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anterior horn of spinal cord

Chia-Kai Liu, Wen-Tzu Liao, Yu-Chi Chu, Chien-Hui Yang, Kuan-Hung Chen, Chih-Hsien Wu, Chung-Ren Lin
BACKGROUND:  Pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) treatment offers pain relief for patients suffering from chronic pain who do not respond well to conventional treatments. We tested whether PRF treatment attenuated complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammatory pain. Epigenetic modification of potassium-chloride cotransporter 2 (KCC2) gene expression was examined to elucidate the potential contributing mechanism. METHODS:  Male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with CFA into the plantar surface of the left hind paw to induce inflammation...
September 28, 2016: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
Bright N Okine, Manish K Madasu, Fiona McGowan, Charles Prendergast, Jessica C Gaspar, Brendan Harhen, Michelle Roche, David P Finn
The neural substrates and mechanisms mediating the antinociceptive effects of the endogenous bioactive lipid, N-palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), require further investigation. We investigated the effects of exogenous PEA administration into the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), an important brain region linked with cognitive and affective modulation of pain, on formalin-evoked nociceptive behaviour in rats. Potential involvement of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor isoforms (PPAR) α and γ or endocannabinoid-mediated entourage effects at cannabinoid1 (CB1) receptors or transient receptor potential subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) in mediating the effects of PEA was also investigated...
August 16, 2016: Pain
Keisuke Kanda, Osamu Adachi, Satoshi Kawatsu, Ko Sakatsume, Kiichiro Kumagai, Shunsuke Kawamoto, Yoshikatsu Saiki
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the effect of cerebrospinal fluid oxygenation for the prevention of spinal cord ischemic injury after infrarenal aortic occlusion in a rabbit model. METHODS: Twenty white Japanese rabbits were categorized into the following 4 groups (5 in each): group S (sham), balloon catheter insertion on to the aorta; group C (control), spinal cord ischemic injury by infrarenal abdominal aortic balloon occlusion for 15 minutes; group N (nonoxygenated), spinal cord ischemic injury with cerebrospinal fluid replacement by nonoxygenated artificial cerebrospinal fluid; and group O (oxygenated), spinal cord ischemic injury with cerebrospinal fluid replacement by nanobubble-oxygenated artificial cerebrospinal fluid...
November 2016: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Eric Diaz, Humberto Morales
We review the anatomy of the spinal cord, providing correlation with key functional and clinically relevant neural pathways, as well as magnetic resonance imaging. Peripherally, the main descending (corticospinal tract) and ascending (gracilis or cuneatus fasciculi and spinothalamic tracts) pathways compose the white matter. Centrally, the gray matter can be divided into multiple laminae. Laminae 1-5 carry sensitive neuron information in the posterior horn, and lamina 9 carries most lower motor neuron information in the anterior horn...
October 2016: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
Roger Pamphlett, Stephen Kum Jew
Toxic heavy metals have been implicated in the loss of spinal motoneurons in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/motor neuron disease (ALS/MND). Motoneuron loss in the spinal anterior horn is severe in ALS/MND at the time of death, making this tissue unsuitable for examination. We therefore examined spinal cords of people without muscle weakness to look for any presence of heavy metals that could make these neurons susceptible to damage. Spinal cord samples from 50 individuals aged 1-95 y who had no clinical or histopathological evidence of spinal motoneuron loss were studied...
2016: PloS One
Donghwi Park, Min Yong Seong, Ha Yong Kim, Ju Seok Ryu
Ultrasound-guided cervical medial branch block (CMBB) is commonly performed to diagnose and treat head, neck, and shoulder pain. However, its use at the C7 level has been shown to be less accurate than at other levels, which may increase the chance of injury owing to the imprecision of needle site provided by the ultrasound guide. We report the first case of iatrogenic spinal cord injury from an ultrasound-guided C7 CMBB. The patient, upon receiving this procedure, had fainted shortly after experiencing an electrical sensation that ran from the neck to the toe...
September 8, 2016: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Chiuan-Shiou Chiou, Chien-Chung Chen, Tsung-Chih Tsai, Chiung-Chun Huang, Dylan Chou, Kuei-Sen Hsu
BACKGROUND: The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is a brain region that has been critically implicated in the processing of pain perception and modulation. While much evidence has pointed to an increased activity of the ACC under chronic pain states, less is known about whether pain can be alleviated by inhibiting ACC neuronal activity. METHODS: The authors used pharmacologic, chemogenetic, and optogenetic approaches in concert with viral tracing technique to address this issue in a mouse model of bone cancer-induced mechanical hypersensitivity by intratibia implantation of osteolytic fibrosarcoma cells...
October 2016: Anesthesiology
Jingjun Xing, Dan Liu, Shu Shen, Zhengyuan Su, Lin Zhang, Yijie Duan, Fang Tong, Yue Liang, Hualin Wang, Fei Deng, Zhihong Hu, Yiwu Zhou
OBJECTIVES: Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the major pathogen of hand, foot, and mouth disease and can cause death; however, its pathogenesis remains elusive. METHODS: We performed a detailed systematic histopathologic examination and molecular studies on six autopsy cases of EV71 infection using H&E, immunohistochemistry, double immunofluorescence staining, and nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Characteristic features of acute encephalomyelitis were observed...
July 2016: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
Ivan Gallotta, Nadia Mazzarella, Alessandra Donato, Alessandro Esposito, Justin C Chaplin, Silvana Castro, Giuseppina Zampi, Giorgio S Battaglia, Massimo A Hilliard, Paolo Bazzicalupo, Elia Di Schiavi
Spinal muscular atrophy is a devastating disease that is characterized by degeneration and death of a specific subclass of motor neurons in the anterior horn of the spinal cord. Although the gene responsible, Smn1, was identified 20 years ago, it has proven difficult to investigate its effects in vivo Consequently, a number of key questions regarding the molecular and cellular functions of this molecule have remained unanswered. We developed a C. elegans model of smn-1 loss-of-function using a neuron-specific RNAi strategy to knock-down smn-1 selectively in a subclass of motor neurons...
June 3, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
Izabella Obál, Gergely Klausz, Yvette Mándi, Mária Deli, László Siklós, József I Engelhardt
BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease that involves the selective loss of the upper and lower motor neurons (MNs). Neuroinflammation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of the sporadic form of the disease. We earlier developed immune-mediated animal models of ALS and demonstrated humoral and cellular immune reactions in the nervous system and in the sera of patients and animals. The accumulation of immunoglobulin G (IgG), an elevated intracellular level of calcium, ultrastructural alterations in the MNs, and activation of the microglia were noted in the spinal cord of ALS patients...
2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Keizo Hirayama
Clinical features (weakness and amyotrophy of intrinsic hand muscles and obliquely distributed amyotrophy of forearm muscles, figure 1), needle electromyographic findings (distribution of neurogenic activities, figure 2), and pathological findings (ischemic necroses of the anterior horns between C6 and T1, figure 3) of Hirayama disease suggest that understanding of somatotopic representation of the anterior horn innervating arm muscles in the cervical enlargement of spinal cord differs from the known doctrine...
May 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
T Matsuura, M Kawasaki, H Hashimoto, M Yoshimura, Y Motojima, R Saito, H Ueno, T Maruyama, T Ishikura, K Sabanai, T Mori, H Ohnishi, T Onaka, A Sakai, Y Ueta
Oxytocin (OXT)-containing neurosecretory cells in the parvocellular divisions of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), which project to the medulla and spinal cord, are involved in various physiological functions, such as sensory modulation and autonomic processes. In the present study, we examined OXT expression in the hypothalamo-spinal pathway, as well as the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system, which includes the magnocellular neurosecretory cells in the PVN and the supraoptic nucleus (SON), after s.c. injection of saline or formalin into the hindpaws of transgenic rats that express the OXT and monomeric red fluorescent protein 1 (mRFP1) fusion gene...
June 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Hiroko Miyagishi, Yasuhiro Kosuge, Ayumi Takano, Manami Endo, Hiroshi Nango, Somay Yamagata-Murayama, Dai Hirose, Rui Kano, Yoko Tanaka, Kumiko Ishige, Yoshihisa Ito
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset, progressive, and fatal neurodegenerative disease caused by selective loss of motor neurons. Both ALS model mice and patients with sporadic ALS have increased levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Furthermore, the protein levels of microsomal PGE synthase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2, which catalyze PGE2 biosynthesis, are significantly increased in the spinal cord of ALS model mice. However, it is unclear whether PGE2 metabolism in the spinal cord is altered. In the present study, we investigated the protein level of 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH), a key enzyme in prostaglandin metabolism, in ALS model mice at three different disease stages...
May 2, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Sarah Pickles, Sabrina Semmler, Helen R Broom, Laurie Destroismaisons, Laurine Legroux, Nathalie Arbour, Elizabeth Meiering, Neil R Cashman, Christine Vande Velde
Approximately 20 % of familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is caused by mutations in superoxide dismutase (SOD1), which leads to misfolding of the SOD1 protein, resulting in a toxic gain of function. Several conformation-restricted antibodies have been generated that specifically recognize misfolded SOD1 protein, and have been used as therapeutics in pre-clinical models. Misfolded SOD1 selectively associates with spinal cord mitochondria in SOD1 rodent models. Using the SOD1(G93A) rat model, we find that SOD1 conformational specific antibodies AMF7-63 and DSE2-3H1 labeled a fibrillar network concentrated in the anterior horn; while A5C3, B8H10, C4F6 and D3H5 labeled motor neurons as well as puncta in the neuropil...
2016: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
Safaa Zahlane, Nissrine Louhab, Meriem El Mellakh, Najib Kissani
The authors report an exceptional case of an anterior horn syndrome associated with Sjögren's syndrome in a 58-year-old patient with a flaccid tetraparesis revealed by asymmetric atrophy and diffuse fasciculations associated with xerostomia and xerophthalmia. The electroneuromyography objectified a diffuse anterior horn syndrome. The brain MRI and spinal cord were normal. Laboratory tests revealed positive anti-SSA and anti-SSB antibody. The salivary glands biopsy objectified lymphocytic sialadenitis grade 3 of Chisholm...
July 2016: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
Diane E Griffin
Mosquito-borne viruses are important causes of death and long-term neurologic disability due to encephalomyelitis. Studies of mice infected with the alphavirus Sindbis virus have shown that outcome is dependent on the age and genetic background of the mouse and virulence of the infecting virus. Age-dependent susceptibility reflects the acquisition by neurons of resistance to virus replication and virus-induced cell death with maturation. In mature mice, the populations of neurons most susceptible to infection are in the hippocampus and anterior horn of the spinal cord...
July 2016: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
Shotaro Hayashida, Katsuhisa Masaki, Tomomi Yonekawa, Satoshi O Suzuki, Akio Hiwatashi, Takuya Matsushita, Mitsuru Watanabe, Ryo Yamasaki, Toshihiko Suenaga, Toru Iwaki, Hiroyuki Murai, Jun-Ichi Kira
OBJECTIVES: Studies of longitudinally extensive spinal cord lesions (LESCLs) in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) have focused on gray matter, where the relevant antigen, aquaporin-4 (AQP4), is abundant. Because spinal white matter pathology in NMO is not well characterized, we aimed to clarify spinal white matter pathology of LESCLs in NMO. METHODS: We analyzed 50 spinal cord lesions from eleven autopsied NMO/NMO spectrum disorder (NMOSD) cases. We also evaluated LESCLs with three or fewer spinal cord attacks by 3-tesla MRI in 15 AQP4 antibody-positive NMO/NMOSD patients and in 15 AQP4 antibody-negative multiple sclerosis (MS) patients...
April 15, 2016: Brain Pathology
Yanjun Guo, Luning Wang, Mingwei Zhu, Honghong Zhang, Yazhuo Hu, Zhitao Han, Jia Liu, Weiqin Zhao, Dexin Wang
The aim of this study was to investigate the neuropathological features of the spinal cord in patients suffering with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Spinal cord tissue collected from three AD patients and eight controls was selected for the study. Data were collected at T2, T8, T10, L4, and S2 spinal levels. The sections were subjected to hematoxylin and eosin and Gallyas-Braak staining methods and then were immunostained with antibodies such as phosphorylated tau protein (AT8), α-synuclein, Aβ, amyloid precursor protein, ubiquitin, and TDP-43...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Yoko Mochizuki, Kentaro Hayashi, Yuki Nakayama, Toshio Shimizu, Masayuki Kamide, Mieko Ogino, Takashi Komori, Masato Hasegawa, Eiji Isozaki, Imaharu Nakano
OBJECTIVE: To clarify the position in the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) spectrum, of a subgroup of patients who maintained the ability to communicate after long-term mechanical ventilation (LTMV) by tracheostomy. METHODS: We undertook a clinicopathological investigation of sporadic ALS in three patients who maintained the ability to communicate after approximately 30-year survival on LTMV by tracheostomy. RESULTS: The age of onset and duration of disease was 48 years and 31 years in patient 1, 55 years and 29 years in patient 2, and 31 years and 33 years in patient 3, respectively...
April 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Catherine A Blizzard, K M Lee, Tracey C Dickson
We report the methodology for the chronic delivery of an excitotoxin to the mouse spinal cord via surgically implanted osmotic mini-pumps. Previous studies have investigated the effect of chronic application of excitotoxins in the rat, however there has been little translation of this model to the mouse. Using mice that express yellow fluorescent protein (YFP), motor neuron and neuromuscular junction alterations can be investigate following targeted, long-term (28 days) exposure to the α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor excitotoxin, kainic acid...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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