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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669296/a-neurophysiological-approach-to-nerve-transfer-to-restore-upper-limb-function-in-cervical-spinal-cord-injury
#1
Ross M Mandeville, Justin M Brown, Geoffrey L Sheean
A successful nerve transfer surgery can provide a wealth of benefits to a patient with cervical spinal cord injury. The process of surgical decision making ideally uses all pertinent information to produce the best functional outcome. Reliance on clinical examination and imaging studies alone can miss valuable information on the state of spinal cord health. In this regard, neurophysiological evaluation has the potential to effectively gauge the neurological status of even select pools of anterior horn cells and their axons to small nerve branches in question to determine the potential efficacy of their use in a transfer...
July 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662631/a-case-of-neuropsychiatric-lupus-erythematosus-characterized-by-the-owl-s-eye-sign-a-case-report
#2
Bolin Hu, Pengcheng Wu, Yibiao Zhou, Yan Peng, Xiaoping Tang, Weijiang Ding, Ming Zhang, Xueliang Qi
BACKGROUND: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune inflammatory disorder characterized by multiple affected systems. More than half of SLE patients will suffer from neuropsychiatric lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) during the course of their disease. Although nearly half of the NPSLE patients have normal MRI manifestations, the abnormalities found in the remainder can be located anywhere in the brain, and especially in the subcortical white matter of the frontal and temporal lobe...
June 29, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632899/novel-intracytoplasmic-inclusions-immunoreactive-for-phosphorylated-tdp43-and-cystatin-c-in-anterior-horn-cells-in-a-case-of-sporadic-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#3
Masayuki Shintaku, Daita Kaneda, Kiyomitsu Oyanagi
Novel intracytoplasmic inclusions immunoreactive for phosphorylated transactivation response DNA-binding protein 43 (p-TDP43), cystatin C, and transferrin were found in anterior horn cells in a case of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The patient was a 59-year-old woman, who died of ALS after a clinical course of 8 years. She had been receiving mechanical support for respiration for 6 years and in a "totally locked-in" state for 4 years prior to death. The spinal cord showed severe degeneration involving the anterior and lateral funiculi, whereas the posterior funiculus was preserved...
June 20, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607524/development-of-a-modified-model-of-spinal-cord-ischemia-injury-by-selective-ligation-of-lumbar-arteries-in-rabbits
#4
W Xiao, J Wen, Y-C Huang, B-S Yu
STUDY DESIGN: Experimental study. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to develop a modified model of spinal cord ischemia in rabbits. SETTINGS: Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Spine Surgery, Shenzhen, China. METHODS: In total, 20 New Zealand rabbits were divided into the following four groups according to the level of ligation of bilateral lumbar arteries: (1) group A, sham group, no ligation, n=5; (2) group B, ligation of bilateral lumbar arteries at three levels (L2-L4, n=5); (3) group C, ligation of bilateral lumbar arteries at four levels (L2-L5, n=5); and (4) group D, ligation of bilateral lumbar arteries at five levels (L1-L5, n=5)...
June 13, 2017: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583855/characterization-of-aromatase-expression-in-the-spinal-cord-of-an-animal-model-of-familial-als
#5
Can Sun, Yuanyuan Liu, Yaling Liu, Mei Zhao, Jingxu Zhai, Pengli Hao, Ying Wang, Yingxiao Ji
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease involving motor neurons in the motor cortex, brainstem and spinal cord. ALS leads to progressive, aggravated muscle weakness and paralysis. Although the precise pathogenesis remains unknown, several studies have shown that estrogens exert neuroprotective effects during the course of the disease. Aromatase is the key enzyme in estrogen synthesis. In the present study, we used immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and western blotting to observe the characteristics of aromatase expression in the spinal cords of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1)-G93A transgenic mice...
June 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570645/how-do-sma-linked-mutations-of-smn1-lead-to-structural-functional-deficiency-of-the-sma-protein
#6
Wei Li
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disease with dysfunctional α-motor neurons in the anterior horn of the spinal cord. SMA is caused by loss (∼95% of SMA cases) or mutation (∼5% of SMA cases) of the survival motor neuron 1 gene SMN1. As the product of SMN1, SMN is a component of the SMN complex, and is also involved in the biosynthesis of the small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs), which play critical roles in pre-mRNA splicing in the pathogenesis of SMA. To investigate how SMA-linked mutations of SMN1 lead to structural/functional deficiency of SMN, a set of computational analysis of SMN-related structures were conducted and are described in this article...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566141/bibrachial-plegia-due-to-lyme-radiculopoliomyelitis-myelitis
#7
Feras Akbik, Marcelo Matiello, Amanda Piquet, Tracey Cho, Adam Cohen, Nagagopal Venna
Nervous system involvement occurs in up to 15% of patients with Lyme disease, most commonly manifested as cranial neuropathy, lymphocytic meningitis, and or radiculoneuritis. We describe a patient with subacute radiculopoliomyelitis-myelitis matching the selective involvement of the anterior horns and roots of the cervical spinal cord seen on MRI and on electrodiagnostic studies. We demonstrate positive CSF Lyme antibodies and document a near-complete recovery with antibiotics. This case highlights the importance of recognizing an atypical presentation of Lyme disease in the setting of initial radiculitis and or myelitis, particularly given the potential for favorable outcomes with appropriate treatment...
July 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549966/lentivirus-mediated-inhibition-of-aqp4-accelerates-motor-function-recovery-associated-with-ngf-in-spinal-cord-contusion-rats
#8
Jianmin Chen, Xi Zeng, Shengnan Li, Zhanqiong Zhong, Xi Hu, Hongyu Xiang, Ying Rao, Lixin Zhang, Xiuya Zhou, Qingjie Xia, Tinghua Wang, Xiao Zhang
Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is a water channel protein in spinal cord and plays a critical role in the pathophysiological process of spinal cord injury (SCI). However, little is known about the molecular mechanism of AQP4 involved in SCI. The present study was performed to investigate the possible molecules regulated by AQP4 after SCI by use of lentiviral-mediated RNA interference (RNAi). First, the motor function was evaluated by Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan (BBB) scale and the expression of AQP4 was measured by western blot, immunohistochemical staining and immunofluorescence in rats after contusion spinal cord injury (cSCI)...
May 23, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539831/aldehyde-dehydrogenases-1a2-expression-and-distribution-are-potentially-associated-with-neuron-death-in-spinal-cord-of-tg-sod1-g93a-1gur-mice
#9
Huiting Liang, Chengsi Wu, Youqing Deng, Lei Zhu, Jie Zhang, Weiming Gan, Chunyan Tang, Renshi Xu
The pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has not been unclear yet, it might be associated with the abnormal expression and distribution of certain proteins. Aldehyde dehydrogenases 1A2 (ALDH1A2) was thought to be one of potential candidates. Therefore, in this study we observed and analyzed the alteration of the expression and distribution of ALDH1A2 in the spinal cord of wild-type (WT) and Tg(SOD1*G93A)1Gur mice. We compared the expression and distribution of ALDH1A2 in the different segments, anatomic regions and neural cells of spinal cord at the different stages of WT and Tg(SOD1*G93A)1Gur mice applied the methods of fluorescent immunohistochemistry and western blot...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503323/severe-cervical-flexion-myelopathy-with-long-tract-signs-a-case-report-and-a-review-of-literature
#10
Takahito Fujimori, Akiko Tamura, Toshitada Miwa, Motoki Iwasaki, Takenori Oda
INTRODUCTION: Hirayama disease, a type of cervical flexion myelopathy, is a rare neurological disease characterized by muscular atrophy of the forearms and hands. Generally, the pathology is limited to the gray matter of the anterior horns in the lower cervical spinal cord. However, in rare cases the damage can spread to the white matter and present as long tract signs. CASE PRESENTATION: We report on a 30-year-old female whose onset presented as unilateral muscle atrophy of the right hand in her teens...
2017: Spinal Cord Series and Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479534/-cortical-motor-neuron-hyperexcitability-and-motor-neuron-death-in-als-dying-forward-hypothesis
#11
Kazumoto Shibuya
In the late 19th century, Charcot examined patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and concluded that the sclerosis in the lateral columns of the spinal cord induced the loss of neurons in the anterior horns. The reason for this remains unknown. In contrast, hyperexcitability of motor neurons is believed to be one of the pathogenetic factors for motor neuron death in ALS. In this article, I have reviewed the relationship between motor neuron hyperexcitability and motor neuron death and considered the mechanism of ALS pathogenesis...
May 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413866/inositol-hexakisphosphate-kinase-2-is-a-presymptomatic-biomarker-for-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#12
Yusuke Moriya, Eiichiro Nagata, Natsuko Fujii, Tadayuki Satoh, Haruko Ogawa, Shinji Hadano, Shunya Takizawa
OBJECTIVE: Inositol hexakisphosphate kinase 2 (InsP6K2), an enzyme that converts inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6) to diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate (InsP7), induces cell death. InsP6K2 is abundant in the central nervous system, especially anterior horn cells of spinal cord. To identify the role of InsP6K2 in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), we investigated the expression levels of InsP6K2 in transgenic mice expressing mutant superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) (mSOD1 Tg mice). METHODS: The specimens of spinal cords were obtained from mSOD1 Tg mice and age-matched wild-type mice...
April 20, 2017: Tokai Journal of Experimental and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352498/traumatic-cervical-nerve-root-avulsion-with-pseudomeningocele-formation
#13
Ali S Haider, Ian T Watson, Suraj Sulhan, Dean Leonard, Eliel N Arrey, Umair Khan, Phu Nguyen, Kennith F Layton
Cervical nerve root avulsion is a well-documented result of motor vehicle collision (MVC), especially when occurring at high velocities. These avulsions are commonly traction injuries of nerve roots that may be accompanied by a tear in the meninges through the vertebral foramina with associated collections of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), thereby resulting in a pseudomeningocele. We present a case of a 19-year-old male who experienced an MVC and was brought to the emergency department (ED) with right arm paralysis and other injuries...
February 14, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283675/amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-gene-deregulation-in-the-anterior-horn-of-the-spinal-cord-and-frontal-cortex-area-8-implications-in-frontotemporal-lobar-degeneration
#14
Pol Andrés-Benito, Jesús Moreno, Ester Aso, Mónica Povedano, Isidro Ferrer
Transcriptome arrays identifies 747 genes differentially expressed in the anterior horn of the spinal cord and 2,300 genes differentially expressed in frontal cortex area 8 in a single group of typical sALS cases without frontotemporal dementia compared with age-matched controls. Main up-regulated clusters in the anterior horn are related to inflammation and apoptosis; down-regulated clusters are linked to axoneme structures and protein synthesis. In contrast, up-regulated gene clusters in frontal cortex area 8 involve neurotransmission, synaptic proteins and vesicle trafficking, whereas main down-regulated genes cluster into oligodendrocyte function and myelin-related proteins...
March 9, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231269/a-mouse-model-of-paralytic-myelitis-caused-by-enterovirus-d68
#15
Alison M Hixon, Guixia Yu, J Smith Leser, Shigeo Yagi, Penny Clarke, Charles Y Chiu, Kenneth L Tyler
In 2014, the United States experienced an epidemic of acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) cases in children coincident with a nationwide outbreak of enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) respiratory disease. Up to half of the 2014 AFM patients had EV-D68 RNA detected by RT-PCR in their respiratory secretions, although EV-D68 was only detected in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from one 2014 AFM patient. Given previously described molecular and epidemiologic associations between EV-D68 and AFM, we sought to develop an animal model by screening seven EV-D68 strains for the ability to induce neurological disease in neonatal mice...
February 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186165/netrin-1-improves-functional-recovery-through-autophagy-regulation-by-activating-the-ampk-mtor-signaling-pathway-in-rats-with-spinal-cord-injury
#16
Liangjie Bai, Xifan Mei, Zhaoliang Shen, Yunlong Bi, Yajiang Yuan, Zhanpeng Guo, Hongyu Wang, Haosen Zhao, Zipeng Zhou, Chen Wang, Kunming Zhu, Gang Li, Gang Lv
Autophagy is an process for the degradation of cytoplasmic aggregated proteins and damaged organelles and plays an important role in the development of SCI. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effect of Netrin-1 and its potential mechanism for autophagy regulation after SCI. A rat model of SCI was established and used for analysis. Results showed that administration of Netrin-1 not only significantly enhanced the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) but also reduced the phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and P70S6K...
February 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161391/spinal-muscular-atrophy-factors-that-modulate-motor-neurone-vulnerability
#17
REVIEW
Wen-Yo Tu, Julie E Simpson, J Robin Highley, Paul R Heath
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), a leading genetic cause of infant death, is a neurodegenerative disease characterised by the selective loss of particular groups of motor neurones in the anterior horn of the spinal cord with concomitant muscle weakness. To date, no effective treatment is available, however, there are ongoing clinical trials are in place which promise much for the future. However, there remains an ongoing problem in trying to link a single gene loss to motor neurone degeneration. Fortunately, given successful disease models that have been established and intensive studies on SMN functions in the past ten years, we are fast approaching the stage of identifying the underlying mechanisms of SMA pathogenesis Here we discuss potential disease modifying factors on motor neurone vulnerability, in the belief that these factors give insight into the pathological mechanisms of SMA and therefore possible therapeutic targets...
June 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124772/expression-and-distribution-of-arylsulfatase-b-are-closely-associated-with-neuron-death-in-sod1-g93a-transgenic-mice
#18
Jie Zhang, Huiting Liang, Lei Zhu, Weiming Gan, Chunyan Tang, Jiao Li, Renshi Xu
The known proteins only explained the partial pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Therefore, this study aimed to search the novel proteins possibly involved in ALS. In this study, we analyzed the expression and distribution of the candidate protein arylsulfatase B (ARSB) in the different segments, anatomic regions, and neural cells of spinal cord at the different stages of the wild-type and [Cu/Zn] superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) G93A transgenic mice using the fluorescent immunohistochemistry and the western blot...
January 26, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035406/bambi-inhibits-inflammation-through-the-activation-of-autophagy-in-experimental-spinal-cord-injury
#19
Yin Yang, Chunyang Guo, Bo Liao, Junjun Cao, Chen Liang, Xijing He
Autophagy plays an important role in the progression of spinal cord injury (SCI). In this study, we aimed to examine the effects and potential mechanisms of action of BMP and activin membrane-bound inhibitor (BAMBI) in the progression of SCI. A rat model of SCI was established and the rats were injected with pLentiH1-BAMBI shRNA and pAd-BAMBI in the gray and white matter of the spinal cord at T8. After 14 days, motor function evaluation was measured according to the Basso Beattie Bresnahan (BBB) method and the number of motor neuron cell accounts in the anterior horns was measured by Nissl staining...
February 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999136/human-muse-cells-reconstruct-neuronal-circuitry-in-subacute-lacunar-stroke-model
#20
Hiroki Uchida, Kuniyasu Niizuma, Yoshihiro Kushida, Shohei Wakao, Teiji Tominaga, Cesario V Borlongan, Mari Dezawa
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (muse) cells are endogenous nontumorigenic stem cells with pluripotency harvestable as pluripotent marker SSEA-3(+) cells from the bone marrow from cultured bone marrow-mesenchymal stem cells. After transplantation into neurological disease models, muse cells exert repair effects, but the exact mechanism remains inconclusive. METHODS: We conducted mechanism-based experiments by transplanting serum/xeno-free cultured-human bone marrow-muse cells into the perilesion brain at 2 weeks after lacunar infarction in immunodeficient mice...
February 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
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