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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746498/modulation-of-plantar-pressure-and-gastrocnemius-activity-during-gait-using-electrical-stimulation-of-the-tibialis-anterior-in-healthy-adults
#1
Maiki Moriguchi, Noriaki Maeshige, Mizuki Ueno, Yoshiyuki Yoshikawa, Hiroto Terashi, Hidemi Fujino
High plantar flexor moment during the stance phase is known to cause high plantar pressure under the forefoot; however, the effects on plantar pressure due to a change of gastrocnemius medialis (GM) activity during gait, have not been investigated to date. Reciprocal inhibition is one of the effects of electrical stimulation (ES), and is the automatic antagonist alpha motor neuron inhibition which is evoked by excitation of the agonist muscle. The aim of this study was to investigate the influences of ES of the tibialis anterior (TA) on plantar pressure and the GM activity during gait in healthy adults...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29714132/mir-7-replacement-therapy-in-parkinson-s-disease
#2
Ricardo Titze-de-Almeida, Simoneide Souza Titze-de-Almeida
The present review examines whether the microRNA 7 (miR-7) holds potential for slowing Parkinson's disease (PD) progression. First, the accurate expression of miR-7 allows for the normal development, physiology, and neurogenesis in the central nervous system, also keeping alpha-synuclein (α-Syn) at the physiological level. Second, patients with PD and parkinsonian MPTP-induced animals exhibit a significant decrease of miR-7 in brain areas associated with dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Depletion of miR-7 in the substantia nigra of clinical samples was related to α-Syn accumulation, loss of dopaminergic cells, and reduction of dopamine in the striatum...
April 30, 2018: Current Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695045/molecular-analysis-of-sensory-axon-branching-unraveled-a-cgmp-dependent-signaling-cascade
#3
REVIEW
Alexandre Dumoulin, Gohar Ter-Avetisyan, Hannes Schmidt, Fritz G Rathjen
Axonal branching is a key process in the establishment of circuit connectivity within the nervous system. Molecular-genetic studies have shown that a specific form of axonal branching—the bifurcation of sensory neurons at the transition zone between the peripheral and the central nervous system—is regulated by a cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent signaling cascade which is composed of C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), the receptor guanylyl cyclase Npr2, and cGMP-dependent protein kinase Iα (cGKIα)...
April 24, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681884/glutathione-s-transferase-alpha-4-prevents-dopamine-neurodegeneration-in-a-rat-alpha-synuclein-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#4
Michael Jewett, Elna Dickson, Kajsa Brolin, Matilde Negrini, Itzia Jimenez-Ferrer, Maria Swanberg
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common, progressive neurodegenerative disease, which typically presents itself with a range of motor symptoms, like resting tremor, bradykinesia, and rigidity, but also non-motor symptoms such as fatigue, constipation, and sleep disturbance. Neuropathologically, PD is characterized by loss of dopaminergic cells in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and Lewy bodies, neuronal inclusions containing α-synuclein (α-syn). Mutations and copy number variations of SNCA , the gene encoding α-syn, are linked to familial PD and common SNCA gene variants are associated to idiopathic PD...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681846/high-dietary-iron-supplement-induces-the-nigrostriatal-dopaminergic-neurons-lesion-in-transgenic-mice-expressing-mutant-a53t-human-alpha-synuclein
#5
Fengju Jia, Ning Song, Weiwei Wang, Xixun Du, Yajing Chi, Hong Jiang
Both alpha-synuclein aggregation and iron deposits are neuropathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD). We are particularly interested in whether iron could synergize with alpha-synuclein pathology in vivo , especially in the nigrostriatal system. In the present study, we reported transgenic mice with overexpressing human A53T alpha-synuclein, as well as WT mice with high dietary iron displayed hyperactive motor coordination and impaired colonic motility, compared with those with basal dietary iron...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673783/meg-adaptation-reveals-action-representations-in-posterior-occipitotemporal-regions
#6
Anne Hauswald, Raffaele Tucciarelli, Angelika Lingnau
When we observe other people's actions, a number of parietal and precentral regions known to be involved in the planning and execution of actions are recruited for example seen as power decreases in alpha and beta frequencies indicative of increased activation. It has been argued that this recruitment reflects the process of simulating the observed action, thereby providing access to the meaning of the action. Alternatively, it has been suggested that rather than providing access to the meaning of an action, parietal and precentral regions might be recruited as a consequence of action understanding...
March 27, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649136/perineuronal-nets-in-spinal-motoneurones-chondroitin-sulphate-proteoglycan-around-alpha-motoneurones
#7
Sian F Irvine, Jessica C F Kwok
Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are extracellular matrix structures surrounding neuronal sub-populations throughout the central nervous system, regulating plasticity. Enzymatically removing PNNs successfully enhances plasticity and thus functional recovery, particularly in spinal cord injury models. While PNNs within various brain regions are well studied, much of the composition and associated populations in the spinal cord is yet unknown. We aim to investigate the populations of PNN neurones involved in this functional motor recovery...
April 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618004/the-antidepressant-tianeptine-reverts-synaptic-ampa-receptor-defects-caused-by-deficiency-of-cdkl5
#8
Marco Tramarin, Laura Rusconi, Lara Pizzamiglio, Isabella Barbiero, Diana Peroni, Linda Scaramuzza, Tim Guilliams, David Cavalla, Flavia Antonucci, Charlotte Kilstrup-Nielsen
Mutations in the X-linked cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) gene cause a complex neurological disorder, characterised by infantile seizures, impairment of cognitive and motor skills, and autistic features. Loss of Cdkl5 in mice affects dendritic spine maturation and dynamics but the underlying molecular mechanisms are still far from fully understood. Here we show that Cdkl5 deficiency in primary hippocampal neurons leads to deranged expression of the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-iso-xazole propionic acid receptors (AMPA-R)...
March 30, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614695/treatment-algorithm-for-infants-diagnosed-with-spinal-muscular-atrophy-through-newborn-screening
#9
Jacqueline Glascock, Jacinda Sampson, Amanda Haidet-Phillips, Anne Connolly, Basil Darras, John Day, Richard Finkel, R Rodney Howell, Katherine Klinger, Nancy Kuntz, Thomas Prior, Perry B Shieh, Thomas Crawford, Doug Kerr, Jill Jarecki
BACKGROUND: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by the degeneration of alpha motor neurons in the spinal cord, leading to muscular atrophy. SMA is caused by deletions or mutations in the survival motor neuron 1 gene (SMN1). In humans, a nearly identical copy gene, SMN2, is present. Because SMN2 has been shown to decrease disease severity in a dose-dependent manner, SMN2 copy number is predictive of disease severity. OBJECTIVE: To develop a treatment algorithm for SMA-positive infants identified through newborn screening based upon SMN2 copy number...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Neuromuscular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571717/simultaneous-scalp-recorded-eeg-and-local-field-potentials-from-monkey-ventral-premotor-cortex-during-action-observation-and-execution-reveals-the-contribution-of-mirror-and-motor-neurons-to-the-mu-rhythm
#10
Marco Bimbi, Fabrizia Festante, Gino Coudé, Ross E Vanderwert, Nathan A Fox, Pier Francesco Ferrari
The desynchronization of alpha and beta oscillations (mu rhythm) in the central scalp EEG during action observation and action execution is thought to reflect neural mirroring processes. However, the extent to which mirror neurons (MNs) or other populations of neurons contribute to such EEG desynchronization is still unknown. Here, we provide the first evidence that, in the monkey, the neuronal activity recorded from the ventral premotor cortex (PMv) strongly contributes to the EEG changes occurring in the beta band over central scalp electrodes, during executed and observed actions...
March 20, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541535/early-fine-motor-impairment-and-behavioral-dysfunction-in-thy-1-h-a30p-alpha-synuclein-mice
#11
Sara Ekmark-Lewén, Veronica Lindström, Astrid Gumucio, Elisabeth Ihse, Anish Behere, Philipp J Kahle, Eva Nordström, Maria Eriksson, Anna Erlandsson, Joakim Bergström, Martin Ingelsson
Introduction: Intraneuronal inclusions of alpha-synuclein are commonly found in the brain of patients with Parkinson's disease and other α-synucleinopathies. The correlation between alpha-synuclein pathology and symptoms has been studied in various animal models. In (Thy-1)-h[A30P] alpha-synuclein transgenic mice, behavioral and motor abnormalities were reported from 12 and 15 months, respectively. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these mice also display symptoms at earlier time points...
March 2018: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524845/eeg-beta-desynchronization-during-hand-goal-directed-action-observation-in-newborn-monkeys-and-its-relation-to-the-emergence-of-hand-motor-skills
#12
Fabrizia Festante, Ross E Vanderwert, Valentina Sclafani, Annika Paukner, Elizabeth A Simpson, Stephen J Suomi, Nathan A Fox, Pier Francesco Ferrari
Previous developmental research suggests that motor experience supports the development of action perception across the lifespan. However, it is still unknown when the neural mechanisms underlying action-perception coupling emerge in infancy. The goal of this study was to examine the neural correlates of action perception during the emergence of grasping abilities in newborn rhesus macaques. Neural activity, recorded via electroencephalogram (EEG), while monkeys observed grasping actions, mimed actions and means-end movements during the first (W1) and second week (W2) of life was measured...
April 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476066/vertical-transmission-of-the-zika-virus-causes-neurological-disorders-in-mouse-offspring
#13
Yingchao Shi, Shihua Li, Qian Wu, Le Sun, Junjing Zhang, Na Pan, Qihui Wang, Yuhai Bi, Jing An, Xuancheng Lu, George Fu Gao, Xiaoqun Wang
The association between Zika virus (ZIKV) infection and congenital malformations such as microcephaly in infants is a public health emergency. Although various in vivo and in vitro models are used for ZIKV research, few animal models are available for resolving the effects of maternal ZIKV infection on neonatal development. Here, we established an immunocompetent mouse model via intrauterine inoculation. Our results confirmed that ZIKV, but not dengue virus, infection caused spontaneous abortions, brain malformations, ocular abnormalities, spinal cord defects and paralysis in mouse offspring...
February 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474959/alpha-gamma-phase-amplitude-coupling-subserves-information-transfer-during-perceptual-sequence-learning
#14
Elinor Tzvi, Leon J Bauhaus, Till U Kessler, Matthias Liebrand, Malte Wöstmann, Ulrike M Krämer
Cross-frequency coupling is suggested to serve transfer of information between wide-spread neuronal assemblies and has been shown to underlie many cognitive functions including learning and memory. In previous work, we found that alpha (8-13 Hz) - gamma (30-48 Hz) phase amplitude coupling (αγPAC) is decreased during sequence learning in bilateral frontal cortex and right parietal cortex. We interpreted this to reflect decreased demands for visuo-motor mapping once the sequence has been encoded. In the present study, we put this hypothesis to the test by adding a "simple" condition to the standard serial reaction time task (SRTT) with minimal needs for visuo-motor mapping...
March 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460053/extrasynaptic-homomeric-glycine-receptors-in-neurons-of-the-rat-trigeminal-mesencephalic-nucleus
#15
Jin Young Bae, Jae Sik Lee, Sang Jin Ko, Yi Sul Cho, Jong-Cheol Rah, Hee Jung Cho, Mae Ja Park, Yong Chul Bae
The neurons in the trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus (Vmes) innervate jaw-closing muscle spindles and periodontal ligaments, and play a crucial role in the regulation of jaw movements. Recently, it was shown that many boutons that form synapses on them are immunopositive for glycine (Gly+), suggesting that these neurons receive glycinergic input. Information about the glycine receptors that mediate this input is needed to help understand the role of glycine in controlling Vmes neuron excitability. For this, we investigated the expression of glycine receptor subunit alpha 3 (GlyRα3) and gephyrin in neurons in Vmes and the trigeminal motor nucleus (Vmo), and the Gly+ boutons that contact them by light- and electron-microscopic immunocytochemistry and quantitative ultrastructural analysis...
February 19, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459819/ganglioside-metabolism-and-parkinson-s-disease
#16
John Forsayeth, Piotr Hadaczek
Here we advance the hypothesis that Parkinson's disease (PD) is fundamentally a failure of trophic support for specific classes of neurons, primarily catecholaminergic. Evidence from our laboratory provides a framework into which a broad array of findings from many quarters can be integrated into a general theory that offers testable hypotheses to new and established investigators. Mice deficient in the ability to synthesize series-a gangliosides, specifically GM1 ganglioside, develop parkinsonism. We found that this seems to be due to a failure in signaling efficiency by the important catecholaminergic growth factor, GDNF...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433982/bimolecular-fluorescence-complementation-of-alpha-synuclein-demonstrates-its-oligomerization-with-dopaminergic-phenotype-in-mice
#17
Waijiao Cai, Danielle Feng, Michael A Schwarzschild, Pamela J McLean, Xiqun Chen
Alpha-synuclein (αSyn) is encoded by the first causal gene identified in Parkinson's disease (PD) and is the main component of Lewy bodies, a pathological hallmark of PD. aSyn-based animal models have contributed to our understanding of PD pathophysiology and to the development of therapeutics. Overexpression of human wildtype αSyn by viral vectors in rodents recapitulates the loss of dopaminergic neurons from the substantia nigra, another defining pathological feature of the disease. The development of a rat model exhibiting bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) of αSyn by recombinant adeno-associated virus facilitates detection of the toxic αSyn oligomers species...
March 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429051/cilostazol-mediated-nurr1-and-autophagy-enhancement-neuroprotective-activity-in-rat-rotenone-pd-model
#18
Shireen A Hedya, Marwa M Safar, Ashraf K Bahgat
Nuclear receptor related 1 (Nurr1) orphan receptor has emerged as a promising contender in ameliorating Parkinson's disease; thus, finding a suitable activator of Nurr1 receptor is an attracting target for treating PD. Cilostazol, a phosphodiesterase-3 inhibitor, recently showed a favorable neuroprotective activity in multiple devastating central disorders, yet the possible antiparkinsonian activity of the drug has not been fully elucidated. Thus, the aim of this study is to explore the neuroprotective effect of cilostazol in rotenone-induced PD model in rats...
February 10, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414104/acrolein-mediated-neuronal-cell-death-and-alpha-synuclein-aggregation-implications-for-parkinson-s-disease
#19
Abeje Ambaw, Lingxing Zheng, Mitali A Tambe, Katherine E Strathearn, Glen Acosta, Scott A Hubers, Fang Liu, Seth A Herr, Jonathan Tang, Alan Truong, Elwood Walls, Amber Pond, Jean-Christophe Rochet, Riyi Shi
Growing evidence suggests that oxidative stress plays a critical role in neuronal destruction characteristic of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the molecular mechanisms of oxidative stress-mediated dopaminergic cell death are far from clear. In the current investigation, we tested the hypothesis that acrolein, an oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation (LPO) product, is a key factor in the pathogenesis of PD. Using a combination of in vitro, in vivo, and cell free models, coupled with anatomical, functional, and behavioral examination, we found that acrolein was elevated in 6-OHDA-injected rats, and behavioral deficits associated with 6-OHDA could be mitigated by the application of the acrolein scavenger hydralazine, and mimicked by injection of acrolein in healthy rats...
April 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405034/revisiting-the-gamma-loop-in-als
#20
Fiona Limanaqi, Stefano Gambardella, Gloria Lazzeri, Michela Ferrucci, Stefano Ruggieri, Francesco Fornai
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a fast progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by muscle denervation, weakening and atrophy, which eventually culminates into death, mainly due to respiratory failure. The traditional view of ALS as a disorder affecting selectively motor neurons throughout the central nervous system has been progressively dispelled by innumerous lines of evidence indicating that other cells but motor neurons may be affected as well. Remarkably, this disorder is not limited to the motor system but rather configures as a systemic disease yielding a plethora of clinical signs...
December 1, 2017: Archives Italiennes de Biologie
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