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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420038/retrospective-evaluation-of-coyote-attacks-in-dogs-154-cases-1997-2012
#1
Virginia M Frauenthal, Philip Bergman, Robert J Murtaugh
OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical presentation and outcome of known attacks in client-owned dogs caused by the common coyote, Canis latrans. DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. SETTING: Private referral hospital. ANIMALS: One hundred fifty-four client-owned dogs known to be attacked by coyotes. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Records from a private referral hospital from May 1997 through December 2012 were reviewed...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369822/improving-the-assessment-of-predator-functional-responses-by-considering-alternate-prey-and-predator-interactions
#2
K Chan, S Boutin, T J Hossie, C J Krebs, M O'Donoghue, D L Murray
To improve understanding of the complex and variable patterns of predator foraging behavior in natural systems, it is critical to determine how density-dependent predation and predator hunting success are mediated by alternate prey or predator interference. Despite considerable theory and debate seeking to place predator-prey interactions in a more realistic context, few empirical studies have quantified the role of alternate prey or intraspecific interactions on predator-prey dynamics. We assessed functional responses of 2 similarly-sized, sympatric carnivores, lynx (Lynx canadensis) and coyotes (Canis latrans), foraging on common primary (snowshoe hares; Lepus americanus) and alternate (red squirrels; Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) prey in a natural system...
March 29, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295537/investigation-of-techniques-to-measure-cortisol-and-testosterone-concentrations-in-coyote-hair
#3
Christopher J Schell, Julie K Young, Elizabeth V Lonsdorf, Jill M Mateo, Rachel M Santymire
Long-term noninvasive sampling for endangered or elusive species is particularly difficult due to the challenge of collecting fecal samples before hormone metabolite desiccation, as well as the difficulty in collecting a large enough sample size from all individuals. Hair samples may provide an environmentally stable alternative that provides a long-term assessment of stress and reproductive hormone profiles for captive, zoo, and wild mammals. Here, we extracted and analyzed both cortisol and testosterone in coyote (Canis latrans) hair for the first time...
March 10, 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135133/use-of-remote-cameras-to-monitor-the-potential-prevalence-of-sarcoptic-mange-in-southern-texas-usa
#4
Kyle Brewster, Scott E Henke, Clay Hilton, Alfonso Ortega-S
Sarcoptic mange, caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei , is a common, highly contagious skin disease that has been reported from more than 100 species of mammals, including humans. Our objectives were to 1) determine the prevalence of sarcoptic mange within mammals from southern Texas, and 2) determine the efficacy of using remote cameras to estimate mange prevalence. We collected remote camera photographs from a 64-km(2) area and blood and skin scrapings from 166 mammals representing 12 species in southern Texas, US during 2012-13...
April 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064464/ungulate-predation-and-ecological-roles-of-wolves-and-coyotes-in-eastern-north-america
#5
John F Benson, Karen M Loveless, Linda Y Rutledge, Brent R Patterson
Understanding the ecological roles of species that influence ecosystem processes is a central goal of ecology and conservation biology. Eastern coyotes (Canis latrans) have ascended to the role of apex predator across much of eastern North America since the extirpation of wolves (Canis spp.) and there has been considerable confusion regarding their ability to prey on ungulates and their ecological niche relative to wolves. Eastern wolves (C. lycaon) are thought to have been the historical top predator in eastern deciduous forests and have previously been characterized as deer specialists that are inefficient predators of moose because of their smaller size relative to gray wolves (C...
April 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002495/space-use-and-habitat-selection-by-resident-and-transient-red-wolves-canis-rufus
#6
Joseph W Hinton, Christine Proctor, Marcella J Kelly, Frank T van Manen, Michael R Vaughan, Michael J Chamberlain
Recovery of large carnivores remains a challenge because complex spatial dynamics that facilitate population persistence are poorly understood. In particular, recovery of the critically endangered red wolf (Canis rufus) has been challenging because of its vulnerability to extinction via human-caused mortality and hybridization with coyotes (Canis latrans). Therefore, understanding red wolf space use and habitat selection is important to assist recovery because key aspects of wolf ecology such as interspecific competition, foraging, and habitat selection are well-known to influence population dynamics and persistence...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843722/the-origin-of-the-lower-fourth-molar-in-canids-inferred-by-individual-variation
#7
Masakazu Asahara
BACKGROUND: An increase in tooth number is an exception during mammalian evolution. The acquisition of the lower fourth molar in the bat-eared fox (Otocyon megalotis, Canidae, Carnivora, Mammalia) is one example; however, its developmental origin is not clear. In some canids (Canidae), individual variation exist as supernumerary molar M4. This study focuses on the acquisition of the lower fourth molar in canids and proposes that the inhibitory cascade model can explain its origin. METHODS: Occlusal view projected area of lower molars was determined from 740 mandibles obtained from Canis latrans, Nyctereutes procyonoides, and Urocyon cinereoargenteus museum specimens...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733798/gastrointestinal-helminths-of-coyotes-canis-latrans-from-southeast-nebraska-and-shenandoah-area-of-iowa
#8
Whitni K Redman, Jay E Bryant, Gul Ahmad
AIM: This survey was carried out on the carcasses of 29 coyotes from Southeastern Nebraska and Shenandoah area of Iowa to document the helminths present in the intestinal track of these carnivorous animals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 29 adult coyote carcasses were generously donated in the autumn and winter (November-February) of 2014-2015 by trappers, fur buyers and hunters of Southeast Nebraska and Shenandoah area of Iowa. The intestine of individual animals were examined for the recovery of helminth parasites as per the established procedures...
September 2016: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27534529/lessons-for-livestock-genomics-from-genome-and-transcriptome-sequencing-in-cattle-and-other-mammals
#9
Jeremy F Taylor, Lynsey K Whitacre, Jesse L Hoff, Polyana C Tizioto, JaeWoo Kim, Jared E Decker, Robert D Schnabel
BACKGROUND: Decreasing sequencing costs and development of new protocols for characterizing global methylation, gene expression patterns and regulatory regions have stimulated the generation of large livestock datasets. Here, we discuss experiences in the analysis of whole-genome and transcriptome sequence data. METHODS: We analyzed whole-genome sequence (WGS) data from 132 individuals from five canid species (Canis familiaris, C. latrans, C. dingo, C. aureus and C...
August 17, 2016: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27529290/bartonella-rochalimae-and-b-vinsonii-subsp-berkhoffii-in-wild-carnivores-from-colorado-usa
#10
Ying Bai, Amy Gilbert, Karen Fox, Lynn Osikowicz, Michael Kosoy
Spleen samples from 292 wild carnivores from Colorado, US were screened for Bartonella infection. Bartonella DNA was detected in coyotes ( Canis latrans ) (28%), striped skunks ( Mephitis mephitis ) (23%), red foxes ( Vulpes vulpes ) (27%), and raccoons ( Procyon lotor ) (8%) but not in black bears ( Ursus americanus ), gray foxes ( Urocyon cinereoargenteus ), and mountain lions ( Puma concolor ). Two Bartonella species, B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and B. rochalimae, were identified. All 10 infected striped skunks exclusively carried B...
October 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27514880/seroprevalence-of-neospora-caninum-in-feral-swine-sus-scrofa-in-the-united-states
#11
Camila K Cerqueira-Cézar, Kerri Pedersen, Rafael Calero-Bernal, Oliver C Kwok, Isabelle Villena, Jitender P Dubey
The protozoon Neospora caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. Canids (Canis familiaris, Canis latrans, Canis lupus) are definitive hosts whereas many other animal species, including pigs, are intermediate hosts for the parasite. Between 2012 and 2014, serum samples from 1059 feral swine (Sus scrofa) from 29 states of the USA were tested for N. caninum antibodies, using the N. caninum agglutination test (NAT). Of these, 159 (15.0%) feral pigs from 21 states tested positive, with a range of titers of 1:25 (cut-off) (n=153), 1:200 (1), 1:400 (1), 1:800 (3) and 1:3200 (1)...
August 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27505038/bait-development-for-oral-delivery-of-pharmaceuticals-to-raccoons-procyon-lotor-and-striped-skunks-mephitis-mephitis
#12
Shylo R Johnson, Nikki J Crider, Grant A Weyer, Randall D Tosh, Kurt C VerCauteren
Oral vaccination is one tool used to control wildlife diseases. A challenge to oral vaccination is identifying baits specific to target species. The US has been conducting oral vaccination against rabies since the 1990s. Improvements in bait development will hasten disease elimination. In Colorado, we examined a novel bait for oral vaccination and offered two different flavors, sweet and fish, to captive raccoons ( Procyon lotor ) and striped skunks ( Mephitis mephitis ) to assess consumption and flavor preference and observed bait removal by target and nontarget species in the field...
October 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27458831/prevalence-genetic-analyses-and-risk-factors-associated-with-heartworm-dirofilaria-immitis-in-wild-coyotes-canis-latrans-from-florida-usa
#13
Amber M Aher, Danny Caudill, Gretchen Caudill, Ryan S Butryn, Dan Wolf, Mark Fox, Damer P Blake, Mark W Cunningham
We detected heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) in 37.2% of 212 coyotes ( Canis latrans ) collected from 28 counties in Florida, US, between February 2010 and April 2014. Adult coyotes had a higher prevalence (45.6% of 103) than juveniles (29% of 80), and there was no significant difference in prevalence between adult male and female coyotes. Adults demonstrated a higher prevalence of heartworm in northern counties (56% of 91) than in southern counties (23.1% of 121) and a higher prevalence in urban areas (58.1% of 31) than in rural areas (33...
October 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27386083/the-effect-of-terrain-and-female-density-on-survival-of-neonatal-white-tailed-deer-and-mule-deer-fawns
#14
Maegwin Bonar, Micheline Manseau, Justin Geisheimer, Travis Bannatyne, Susan Lingle
Juvenile survival is a highly variable life-history trait that is critical to population growth. Antipredator tactics, including an animal's use of its physical and social environment, are critical to juvenile survival. Here, we tested the hypothesis that habitat and social characteristics influence coyote (Canis latrans) predation on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (O. hemionus) fawns in similar ways during the neonatal period. This would contrast to winter when the habitat and social characteristics that provide the most safety for each species differ...
July 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27378509/olfactory-attractants-and-parity-affect-prenatal-androgens-and-territoriality-of-coyote-breeding-pairs
#15
Christopher J Schell, Julie K Young, Elizabeth V Lonsdorf, Jill M Mateo, Rachel M Santymire
Hormones are fundamental mediators of personality traits intimately linked with reproductive success. Hence, alterations to endocrine factors may dramatically affect individual behavior that has subsequent fitness consequences. Yet it is unclear how hormonal or behavioral traits change with environmental stressors or over multiple reproductive opportunities, particularly for biparental fauna. To simulate an environmental stressor, we exposed captive coyote (Canis latrans) pairs to novel coyote odor attractants (i...
October 15, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27330982/high-trypanosoma-cruzi-infection-prevalence-associated-with-minimal-cardiac-pathology-among-wild-carnivores-in-central-texas
#16
Rachel Curtis-Robles, Barbara C Lewis, Sarah A Hamer
Infection with the zoonotic vector-borne protozoal parasite Trypanosoma cruzi causes Chagas disease in humans and dogs throughout the Americas. Despite the recognized importance of various wildlife species for perpetuating Trypanosoma cruzi in nature, relatively little is known about the development of cardiac disease in infected wildlife. Using a cross-sectional study design, we collected cardiac tissue and blood from hunter-donated wildlife carcasses- including raccoon (Procyon lotor), coyote (Canis latrans), gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), and bobcat (Lynx rufus) - from central Texas, a region with established populations of infected triatomine vectors and increasing diagnoses of Chagas disease in domestic dogs...
August 2016: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27161891/variable-duration-of-reproductive-suppression-in-male-coyotes-canis-latrans-treated-with-a-high-dose-of-the-gonadotrophin-releasing-hormone-agonist-deslorelin
#17
Marjorie J MacGregor, Cheryl S Asa, Donal C Skinner
Effective and humane management strategies for coyotes (Canis latrans) remain elusive. We hypothesised that exposure to a high dose of a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist would cause prolonged suppression of the reproductive axis. Two groups of male coyotes were administered 47 mg deslorelin in the form of either five 9.4-mg controlled-release Suprelorin (Peptech Animal Health, Macquarie Park NSW, Australia) implants (n = 3) or 10 4.7-mg implants (n = 5). In the first group, deslorelin suppressed plasma LH, testosterone and testes volume in two of three coyotes for three breeding seasons...
May 10, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27106524/urban-compost-attracts-coyotes-contains-toxins-and-may-promote-disease-in-urban-adapted-wildlife
#18
Maureen H Murray, Jesse Hill, Peter Whyte, Colleen Cassady St Clair
Anthropogenic food is often concentrated in cities where it can attract wildlife, promote conflict with people, and potentially spread disease. Although these associations are well-documented for conventional garbage, they are unexplored for many seemingly innocuous and even environmentally friendly attractants such as piles of compost. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that municipal piles of compost are underappreciated and potentially important contributors to a recent rise in encounters with urban-adapted wildlife by attracting wildlife and promoting the spread of wildlife disease...
June 2016: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27008774/a-two-species-occupancy-model-accommodating-simultaneous-spatial-and-interspecific-dependence
#19
Christopher T Rota, Christopher K Wikle, Roland W Kays, Tavis D Forrester, William J McShea, Arielle W Parsons, Joshua J Millspaugh
Occupancy models are popular for estimating the probability a site is occupied by a species of interest when detection is imperfect. Occupancy models have been extended to account for interacting species and spatial dependence but cannot presently allow both factors to act simultaneously. We propose a two-species occupancy model that accommodates both interspecific and spatial dependence. We use a point-referenced multivariate hierarchical spatial model to account for both spatial and interspecific dependence...
January 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26967133/eco-epizootiologic-study-of-francisella-tularensis-the-agent-of-tularemia-in-qu%C3%A3-bec-wildlife
#20
Vanessa Gabriele-Rivet, Nicholas Ogden, Ariane Massé, Kym Antonation, Cindi Corbett, Antonia Dibernardo, L Robbin Lindsay, Patrick A Leighton, Julie Arsenault
In Canada, Francisella tularensis , the zoonotic bacterial agent of tularemia, affects mostly snowshoe hares ( Lepus americanus ), muskrats ( Ondatra zibethicus ), and beavers ( Castor canadensis ). Despite numerous studies, the ecologic cycle and natural reservoirs of F. tularensis are not clearly defined. We conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate the prevalence of F. tularensis in snowshoe hares, muskrats, and coyotes ( Canis latrans ) in four regions of Québec, Canada, and to describe the risk of infection in relation to host and environmental characteristics at three spatial scales...
April 28, 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
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