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canis latrans

Whitni K Redman, Jay E Bryant, Gul Ahmad
AIM: This survey was carried out on the carcasses of 29 coyotes from Southeastern Nebraska and Shenandoah area of Iowa to document the helminths present in the intestinal track of these carnivorous animals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 29 adult coyote carcasses were generously donated in the autumn and winter (November-February) of 2014-2015 by trappers, fur buyers and hunters of Southeast Nebraska and Shenandoah area of Iowa. The intestine of individual animals were examined for the recovery of helminth parasites as per the established procedures...
September 2016: Veterinary World
Jeremy F Taylor, Lynsey K Whitacre, Jesse L Hoff, Polyana C Tizioto, JaeWoo Kim, Jared E Decker, Robert D Schnabel
BACKGROUND: Decreasing sequencing costs and development of new protocols for characterizing global methylation, gene expression patterns and regulatory regions have stimulated the generation of large livestock datasets. Here, we discuss experiences in the analysis of whole-genome and transcriptome sequence data. METHODS: We analyzed whole-genome sequence (WGS) data from 132 individuals from five canid species (Canis familiaris, C. latrans, C. dingo, C. aureus and C...
2016: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
Ying Bai, Amy Gilbert, Karen Fox, Lynn Osikowicz, Michael Kosoy
Spleen samples from 292 wild carnivores from Colorado, US were screened for Bartonella infection. Bartonella DNA was detected in coyotes ( Canis latrans ) (28%), striped skunks ( Mephitis mephitis ) (23%), red foxes ( Vulpes vulpes ) (27%), and raccoons ( Procyon lotor ) (8%) but not in black bears ( Ursus americanus ), gray foxes ( Urocyon cinereoargenteus ), and mountain lions ( Puma concolor ). Two Bartonella species, B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and B. rochalimae, were identified. All 10 infected striped skunks exclusively carried B...
October 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Camila K Cerqueira-Cézar, Kerri Pedersen, Rafael Calero-Bernal, Oliver C Kwok, Isabelle Villena, Jitender P Dubey
The protozoon Neospora caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. Canids (Canis familiaris, Canis latrans, Canis lupus) are definitive hosts whereas many other animal species, including pigs, are intermediate hosts for the parasite. Between 2012 and 2014, serum samples from 1059 feral swine (Sus scrofa) from 29 states of the USA were tested for N. caninum antibodies, using the N. caninum agglutination test (NAT). Of these, 159 (15.0%) feral pigs from 21 states tested positive, with a range of titers of 1:25 (cut-off) (n=153), 1:200 (1), 1:400 (1), 1:800 (3) and 1:3200 (1)...
August 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Shylo R Johnson, Nikki J Crider, Grant A Weyer, Randall D Tosh, Kurt C VerCauteren
Oral vaccination is one tool used to control wildlife diseases. A challenge to oral vaccination is identifying baits specific to target species. The US has been conducting oral vaccination against rabies since the 1990s. Improvements in bait development will hasten disease elimination. In Colorado, we examined a novel bait for oral vaccination and offered two different flavors, sweet and fish, to captive raccoons ( Procyon lotor ) and striped skunks ( Mephitis mephitis ) to assess consumption and flavor preference and observed bait removal by target and nontarget species in the field...
October 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Amber M Aher, Danny Caudill, Gretchen Caudill, Ryan S Butryn, Dan Wolf, Mark Fox, Damer P Blake, Mark W Cunningham
We detected heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) in 37.2% of 212 coyotes ( Canis latrans ) collected from 28 counties in Florida, US, between February 2010 and April 2014. Adult coyotes had a higher prevalence (45.6% of 103) than juveniles (29% of 80), and there was no significant difference in prevalence between adult male and female coyotes. Adults demonstrated a higher prevalence of heartworm in northern counties (56% of 91) than in southern counties (23.1% of 121) and a higher prevalence in urban areas (58.1% of 31) than in rural areas (33...
October 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Maegwin Bonar, Micheline Manseau, Justin Geisheimer, Travis Bannatyne, Susan Lingle
Juvenile survival is a highly variable life-history trait that is critical to population growth. Antipredator tactics, including an animal's use of its physical and social environment, are critical to juvenile survival. Here, we tested the hypothesis that habitat and social characteristics influence coyote (Canis latrans) predation on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (O. hemionus) fawns in similar ways during the neonatal period. This would contrast to winter when the habitat and social characteristics that provide the most safety for each species differ...
July 2016: Ecology and Evolution
Christopher J Schell, Julie K Young, Elizabeth V Lonsdorf, Jill M Mateo, Rachel M Santymire
Hormones are fundamental mediators of personality traits intimately linked with reproductive success. Hence, alterations to endocrine factors may dramatically affect individual behavior that has subsequent fitness consequences. Yet it is unclear how hormonal or behavioral traits change with environmental stressors or over multiple reproductive opportunities, particularly for biparental fauna. To simulate an environmental stressor, we exposed captive coyote (Canis latrans) pairs to novel coyote odor attractants (i...
October 15, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
Rachel Curtis-Robles, Barbara C Lewis, Sarah A Hamer
Infection with the zoonotic vector-borne protozoal parasite Trypanosoma cruzi causes Chagas disease in humans and dogs throughout the Americas. Despite the recognized importance of various wildlife species for perpetuating Trypanosoma cruzi in nature, relatively little is known about the development of cardiac disease in infected wildlife. Using a cross-sectional study design, we collected cardiac tissue and blood from hunter-donated wildlife carcasses- including raccoon (Procyon lotor), coyote (Canis latrans), gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), and bobcat (Lynx rufus) - from central Texas, a region with established populations of infected triatomine vectors and increasing diagnoses of Chagas disease in domestic dogs...
August 2016: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Marjorie J MacGregor, Cheryl S Asa, Donal C Skinner
Effective and humane management strategies for coyotes (Canis latrans) remain elusive. We hypothesised that exposure to a high dose of a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist would cause prolonged suppression of the reproductive axis. Two groups of male coyotes were administered 47 mg deslorelin in the form of either five 9.4-mg controlled-release Suprelorin (Peptech Animal Health, Macquarie Park NSW, Australia) implants (n = 3) or 10 4.7-mg implants (n = 5). In the first group, deslorelin suppressed plasma LH, testosterone and testes volume in two of three coyotes for three breeding seasons...
May 10, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Maureen H Murray, Jesse Hill, Peter Whyte, Colleen Cassady St Clair
Anthropogenic food is often concentrated in cities where it can attract wildlife, promote conflict with people, and potentially spread disease. Although these associations are well-documented for conventional garbage, they are unexplored for many seemingly innocuous and even environmentally friendly attractants such as piles of compost. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that municipal piles of compost are underappreciated and potentially important contributors to a recent rise in encounters with urban-adapted wildlife by attracting wildlife and promoting the spread of wildlife disease...
June 2016: EcoHealth
Christopher T Rota, Christopher K Wikle, Roland W Kays, Tavis D Forrester, William J McShea, Arielle W Parsons, Joshua J Millspaugh
Occupancy models are popular for estimating the probability a site is occupied by a species of interest when detection is imperfect. Occupancy models have been extended to account for interacting species and spatial dependence but cannot presently allow both factors to act simultaneously. We propose a two-species occupancy model that accommodates both interspecific and spatial dependence. We use a point-referenced multivariate hierarchical spatial model to account for both spatial and interspecific dependence...
January 2016: Ecology
Vanessa Gabriele-Rivet, Nicholas Ogden, Ariane Massé, Kym Antonation, Cindi Corbett, Antonia Dibernardo, L Robbin Lindsay, Patrick A Leighton, Julie Arsenault
In Canada, Francisella tularensis , the zoonotic bacterial agent of tularemia, affects mostly snowshoe hares ( Lepus americanus ), muskrats ( Ondatra zibethicus ), and beavers ( Castor canadensis ). Despite numerous studies, the ecologic cycle and natural reservoirs of F. tularensis are not clearly defined. We conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate the prevalence of F. tularensis in snowshoe hares, muskrats, and coyotes ( Canis latrans ) in four regions of Québec, Canada, and to describe the risk of infection in relation to host and environmental characteristics at three spatial scales...
April 28, 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Roberto Avendaño, Flor Barrueta, Sofía Soto-Fournier, Max Chavarría, Otto Monge, Gustavo A Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Andrea Chaves
Several highly infectious diseases can be transmitted through feces and cause elevated mortality among carnivore species. One such infectious agent, canine distemper virus (CDV; Paramyxoviridae: Morbillivirus), has been reported to affect wild carnivores, among them several felid species. We screened free-ranging and captive wild carnivores in Costa Rica for CDV. Between 2006 and 2012, we collected 306 fecal samples from 70 jaguars (Panther onca), 71 ocelots ( Leopardus pardalis ), five jaguarundis (Puma yaguaroundi), 105 pumas ( Puma concolor ), five margays ( Leopardus wiedii ), 23 coyotes ( Canis latrans ), and 27 undetermined Leopardus spp...
April 28, 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Rick A Sweitzer, Brett J Furnas
These data provide additional information relevant to the frequency of fisher detections by camera traps, and single-season occupancy and local persistence of fishers in small patches of forest habitats detailed elsewhere, "Landscape Fuel Reduction, Forest Fire, and Biophysical Linkages to Local Habitat Use and Local Persistence of Fishers (Pekania pennanti) in Sierra Nevada Mixed-conifer Forests" [10]. The data provides insight on camera trap detections of 3 fisher predators (bobcat [Lynx rufus]). Coyote [Canis latrans], mountain lion [Puma concolor], 5 mesocarnivores in the same foraging guild as fishers (gray fox [Urocyon cinereoargenteus]) ringtail [Bassariscus astutus], marten [Martes americana], striped skunk [Mephitis mephitis] spotted skunk [Spilogale gracilis], and 5 Sciuridae rodents that fishers consume as prey (Douglas squirrel [Tamiasciurus douglasii]), gray squirrel [Sciurus griseus], northern flying squirrel [Glaucomys sabrinus], long-eared chipmunk [Neotamias quadrimaculatus], California ground squirrel [Spermophilus beecheyi]...
March 2016: Data in Brief
Bruno B Chomel, Jane A Morton, Rickie W Kasten, Chao-Chin Chang
Bite-transmitted tularemia is a rare event in humans and most of the cases have been associated with cat bites. We report the first pediatric case of tularemia caused by a coyote (Canis latrans) bite. Coyotes can be healthy carriers of Francisella tularensis and transmit this infectious agent through a bite. Pediatricians should be aware of this risk after a carnivore bite and implement appropriate antibiotic therapy, as amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium (Augmentin) may have prolonged the typical two to three days' incubation period commonly observed for tularemia after an animal bite and was not effective in preventing clinical signs in this child...
2016: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Shiv K Verma, Larissa Minicucci, Darby Murphy, Michelle Carstensen, Carolin Humpal, Paul Wolf, Rafael Calero-Bernal, Camila K Cerqueira-Cézar, Oliver C H Kwok, Chunlei Su, Dolores Hill, Jitender P Dubey
Little is known of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in Minnesota. Here, we evaluated Toxoplasma gondii infection in 50 wild bobcats (Lynx rufus) and 75 other animals on/near 10 cattle farms. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed in serum samples or tissue fluids by the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut-off 1:25). Twenty nine of 50 bobcats and 15 of 41 wildlife trapped on the vicinity of 10 farms and nine of 16 adult domestic cats (Felis catus) and six of 14 domestic dogs resident on farms were seropositive...
September 2016: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Eric M Gese, Beth M Roberts, Frederick F Knowlton
Interactions between animals and their environment are fundamental to ecological research. Field studies of coyote (Canis latrans) reproductive performance suggest mean litter size changes in response to prey abundance. However, this relationship has been assessed primarily by using carcasses collected from trappers. The objective of this study was to assess whether nutritional manipulation prior to mating affected reproduction in adult female coyotes. We examined the effects of caloric restriction during the 7 months prior to estrus on the reproductive rates of 11 captive female coyotes and the subsequent initial survival of pups through two reproductive cycles...
February 2016: Animal Reproduction Science
Tracy A Nichols, Justin W Fischer, Terry R Spraker, Qingzhong Kong, Kurt C VerCauteren
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a geographically expanding prion disease of wild and captive cervids in North America. Disease can be transmitted directly, animal to animal, or indirectly via the environment. CWD contamination can occur residually in the environment via soil, water, and forage following deposition of bodily fluids such as urine, saliva, and feces, or by the decomposition of carcasses. Recent work has indicated that plants may even take up prions into the stems and leaves. When a carcass or gut pile is present in the environment, a large number of avian and mammalian species visit and consume the carrion...
2015: Prion
Christopher N Jacques, Jonathan A Jenks, Troy W Grovenburg, Robert W Klaver
Increased understanding of the influence of habitat (e.g., composition, patch size) and intrinsic (e.g., age, birth mass) factors on survival of neonatal pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) is a prerequisite to successful management programs, particularly as they relate to population dynamics and the role of population models in adaptive species management. Nevertheless, few studies have presented empirical data quantifying the influence of habitat variables on survival of neonatal pronghorn. During 2002-2005, we captured and radiocollared 116 neonates across two sites in western South Dakota...
2015: PloS One
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