Madaras Koncz, Maria Cristina Grò, Vanessa Vezzi, Sudarshan Rajagopal, Tommaso Costa
Discovering biased agonists requires a method that can reliably distinguish the bias in signalling due to unbalanced activation of diverse transduction proteins from that of differential amplification inherent to the system being studied, which invariably results from the non-linear nature of biological signalling networks and their measurement. We have systematically compared the performance of seven methods of bias diagnostics, all of which are based on the analysis of concentration-response curves of ligands according to classical receptor theory...
March 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288967/in-air-hearing-of-the-great-cormorant-phalacrocorax-carbo
#16
Alyssa Maxwell, Kirstin Anderson Hansen, Sara Torres Ortiz, Ole Næsbye Larsen, Ursula Siebert, Magnus Wahlberg
Many aquatic birds use sounds extensively for in-air communication. Regardless of this, we know very little about their hearing abilities. The in-air audiogram of a male adult great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) was determined using psychophysical methods (method of constants). Hearing thresholds were derived using pure tones of five different frequencies. The lowest threshold was at 2 kHz: 18 dB re 20 µPa rms. Thresholds derived using signal detection theory were within 2 dB of the ones derived using classical psychophysics...
April 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286042/the-therapeutic-effects-of-periploca-forrestii-schltr-stem-extracts-on-collagen-induced-arthritis-by-inhibiting-the-activation-of-src-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway-in-rats
#17
Lei Chen, Jinsong Li, Xuan Ke, Wei Qu, Jie Zhang, Feng Feng, Wenyuan Liu
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Periploca forrestii Schltr. is a classical traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) called Heilonggu (HLG) in China. According to the theory of TCM, it possesses the efficacy of eliminating wind and removing dampness. In clinical practice, it is commonly used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The present work aimed to evaluate the anti-rheumatism activity of HLG ethanol extract and reveal the underlying molecular mechanism by employing an animal model of collagen-induced rheumatoid arthritis (CIA) in rats...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277736/evidence-of-systematic-attenuation-in-the-measurement-of-cognitive-deficits-in-schizophrenia
#18
Michael L Thomas, Virginie M Patt, Andrew Bismark, Joyce Sprock, Melissa Tarasenko, Gregory A Light, Gregory G Brown
Cognitive tasks that are too hard or too easy produce imprecise measurements of ability, which, in turn, attenuates group differences and can lead to inaccurate conclusions in clinical research. We aimed to illustrate this problem using a popular experimental measure of working memory-the N-back task-and to suggest corrective strategies for measuring working memory and other cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Samples of undergraduates (n = 42), community controls (n = 25), outpatients with schizophrenia (n = 33), and inpatients with schizophrenia (n = 17) completed the N-back...
April 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273343/fire-disturbance-disrupts-an-acacia-ant-plant-mutualism-in-favor-of-a-subordinate-ant-species
#19
Ryan L Sensenig, Duncan K Kimuyu, Juan Carlos Ruiz Guajardo, Kari E Veblen, Corinna Riginos, Truman P Young
Although disturbance theory has been recognized as a useful framework in examining the stability of ant-plant mutualisms, very few studies have examined the effects of fire disturbance on these mutualisms. In myrmecophyte-dominated savannas, fire and herbivory are key drivers that could influence ant-plant mutualisms by causing complete colony mortality and/or decreasing colony size, which potentially could alter dominance hierarchies if subordinate species are more fire resilient. We used a large-scale, replicated fire experiment to examine long-term effects of fire on acacia-ant community composition...
March 8, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270816/size-matters-a-lot-drought-affected-italian-oaks-are-smaller-and-show-lower-growth-prior-to-tree-death
#20
Michele Colangelo, Jesús J Camarero, Marco Borghetti, Antonio Gazol, Tiziana Gentilesca, Francesco Ripullone
Hydraulic theory suggests that tall trees are at greater risk of drought-triggered death caused by hydraulic failure than small trees. In addition the drop in growth, observed in several tree species prior to death, is often interpreted as an early-warning signal of impending death. We test these hypotheses by comparing size, growth, and wood-anatomy patterns of living and now-dead trees in two Italian oak forests showing recent mortality episodes. The mortality probability of trees is modeled as a function of recent growth and tree size...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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