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anterior horn of spinal cord

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899032/proteomic-profiling-of-the-spinal-cord-in-als-decreased-atp5d-levels-suggest-synaptic-dysfunction-in-als-pathogenesis
#1
Jooyeon Engelen-Lee, Anna M Blokhuis, Wim G M Spliet, R Jeroen Pasterkamp, Eleonora Aronica, Jeroen A A Demmers, Roel Broekhuizen, Giovanni Nardo, Niels Bovenschen, Leonard H Van Den Berg
BACKGROUND: We aimed to gain new insights into the pathogenesis of sporadic ALS (sALS) through a comprehensive proteomic analysis. METHODS: Protein profiles of the anterior and posterior horn in post-mortem spinal cord samples of 10 ALS patients and 10 controls were analysed using 2D-differential gel electrophoresis. The identified protein spots with statistically significant level changes and a spot ratio >2.0 were analysed by LC-MS/MS. RESULTS: In the posterior horn only 3 proteins were differentially expressed...
November 29, 2016: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897305/-cervical-ischaemic-neuronopathy-and-cardioembolism-another-cause-of-man-in-the-barrel-syndrome
#2
H Gonzalez-Usigli, A Gandarilla, J J Garcia, J Serrato, N Estrada
INTRODUCTION: Spinal infarction accounts for 1% of all strokes. Cardioembolism is a rare cause. Common areas of ischemic spinal damage are watershed in the dorsal or lumbar regions; however cervical spinal cord infarction has been reported previously. CASE REPORT: We present a new case of a man-in-the-barrel syndrome produced by cardiac embolization associated with atrial fibrillation during an acute myocardial infarction, which caused cervical ischemic neuronopathy (infarction of the anterior horn)...
December 16, 2016: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817136/management-of-destructive-candida-albicans-spondylodiscitis-of-the-cervical-spine-a-systematic-analysis-of-literature-illustrated-by-an-unusual-case
#3
REVIEW
Josef Stolberg-Stolberg, Dagmar Horn, Steffen Roßlenbroich, Oliver Riesenbeck, Stefanie Kampmeier, Michael Mohr, Michael J Raschke, René Hartensuer
PURPOSE: Candida induced spondylodiscitis of the cervical spine in immunocompetent patients is an extremely rare infectious complication. Since clinical symptoms might be nonspecific, therapeutic latency can lead to permanent spinal cord damage, sepsis and fatal complications. Surgical debridement is strongly recommended but there is no standard antimycotic regime for postsurgical treatment. This paper summarizes available data and demonstrates another successfully treated case. METHODS: The systematic analysis was performed according to the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines...
November 5, 2016: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800001/clinical-experiences-of-uncommon-motor-neuron-disease-hirayama-disease
#4
Kyoung Hee Lee, Dae Seob Choi, Young Suk Lee, Dong Ho Kang
Hirayama disease, juvenile muscular atrophy of the distal upper limb, is a rare disease predominantly affecting the anterior horn cells of the cervical spinal cord in young men. This cervical myelopathy is associated with neck flexion. It should be suspected in young male patients with a chronic history of weakness and atrophy involving the upper extremities followed by clinical stability in few years. Herein, we report 2 cases of Hirayama disease on emphasis of diagnostic approach and describe the pathognomonic findings at flexion magnetic resonance imaging...
September 2016: Korean Journal of Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776698/ethyl-pyruvate-modulates-delayed-paralysis-following-thoracic-aortic-ischemia-reperfusion-in-mice
#5
Bao-Ngoc Nguyen, Hassan Albadawi, Rahmi Oklu, Robert S Crawford, Mitchell P Fink, Richard P Cambria, Michael T Watkins
OBJECTIVE: Delayed paralysis is an unpredictable problem for patients undergoing complex repair of the thoracic/thoracoabdominal aorta. These experiments were designed to determine whether ethyl pyruvate (EP), a potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agent, might ameliorate delayed paralysis following thoracic aortic ischemia reperfusion (TAR). METHODS: C57BL6 mice were subjected to 5 minutes of thoracic aortic ischemia followed by reperfusion for up to 48 hours...
November 2016: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776522/inositol-1-4-5-trisphosphate-receptor-type-1-autoantibodies-in-paraneoplastic-and-non-paraneoplastic-peripheral-neuropathy
#6
Sven Jarius, Marius Ringelstein, Jürgen Haas, Irina I Serysheva, Lars Komorowski, Kai Fechner, Klaus-Peter Wandinger, Philipp Albrecht, Harald Hefter, Andreas Moser, Eva Neuen-Jacob, Hans-Peter Hartung, Brigitte Wildemann, Orhan Aktas
BACKGROUND: Recently, we described a novel autoantibody, anti-Sj/ITPR1-IgG, that targets the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 (ITPR1) in patients with cerebellar ataxia. However, ITPR1 is expressed not only by Purkinje cells but also in the anterior horn of the spinal cord, in the substantia gelatinosa and in the motor, sensory (including the dorsal root ganglia) and autonomic peripheral nervous system, suggesting that the clinical spectrum associated with autoimmunity to ITPR1 may be broader than initially thought...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766033/changes-in-the-expression-of-fus-tls-in-spinal-cords-of-sod1-g93a-transgenic-mice-and-correlation-with-motor-neuron-degeneration
#7
Jiao Li, Yi Lu, Huiting Liang, Chunyan Tang, Lei Zhu, Jie Zhang, Renshi Xu
In order to searching the possible pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), we examined the expression and distribution of FUS/TLS protein in the different anatomic regions, segments and neural cells of adult spinal cord at the different stages of the SOD1 wild-type and G93A transgenic mice using the fluorescent immunohistochemistry. Result revealed that, in the SOD1 wild-type mice, the FUS/TLS expression almost wasn't detected. However, in the SOD1 G93A mice, the FUS/TLS expression in the white matter was significantly more than that in the gray matter...
2016: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688312/pulsed-radiofrequency-attenuates-complete-freund-s-adjuvant-induced-epigenetic-suppression-of-potassium-chloride-cotransporter-2-expression
#8
Chia-Kai Liu, Wen-Tzu Liao, Yu-Chi Chu, Chien-Hui Yang, Kuan-Hung Chen, Chih-Hsien Wu, Chung-Ren Lin
BACKGROUND:  Pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) treatment offers pain relief for patients suffering from chronic pain who do not respond well to conventional treatments. We tested whether PRF treatment attenuated complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammatory pain. Epigenetic modification of potassium-chloride cotransporter 2 (KCC2) gene expression was examined to elucidate the potential contributing mechanism. METHODS:  Male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with CFA into the plantar surface of the left hind paw to induce inflammation...
September 28, 2016: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649266/n-palmitoylethanolamide-in-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex-attenuates-inflammatory-pain-behaviour-indirectly-via-a-cb1-receptor-mediated-mechanism
#9
Bright N Okine, Manish K Madasu, Fiona McGowan, Charles Prendergast, Jessica C Gaspar, Brendan Harhen, Michelle Roche, David P Finn
The neural substrates and mechanisms mediating the antinociceptive effects of the endogenous bioactive lipid, N-palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), require further investigation. We investigated the effects of exogenous PEA administration into the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), an important brain region linked with cognitive and affective modulation of pain, on formalin-evoked nociceptive behaviour in rats. Potential involvement of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor isoforms (PPAR) α and γ or endocannabinoid-mediated entourage effects at cannabinoid1 (CB1) receptors or transient receptor potential subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) in mediating the effects of PEA was also investigated...
August 16, 2016: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27640950/oxygenation-of-the-cerebrospinal-fluid-with-artificial-cerebrospinal-fluid-can-ameliorate-a-spinal-cord-ischemic-injury-in-a-rabbit-model
#10
Keisuke Kanda, Osamu Adachi, Satoshi Kawatsu, Ko Sakatsume, Kiichiro Kumagai, Shunsuke Kawamoto, Yoshikatsu Saiki
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the effect of cerebrospinal fluid oxygenation for the prevention of spinal cord ischemic injury after infrarenal aortic occlusion in a rabbit model. METHODS: Twenty white Japanese rabbits were categorized into the following 4 groups (5 in each): group S (sham), balloon catheter insertion on to the aorta; group C (control), spinal cord ischemic injury by infrarenal abdominal aortic balloon occlusion for 15 minutes; group N (nonoxygenated), spinal cord ischemic injury with cerebrospinal fluid replacement by nonoxygenated artificial cerebrospinal fluid; and group O (oxygenated), spinal cord ischemic injury with cerebrospinal fluid replacement by nanobubble-oxygenated artificial cerebrospinal fluid...
November 2016: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616310/spinal-cord-anatomy-and-clinical-syndromes
#11
Eric Diaz, Humberto Morales
We review the anatomy of the spinal cord, providing correlation with key functional and clinically relevant neural pathways, as well as magnetic resonance imaging. Peripherally, the main descending (corticospinal tract) and ascending (gracilis or cuneatus fasciculi and spinothalamic tracts) pathways compose the white matter. Centrally, the gray matter can be divided into multiple laminae. Laminae 1-5 carry sensitive neuron information in the posterior horn, and lamina 9 carries most lower motor neuron information in the anterior horn...
October 2016: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27611334/age-related-uptake-of-heavy-metals-in-human-spinal-interneurons
#12
Roger Pamphlett, Stephen Kum Jew
Toxic heavy metals have been implicated in the loss of spinal motoneurons in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/motor neuron disease (ALS/MND). Motoneuron loss in the spinal anterior horn is severe in ALS/MND at the time of death, making this tissue unsuitable for examination. We therefore examined spinal cords of people without muscle weakness to look for any presence of heavy metals that could make these neurons susceptible to damage. Spinal cord samples from 50 individuals aged 1-95 y who had no clinical or histopathological evidence of spinal motoneuron loss were studied...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27610550/spinal-cord-injury-during-ultrasound-guided-c7-cervical-medial-branch-block
#13
Donghwi Park, Min Yong Seong, Ha Yong Kim, Ju Seok Ryu
Ultrasound-guided cervical medial branch block (CMBB) is commonly performed to diagnose and treat head, neck, and shoulder pain. However, its use at the C7 level has been shown to be less accurate than at other levels, which may increase the chance of injury owing to the imprecision of needle site provided by the ultrasound guide. We report the first case of iatrogenic spinal cord injury from an ultrasound-guided C7 CMBB. The patient, upon receiving this procedure, had fainted shortly after experiencing an electrical sensation that ran from the neck to the toe...
September 8, 2016: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27428822/alleviating-bone-cancer-induced-mechanical-hypersensitivity-by-inhibiting-neuronal-activity-in-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex
#14
Chiuan-Shiou Chiou, Chien-Chung Chen, Tsung-Chih Tsai, Chiung-Chun Huang, Dylan Chou, Kuei-Sen Hsu
BACKGROUND: The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is a brain region that has been critically implicated in the processing of pain perception and modulation. While much evidence has pointed to an increased activity of the ACC under chronic pain states, less is known about whether pain can be alleviated by inhibiting ACC neuronal activity. METHODS: The authors used pharmacologic, chemogenetic, and optogenetic approaches in concert with viral tracing technique to address this issue in a mouse model of bone cancer-induced mechanical hypersensitivity by intratibia implantation of osteolytic fibrosarcoma cells...
October 2016: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27357294/pathologic-studies-of-fatal-encephalomyelitis-in-children-caused-by-enterovirus-71
#15
Jingjun Xing, Dan Liu, Shu Shen, Zhengyuan Su, Lin Zhang, Yijie Duan, Fang Tong, Yue Liang, Hualin Wang, Fei Deng, Zhihong Hu, Yiwu Zhou
OBJECTIVES: Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the major pathogen of hand, foot, and mouth disease and can cause death; however, its pathogenesis remains elusive. METHODS: We performed a detailed systematic histopathologic examination and molecular studies on six autopsy cases of EV71 infection using H&E, immunohistochemistry, double immunofluorescence staining, and nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Characteristic features of acute encephalomyelitis were observed...
July 2016: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27260405/neuron-specific-knock-down-of-smn1-causes-neuron-degeneration-and-death-through-an-apoptotic-mechanism
#16
Ivan Gallotta, Nadia Mazzarella, Alessandra Donato, Alessandro Esposito, Justin C Chaplin, Silvana Castro, Giuseppina Zampi, Giorgio S Battaglia, Massimo A Hilliard, Paolo Bazzicalupo, Elia Di Schiavi
Spinal muscular atrophy is a devastating disease that is characterized by degeneration and death of a specific subclass of motor neurons in the anterior horn of the spinal cord. Although the gene responsible, survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1), was identified 20 years ago, it has proven difficult to investigate its effects in vivo. Consequently, a number of key questions regarding the molecular and cellular functions of this molecule have remained unanswered. We developed a Caenorhabditis elegans model of smn-1 loss-of-function using a neuron-specific RNA interference strategy to knock-down smn-1 selectively in a subclass of motor neurons...
June 3, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27220674/intraperitoneally-administered-igg-from-patients-with-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-or-from-an-immune-mediated-goat-model-increase-the-levels-of-tnf-%C3%AE-il-6-and-il-10-in-the-spinal-cord-and-serum-of-mice
#17
Izabella Obál, Gergely Klausz, Yvette Mándi, Mária Deli, László Siklós, József I Engelhardt
BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease that involves the selective loss of the upper and lower motor neurons (MNs). Neuroinflammation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of the sporadic form of the disease. We earlier developed immune-mediated animal models of ALS and demonstrated humoral and cellular immune reactions in the nervous system and in the sera of patients and animals. The accumulation of immunoglobulin G (IgG), an elevated intracellular level of calcium, ultrastructural alterations in the MNs, and activation of the microglia were noted in the spinal cord of ALS patients...
2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27156506/-somatotopic-representation-of-the-anterior-horn-within-cervical-enlargement-reappraisal-of-known-doctrine-based-on-clinicopathological-findings-seen-in-hirayama-disease
#18
Keizo Hirayama
Clinical features (weakness and amyotrophy of intrinsic hand muscles and obliquely distributed amyotrophy of forearm muscles, figure 1), needle electromyographic findings (distribution of neurogenic activities, figure 2), and pathological findings (ischemic necroses of the anterior horns between C6 and T1, figure 3) of Hirayama disease suggest that understanding of somatotopic representation of the anterior horn innervating arm muscles in the cervical enlargement of spinal cord differs from the known doctrine...
May 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27144381/possible-involvement-of-the-rat-hypothalamo-neurohypophysial-spinal-oxytocinergic-pathways-in-acute-nociceptive-responses
#19
T Matsuura, M Kawasaki, H Hashimoto, M Yoshimura, Y Motojima, R Saito, H Ueno, T Maruyama, T Ishikura, K Sabanai, T Mori, H Ohnishi, T Onaka, A Sakai, Y Ueta
Oxytocin (OXT)-containing neurosecretory cells in the parvocellular divisions of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), which project to the medulla and spinal cord, are involved in various physiological functions, such as sensory modulation and autonomic processes. In the present study, we examined OXT expression in the hypothalamo-spinal pathway, as well as the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system, which includes the magnocellular neurosecretory cells in the PVN and the supraoptic nucleus (SON), after s.c. injection of saline or formalin into the hindpaws of transgenic rats that express the OXT and monomeric red fluorescent protein 1 (mRFP1) fusion gene...
June 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27140190/increased-expression-of-15-hydroxyprostaglandin-dehydrogenase-in-spinal-astrocytes-during-disease-progression-in-a-model-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#20
Hiroko Miyagishi, Yasuhiro Kosuge, Ayumi Takano, Manami Endo, Hiroshi Nango, Somay Yamagata-Murayama, Dai Hirose, Rui Kano, Yoko Tanaka, Kumiko Ishige, Yoshihisa Ito
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset, progressive, and fatal neurodegenerative disease caused by selective loss of motor neurons. Both ALS model mice and patients with sporadic ALS have increased levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Furthermore, the protein levels of microsomal PGE synthase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2, which catalyze PGE2 biosynthesis, are significantly increased in the spinal cord of ALS model mice. However, it is unclear whether PGE2 metabolism in the spinal cord is altered. In the present study, we investigated the protein level of 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH), a key enzyme in prostaglandin metabolism, in ALS model mice at three different disease stages...
May 2, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
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