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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26050801/the-biology-behind-the-human-intervertebral-disc-and-its-endplates
#1
K A Tomaszewski, K Saganiak, T Gładysz, J A Walocha
The intervertebral discs (IVDs) are roughly cylindrical, fibrocartilaginous, articulating structures connecting the vertebral bodies, and allowing movement in the otherwise rigid anterior portion of the vertebral column. They also transfer loads and dissipate energy. Macroscopically the intervertebral disc can be divided into an outer annulus fibrosus surrounding a centrally located nucleus pulposus. The endplates surround the IVD from both the cranial and caudal ends, and separate them from the vertebral bodies and prevent the highly hydrated nucleus pulposus from bulging into the adjacent vertebrae...
2015: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/11856957/c-nociceptor-activation-of-hypothalamic-neurones-and-the-columnar-organisation-of-their-projections-to-the-periaqueductal-grey-in-the-rat
#2
B M Lumb, D M Parry, F M Semenenko, S McMullan, D A A Simpson
The induction of Fos protein was used to localise hypothalamic neurones activated by ramps of noxious skin heating delivered at a rate of 2.5 degrees C s(-1) to preferentially activate C-nociceptors. This was combined with retrograde transport of cholera toxin subunit B from identified 'pressor' and 'depressor' sites in the dorsolateral/lateral or the ventrolateral columns of the periaqueductal grey. Fos-positive neurones were found throughout the rostral hypothalamus. Despite this wide distribution, those neurones double labelled retrogradely from the periaqueductal grey were focused in the lateral area of the anterior hypothalamus...
March 2002: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/11856956/noxious-somatic-inputs-to-hypothalamic-midbrain-projection-neurones-a-comparison-of-the-columnar-organisation-of-somatic-and-visceral-inputs-to-the-periaqueductal-grey-in-the-rat
#3
COMPARATIVE STUDY
D M Parry, F M Semenenko, R K Conley, B M Lumb
The induction of Fos protein was used to localise hypothalamic neurones activated by noxious somatic stimulation. This was combined with retrograde transport of fluorescent latex microspheres from identified 'pressor' and 'depressor' sites in the dorsolateral/lateral or ventrolateral columns of the periaqueductal grey (PAG). Fos-positive neurones were found throughout the rostral hypothalamus. Of those neurones activated by noxious somatic stimuli that projected to the PAG all but one was retrogradely labelled from sites that included the lateral column...
March 2002: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/10430837/autosomal-dominant-juvenile-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#4
B A Rabin, J W Griffin, B J Crain, M Scavina, P F Chance, D R Cornblath
Juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a form of chronic motor neuron disease characterized by combined upper and lower motor neuron symptoms and signs with onset prior to age 25 years. We report the clinical and electrodiagnostic findings in 49 affected family members and neuropathological findings from two autopsies of a Maryland kindred with autosomal dominant juvenile ALS linked to the chromosome 9q34 region (ALS4). Patients ranged in age from 12 to 85 years (mean 45 years) and the mean age of onset was 17 years...
August 1999: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/9009990/vestibulospinal-reticulospinal-and-descending-propriospinal-nerve-fibres-in-man
#5
P W Nathan, M Smith, P Deacon
The course and location of vestibulospinal, reticulospinal and descending propriospinal fibres in man are reported. The investigation was carried out on three patients with supraspinal lesions, four with transection of the spinal cord and 33 with anterolateral cordotomies. The lateral vestibulospinal tract at the medullospinal junction and in the first three cervical segments lies on the periphery of the spinal cord lateral to the anterior roots. It moves to the sulcomarginal angle in the remaining cervical segments...
December 1996: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/8636801/-the-anatomy-and-the-mri-anatomy-of-the-interhemispheric-cerebral-commissures
#6
B Blanchet, J Roland, M Braun, R Anxionnat, C Moret, L Picard
Correlation of myelin-stained or cryotomic sections of human brain with inversion-recovery MR images can display the cerebral commissures as white-matter tracts (in hypersignal on MRI), crossing the mid-line. MRI shows routinely in three orthogonal planes a) the corpus callosum stretched above the supra-tentorial ventricles, it's four portions (rostrum, genu, body and splenium) and connections with the Deep Grey Nuclei b) the fornix, intralimbic commissure joining anteriorly the mammillary bodies (through it's columns) to the alveus posteriorly and inferiorly (via it's two crura), arcing around the thalamus and lying over the hippocampus and the dentate gyrus as shown on the frontal sections c) the anterior commissure, white-matter tract connecting the two temporal lobes...
December 1995: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/7895010/spinal-cord-morphology-and-pathology-in-ossification-of-the-posterior-longitudinal-ligament
#7
T Kameyama, Y Hashizume, T Ando, A Takahashi, T Yanagi, J Mizuno
We analysed nine autopsy cases of ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) to elucidate the relationship between morphology and pathology of the spinal cord. The cross-sectional shape of the spinal cord at the most severely affected segment was classified into two categories: boomerang (convex lateral surfaces and concave anterior surface) and triangular (angular lateral surfaces and flat anterior surface). In the cases with a boomerang shape, even when the compression was severe, major pathological changes were restricted to the grey matter and the white matter was relatively well preserved...
February 1995: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/6697154/somatosensory-evoked-potentials-following-median-nerve-stimulation-i-the-cervical-components
#8
R G Emerson, M Seyal, T A Pedley
Median somatosensory evoked potentials were studied in 20 normal adult volunteers. Recording electrodes were positioned over posterior, anterior and lateral neck, as well as on the scalp. Three distinct cervical potentials were identified. Immediately after the afferent volley passes Erb's point, a travelling wave is recorded in the lateral cervical electrodes ipsilateral to the side of stimulation. This represents the afferent volley approaching the spinal cord in the proximal brachial plexus and cervical roots and has been designated the 'proximal plexus volley' (PPV)...
March 1984: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/6480919/central-projections-from-cat-suboccipital-muscles-a-study-using-transganglionic-transport-of-horseradish-peroxidase
#9
D A Bakker, F J Richmond, V C Abrahams
Central projections of suboccipital muscle nerves were examined following exposure of cut peripheral nerves to the tracer horseradish peroxidase. Labelled fibers entered the C1 and C2 dorsal roots and accumulated in the dorsolateral part of the dorsal funiculus. Many labelled fibers entered the grey matter of C1 to C3 in ventrally directed bundles which passed medially to the base of the dorsal horn. No terminal labelling was apparent in superficial layers of the dorsal horn. However, labelled fibers ramified extensively throughout medial parts of the intermediate laminae, in and around the central cervical nucleus...
September 20, 1984: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/6226119/the-innervation-of-the-lumbar-spine
#10
N Bogduk
The lumbar intervertebral discs are innervated posteriorly by the sinuvertebral nerves, but laterally by branches of the ventral rami and grey rami communicantes. The posterior longitudinal ligament is innervated by the sinuvertebral nerves and the anterior longitudinal ligament by branches of the grey rami. Lateral and intermediate branches of the lumbar dorsal rami supply the iliocostalis lumborum and longissimus thoracis, respectively. Medial branches supply the multifidus, intertransversarii mediales, interspinales, interspinous ligament, and the lumbar zygapophysial joints...
April 1983: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/6201229/identification-of-spinal-motoneurones-in-the-weakly-electric-fish-eigenmannia-virescens
#11
C Baillet-Derbin
The motoneurones of the spinal cord in the weakly electric fish, Eigenmannia virescens, were investigated by light microscopical observations. For identification of motoneurones HRP injections were made: (1) in the electric organ, (2) in different parts of the trunk muscle, and (3) in the muscle of the anal fin. When the spinal cord was considered in transverse section: (1) labelled cells (EMN), 20-25 micron, were observed in the first case in the dorsal grey between the central canal and dorsal border of the spinal cord; (2) in the second case, labelled cells (MN1), 35-40 micron, were found in the central grey ventro-laterally, in close vicinity of the ependymal canal; (3) in the last case, labelled cells (MN2), 18-20 micron, were seen in the ventro-lateral part of the anterior horn...
March 12, 1984: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/4647860/pathology-of-radiation-myelopathy
#12
R J Burns, A N Jones, J S Robertson
After nothing the rarity of papers describing the pathology of delayed radiation necrosis of the spinal cord, the clinical and pathological findings from four cases are presented. The main pathological features are asymmetric demyelination of the lateral columns and to a lesser degree the posterior and anterior columns of white matter, with coagulative necrosis at the level of irradiation which affected the grey matter to a lesser degree. There is ascending and descending secondary tract degeneration, and poor glial response in the lesions themselves...
December 1972: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/3840236/somatosensory-systems-and-the-milk-ejection-reflex-in-the-rat-i-lesions-of-the-mesencephalic-lateral-tegmentum-disrupt-the-reflex-and-damage-mesencephalic-somatosensory-connections
#13
M Dubois-Dauphin, W E Armstrong, E Tribollet, J J Dreifuss
Bilateral electrolytic lesions and unilateral tracer injections were performed in lactating rats in order to study the participation of the mesencephalic lateral tegmentum in the milk-ejection reflex. The release of oxytocin was detected as a rise in intramammary pressure during each milk ejection. In animals with lesions, the lateral part of the deep grey layers of the superior colliculus, the intercollicular area and the rostromedial portion of the external nucleus of the inferior colliculus were destroyed...
August 1985: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/3669428/posterior-commissural-connections-of-area-pretectalis-and-neighboring-structures-in-cat-with-special-reference-to-pupilloconstrictory-pathway-via-posterior-commissure
#14
K Shoumura, H Imai, S Kimura, T Suzuki, M Ara
The overall distribution of posterior commissural connections of the area pretectalis and the neighboring structures was studied in the cat, by the methods of anterograde fiber degeneration and retrograde axonal transport of horseradish peroxidase (HRP). After a localized lesion was made within the posterior commissure, dense degenerated terminals were distributed in the most rostral part of the nucleus pretectalis posterior, the nucleus of posterior commissure, the interstitial nucleus of Cajal, and the central tegmental field...
1987: Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/3411522/the-morphology-and-projections-of-dorsal-horn-spinocerebellar-tract-neurones-in-the-cat
#15
S A Edgley, C M Gallimore
1. The morphology of dorsal horn neurones located in the mid-lumbar segments of the spinal cord and which have an axonal projection to the cerebellum has been investigated. The neurones were identified by antidromic activation from the cerebellum and by their characteristic input from group II afferents as described in the preceding paper (Edgley & Jankowska, 1988). 2. The cell bodies of the neurones were distributed across the width of the spinal cord in laminae IV and V, but particularly at the border between these laminae...
March 1988: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/3111160/spinal-neuroaxonal-dystrophy-and-angioneuromatosis
#16
J J Martin, P Cras, E De Schutter
A man of 75 years of age had had lightning pains in the legs for 8 years. Clinical examination demonstrated mild pyramidal signs and involvement of the posterior columns. A morphine pump was placed in the epidural space in the lumbar region to treat the pain. He died two weeks later from a massive pulmonary embolism. The nervous system was examined using the classical techniques along with the use of poly- and monoclonal antibodies against nervous system specific proteins. The following features were demonstrated: neuroaxonal dystrophy of the posterior and anterior horns, and the posterior columns and corticospinal pathways in decreasing order of importance; angioneuromatosis of the grey matter of the lumbosacral spinal cord and loss of neurons of the dorsal spinal root ganglia and bilateral degeneration of the fasciculus gracilis...
1987: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/2900211/an-autopsy-case-of-human-t-lymphotropic-virus-type-i-associated-myelopathy
#17
S Akizuki, M Setoguchi, O Nakazato, S Yoshida, Y Higuchi, S Yamamoto, T Okajima
This report describes the first autopsy case of human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy (HAM). The disease mainly affected the spinal cord, particularly the lateral and anterior columns, where loss of myelin and axon was observed. The changes were bilateral and occurred mainly along the tract. Perivascular and parenchymal infiltration with lymphocytes and macrophages, as well as astrocytosis, were observed in the white and grey matters of the spinal cord. Blood vessels in the spinal cord and in the subarachnoid space of the spinal cord showed hyalinoid thickening of media and adventitia associated with infiltration of lymphocytes...
August 1988: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/2713710/intraspinal-transplants-of-serotonergic-neurons-in-the-adult-rat
#18
A Privat, H Mansour, N Rajaofetra, M Geffard
Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were made paraplegic by a complete transection of the spinal cord at lower thoracic level. One week later they were transplanted, below the level of the section, with a cell suspension prepared from the raphe region of 14-day embryos. After survival periods of 10 days to 1 year, the animals were sacrificed and the spinal cord processed for the immunocytochemical detection of 5-HT. Axons from grafted cells grew extensively into the grey matter of the host, and established axosomatic and axodendritic synapses in the anterior horn and intermediolateral column, similar to those of the intact animal...
January 1989: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/2411513/the-human-posterior-tibial-somatosensory-evoked-potential-synapse-dependent-and-synapse-independent-spinal-components
#19
M Seyal, A J Gabor
Evidence has been obtained for the existence of two separate events occurring in the human spinal cord following posterior tibial nerve (PTN) stimulation. These events can be recorded on the surface in unanesthetized individuals. The first is an ascending wave which is conducted up to the cord at constant velocity and has a relatively short refractory period consistent with a compound nerve action potential. This represents the afferent volley traversing the lumbosacral plexus and the ascending dorsal columns...
September 1985: Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/2351985/pathology-of-chronic-myelopathy-associated-with-htlv-i-infection-ham-tsp
#20
Y Iwasaki
The CNS pathology of 10 autopsy cases of Japanese HAM/TSP patients with a serological confirmation of HTLV-I infection was reviewed. The essential histopathological feature was a chronic progressive inflammatory process with marked parenchymal exudation of lymphocytes and monocytes into both the grey and white matter of the spinal cord, uniquely perpetuating for more than 3 years after the onset of neurological symptoms, and resulting in severe degeneration of the white matter accompanied by marked glio-mesenchymal tissue reactions...
April 1990: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
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