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Signal detection theory

Catia Contado, Roberto Argazzi, Vincenzo Amendola
Many advanced industrial and biomedical applications that use silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), require that particles are not only nano-sized, but also well dispersed, not aggregated and not agglomerated. This study presents two methods able to give rapidly sizes of monodispersed AgNPs suspensions in the dimensional range of 20-100nm. The first method, based on the application of Mie's theory, determines the particle sizes from the values of the surface plasmon resonance wavelength (SPRMAX), read from the optical absorption spectra, recorded between 190nm and 800nm...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
Long Chen, Changan Di, Xuguang Chen, Zhengzhi Li, Jia Luo
Touch is produced by sensations that include approaching, sliding, pressing, and temperature. This concept has become a target of research in biotechnology, especially in the field of bionic biology. This study measured sliding and pressing with traditional tactile sensors in order to improve a machine operator's judgment of surface roughness. Based on the theory of acoustic emission, this study combined polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) with a sonic transducer to produce tactile sensors that can detect surface roughness...
October 18, 2016: Bioengineered
Gardiner von Trapp, Ishita Aloni, Stephen Young, Malcolm N Semple, Dan H Sanes
The consequences of developmental hearing loss have been reported to include both sensory and cognitive deficits. To investigate these issues in a non-human model, auditory learning and asymptotic psychometric performance were compared between normal hearing (NH) adult gerbils and those reared with conductive hearing loss (CHL). At postnatal day 10, before ear canal opening, gerbil pups underwent bilateral malleus removal to induce a permanent CHL. Both CHL and control animals were trained to approach a water spout upon presentation of a target (Go stimuli), and withhold for foils (Nogo stimuli)...
October 13, 2016: Hearing Research
Amirali Aghazadeh, Adam Y Lin, Mona A Sheikh, Allen L Chen, Lisa M Atkins, Coreen L Johnson, Joseph F Petrosino, Rebekah A Drezek, Richard G Baraniuk
Early identification of pathogens is essential for limiting development of therapy-resistant pathogens and mitigating infectious disease outbreaks. Most bacterial detection schemes use target-specific probes to differentiate pathogen species, creating time and cost inefficiencies in identifying newly discovered organisms. We present a novel universal microbial diagnostics (UMD) platform to screen for microbial organisms in an infectious sample, using a small number of random DNA probes that are agnostic to the target DNA sequences...
September 2016: Science Advances
Mick Zeljko, Philip M Grove
The audiovisual stream-bounce effect refers to the resolution of ambiguous motion sequences as streaming or bouncing depending on the presence or absence of a sound. We used a novel experimental design and signal detection theory (SDT) to determine its sensory or decisional origins. To account for issues raised by Witt et al. on the interpretation of SDT results, we devised a pure signal detection (as opposed to signal discrimination) paradigm and measured participants' sensitivity and criterion when detecting a weak tone concurrent with objectively streaming or bouncing visual displays...
October 3, 2016: Perception
Adrianna Jenkins, Lusha Zhu, Ming Hsu
Understanding the neural basis of human honesty and deception has enormous potential scientific and practical value. However, past approaches, largely developed out of studies with forensic applications in mind, are increasingly recognized as having serious methodological and conceptual shortcomings. Here we propose to address these challenges by drawing on so-called signaling games widely used in game theory and ethology to study behavioral and evolutionary consequences of information transmission and distortion...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
Lawrence R Frank, Vitaly L Galinsky
A new data analysis method that addresses a general problem of detecting spatio-temporal variations in multivariate data is presented. The method utilizes two recent and complimentary general approaches to data analysis, information field theory (IFT) and entropy spectrum pathways (ESP). Both methods reformulate and incorporate Bayesian theory, thus use prior information to uncover underlying structure of the unknown signal. Unification of ESP and IFT creates an approach that is non-Gaussian and non-linear by construction and is found to produce unique spatio-temporal modes of signal behavior that can be ranked according to their significance, from which space-time trajectories of parameter variations can be constructed and quantified...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Physics. A, Mathematical and Theoretical
J D Knotts, Ladan Shams
In a recent article, Witt, Taylor, Sugovic, and Wixted (2015) made several claims about the way the Müller-Lyer and sound-induced flash illusions should influence the signal detection theory criterion and sensitivity measures, c and d'. Here, we address some crucial conceptual inconsistencies in their simulation of the Müller-Lyer illusion and clarify a previous analysis of the sound-induced flash illusion from the literature that is misinterpreted in their discussion. Alternative signal detection theoretic interpretations of both illusions are offered...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
Sébastien Hétu, Vincent Taschereau-Dumouchel, Hadj Boumediene Meziane, Philip L Jackson, Catherine Mercier
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies have shown that observing an action induces muscle-specific changes in corticospinal excitability. From a signal detection theory standpoint, this pattern can be related to sensitivity, which here would measure the capacity to distinguish between two action observation conditions. In parallel to these TMS studies, action observation has also been linked to behavioral effects such as motor priming and interference. It has been hypothesized that behavioral markers of action observation could be related to TMS markers and thus represent a potentially cost-effective mean of assessing the functioning of the action-perception system...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Yifeng He, Qiujing Zhu, Mo Chen, Qihong Huang, Wenjing Wang, Qing Li, Yuting Huang, Wen Di
Inconsistencies in the half-maximal (50%) inhibitory concentration (IC50) data for anticancer chemotherapeutic agents have yielded irreproducible experimental results and thus reciprocally contradictory theories in modern cancer research. The MTT assay is currently the most extensively used method for IC50 measurements. Here, we dissected the critical reasons behind MTT-dependent IC50 inconsistencies. We showed that IC50 errors caused by the technical deficiencies of the MTT assay are large and not adjustable (range: 300-11,000%)...
September 23, 2016: Oncotarget
Chanjuan Liu, Xiao Wang, Jiying Xu, Yi Chen
A stepwise strategy was proposed to controllably amplify surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) signals and used to establish a method for sensitive detection of small saccharides and large glycoconjugates. The key is to enlarge the target analytes step by step through a cyclic recognition reaction of concanavalin A (ConA) with dextran, which can easily be integrated into SPRi detection. The reaction is theoretically expected to proceed with infinite cycles by addition of ConA and dextran one after another, and in practice, it allows for performing signal amplification for up to 20 steps, which nearly reaches the limit of the propagation depth of surface plasmon waves...
October 7, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Sabrina Simoncelli, Eva-Maria Roller, Patrick Urban, Robert Schreiber, Andrew J Turberfield, Tim Liedl, Theobald Lohmueller
DNA origami is a powerful approach for assembling plasmonic nanoparticle dimers and Raman dyes with high yields and excellent positioning control. Here we show how optothermal induced shrinking of a DNA origami template can be employed to control the gap sizes between two 40 nm gold nanoparticles in a range of 1 nm - 2 nm. The high field confinement achieved with this optothermal approach was demonstrated by detection of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) signals from single molecules that are precisely placed within the DNA origami template that spans the nanoparticle gap...
September 20, 2016: ACS Nano
Lauren Jarvis, Kevin McCann, Tyler Tunney, Gabriel Gellner, John M Fryxell
Earth's surface temperatures are projected to increase by ~1-4°C over the next century, threatening the future of global biodiversity and ecosystem stability. While this has fueled major progress in the field of physiological trait responses to warming, it is currently unclear whether routine population monitoring data can be used to predict temperature-induced population collapse. Here, we integrate trait performance theory with that of critical tipping points to test whether early warning signals can be reliably used to anticipate thermally induced extinction events...
September 2016: Ecology and Evolution
Kaili Jiang, Sujuan Chen, Bin Tang
Modern radar and communication systems require the detection and parameter estimation of signal under a broadband radio frequency (RF) environment. The Nyquist folding receiver (NYFR) is an efficient analog-to-information (A2I) architecture. It can use the compressive sensing (CS) techniques to break the limitations of the analog-to-digital converter (ADC). This paper demonstrates the restricted isometry property (RIP) of the NYFR deterministically by applying the Gershgorin circle theory. And, the NYFR suffers a poor RIP for the broadband signal, which will lead the conventional CS algorithms to be invalid...
2016: EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing
Alexandra Kruscha, Benjamin Lindner
We consider a homogeneous population of stochastic neurons that are driven by weak common noise (stimulus). To capture and analyze the joint firing events within the population, we introduce the partial synchronous output of the population. This is a time series defined by the events that at least a fixed fraction γ∈[0,1] of the population fires simultaneously within a small time interval. For this partial synchronous output we develop two analytical approaches to the correlation statistics. In the Gaussian approach we represent the synchronous output as a nonlinear transformation of the summed population activity and approximate the latter by a Gaussian process...
August 2016: Physical Review. E
Nicola J Hancock, Neil R de Joux, Stephen C Wingreen, Simon Kemp, Jared Thomas, William S Helton
This study explores the impact of post-earthquake images inserted in a vigilance task, in terms of performance, self-reports of task-focus, and cerebral activity using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Vigilance tasks present a sequence of stimuli in which only a few are pre-designated critical or target stimuli requiring an overt response from the participant. Seventy-one residents participated (51 women, 20 men) by taking part in a vigilance task with task-irrelevant images inserted in the sequence...
September 13, 2016: British Journal of Psychology
Andrea Maselli, Stefania Marassi, Valeria Ferrari, Kostas Kokkotas, Raffaella Schneider
The direct discovery of gravitational waves has finally opened a new observational window on our Universe, suggesting that the population of coalescing binary black holes is larger than previously expected. These sources produce an unresolved background of gravitational waves, potentially observable by ground-based interferometers. In this Letter we investigate how modified theories of gravity, modeled using the parametrized post-Einsteinian formalism, affect the expected signal, and analyze the detectability of the resulting stochastic background by current and future ground-based interferometers...
August 26, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Giulio Gambarota
Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a well established modality for investigating tissue metabolism in vivo. In recent years, many efforts by the scientific community have been directed towards the improvement of metabolite detection and quantitation. Quantum mechanics simulations allow for investigations of the MR signal behaviour of metabolites; thus, they provide an essential tool in the optimization of metabolite detection. In this review, we will examine quantum mechanics simulations based on the density matrix formalism...
September 2, 2016: Analytical Biochemistry
Gayle Beam Long, Robert Allen Fox, Ewa Jacewicz
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the underlying phonological impairment in dyslexia is associated with a deficit in categorizing regional dialects. Method: Twenty adults with dyslexia, 20 school-age children with dyslexia, and 40 corresponding control listeners with average reading ability listened to sentences produced by multiple talkers (both sexes) representing two dialects: Midland dialect in Ohio (same as listeners' dialect) and Southern dialect in Western North Carolina...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Joshua D Koen, Frederick S Barrett, Iain M Harlow, Andrew P Yonelinas
Signal-detection theory, and the analysis of receiver-operating characteristics (ROCs), has played a critical role in the development of theories of episodic memory and perception. The purpose of the current paper is to present the ROC Toolbox. This toolbox is a set of functions written in the Matlab programming language that can be used to fit various common signal detection models to ROC data obtained from confidence rating experiments. The goals for developing the ROC Toolbox were to create a tool (1) that is easy to use and easy for researchers to implement with their own data, (2) that can flexibly define models based on varying study parameters, such as the number of response options (e...
August 29, 2016: Behavior Research Methods
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