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Ernest Nwokolo, Chinazo Ujuju, Jennifer Anyanti, Chinwoke Isiguzo, Ifeanyi Udoye, Elamei BongosIkwue, Onoriode Ezire, Mopelola Raji, Wellington A Oyibo
BACKGROUND: Prompt and effective case detection and treatment are vital components of the malaria case management strategy as malaria-endemic countries implement the testing, treating and tracking policy. The implementation of this policy in public and formal private sectors continue to receive great attention while the informal private retail sector (mostly the patent and propriety medicine vendors [PPMVs]) where about 60% of patients with fever in Nigeria seek treatment is yet to be fully integrated...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
Mohammad Abdelghani, Martina Nassif, Nico A Blom, Martijn S Van Mourik, Bart Straver, David R Koolbergen, Jolanda Kluin, Jan G Tijssen, Barbara J M Mulder, Berto J Bouma, Robbert J de Winter
BACKGROUND: Infective endocarditis (IE) after transcatheter pulmonary valve implantation (TPVI) in dysfunctioning right ventricular outflow tract conduits has evoked growing concerns. We aimed to investigate the incidence and the natural history of IE after TPVI with the Melody valve through a systematic review of published data. METHODS AND RESULTS: PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases were systematically searched for articles published until March 2017, reporting on IE after TPVI with the Melody valve...
June 22, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
Florian Douam, Alexander Ploss
Yellow fever (YF) was one of the most dangerous infectious diseases of the 18th and 19th centuries, resulting in mass casualties in Africa and the Americas. The etiologic agent is yellow fever virus (YFV), and its live-attenuated form, YFV-17D, remains one of the most potent vaccines ever developed. During the first half of the 20th century, vaccination combined with mosquito control eradicated YFV transmission in urban areas. However, the recent 2016-2018 outbreaks in areas with historically low or no YFV activity have raised serious concerns for an estimated 400-500 million unvaccinated people who now live in at-risk areas...
June 19, 2018: Trends in Microbiology
Chakrapani Chatla, Jyoti Jaju, Shanta Achanta, Rani Samyuktha, Suryaprakash Chakramahanti, Chetan Purad, Raju Chepuri, Sreenivas Achyutan Nair, Malik Parmar
BACKGROUND: India has the world's highest estimated burden of multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). While prevalence of MDR-TB is known to be 2-3% among new TB patients and 12-17% in previously treated patients, programmatic information on the extent of transmission of TB and MDR-TB among household contacts of known MDR-TB patients is scarce. Systematic screening of household contacts of all MDR-TB patients on treatment was implemented as an intervention in the states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana states of India...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
Ragnvi Hagman
Pyometra is a common disease in dogs and cats. Hormones and opportunistic bacteria are fundamental in the development, with progesterone playing a key role. The disease should be suspected in intact bitches and queens presenting with illness, and particularly if within 4 months after estrus. Early diagnosis and treatment are vital to increase chances of survival as endotoxemia and sepsis often are induced. Typical clinical signs include vaginal discharge, depression, anorexia, polyuria and polydipsia, fever and gastrointestinal disturbances...
July 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
Eda Sivcan, Arzuw Charyyeva, Şirin Sahra Ceylan, Merve Yürük, Emrah Erdoğan, İzzet Şahin
In this study, we aimed to investigate the incidence of Dientamoeba fragilis with different diagnostic methods in patients with gastrointestinal symptoms and determine the sensitivity and specificity of existing diagnostic methods. Fecal samples collected from 101 patients with gastrointestinal complaints (especially upper abdominal pain, abdominal and pelvic pain, nausea and vomiting, gastroenteritis and colitis, unexplained fever and diarrhea) and 20 control cases from various clinics were included in the study...
April 2018: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
Yu-Jun Luo, Xiao-Ying Wen, Xiao-Liang Ni, Xiao-Lan Xiao
To systemically evaluate the safety and efficacy of Xiyanping injection combined with azithromycin in the treatment of mycoplasmal pneumonia in children. PubMed, Wanfang Data, CNKI, VIP and CBM were used to search for the clinical randomized controlled trials on Xiyanping injection combined with azithromycin in the treatment of mycoplasmal pneumonia in children from database establishment to July, 2017. The papers were screened according to the established inclusion and exclusion criteria, and then the quality of the included studies was evaluated to extract valid data for Meta-analysis by using Revman 5...
May 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
M Hasib Sidiqi, Mohammed A Aljama, Eli Muchtar, Francis K Buadi, Rahma Warsame, Martha Q Lacy, Angela Dispenzieri, David Dingli, Nelson Leung, Wilson I Gonsalves, Prashant Kapoor, Taxiarchis V Kourelis, William J Hogan, Shaji K Kumar, Morie A Gertz
Autologous stem cell transplantation has been used in treatment for AL amyloidosis for over two decades and generally reserved for patients younger than 70 years of age. Herein we report on outcomes of ASCT in a cohort of patients with AL amyloidosis aged 70 years or older. Between August of 2002 and April of 2017, 34 patients aged 70 years or older, with biopsy proven AL amyloidosis, received an autologous stem cell transplant at the Mayo Clinic Rochester. 70% (n=24) of patients were transplanted within 6 months of diagnosis and 74% (n=25) received reduced intensity conditioning with melphalan <200mg/m2...
June 19, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Julia Champey, Clément Mourey, Gilles Francony, Patricia Pavese, Emmanuel Gay, Laurent Gergele, Romain Manet, Lionel Velly, Nicolas Bruder, Jean-François Payen
OBJECTIVE Various strategies have been proposed to reduce the incidence of external ventricular drain (EVD)-related infections. The authors retrospectively studied the impact of EVD care management on EVD-related infections at 3 French university hospital intensive care units. METHODS Between 2010 and 2014, 462 consecutive adult patients with no evidence of a preexisting CSF infection received EVDs as part of their care at one of the following sites: Grenoble (221 patients), Saint-Etienne (130 patients), and Marseille (111 patients)...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Chong Lei, Lorenzo Berra, Emanuele Rezoagli, Binglan Yu, Hailong Dong, Shiqiang Yu, Lihong Hou, Min Chen, Wensheng Chen, Hongbing Wang, Qijun Zheng, Jie Shen, Zhenxiao Jin, Tao Chen, Rong Zhao, Emily Christie, Venkata S Sabbisetti, Francesco Nordio, Joseph V Bonventre, Lize Xiong, Warren M Zapol
RATIONALE: No medical intervention has been identified that decreases acute kidney injury and improves renal outcome at 1-year after cardiac surgery. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether administration of nitric oxide reduces the incidence of post-operative acute kidney injury and improves long-term kidney outcomes after multiple cardiac valve replacement requiring prolonged cardiopulmonary bypass. METHODS: 244 Patients undergoing elective, multiple valve replacement surgery mostly due to rheumatic fever were randomized to receive either nitric oxide (treatment) or nitrogen (control)...
June 22, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Stefano Manfredini, Carlo Contini
Louse infestation is one of the oldest contagious pestilential diseases of humankind, which has recently re-emerged in several developing countries as well as in homeless individuals and migrants. The present work provides the first phase of an historical excursus of louse remedies based on the classics of pharmaceutical literature, codes, pharmacopoeia and treatises. The second phase involves a literature search, based on the principal medical databases (SciFinder, Pubmed, Google Scholar, ISI-Web of Science and Scopus), to match ancient raw materials and active principles for the treatment of pediculosis and their possible applications, with other current infectious pathologies transmitted by different carriers...
June 1, 2018: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Dimitrios Anyfantakis, Angeliki Damianaki, Vasiliki Krietsepi, Evdokia Panou, Serafim Kastanakis
Cytomegalovirus can cause severe disease with adverse outcome in immunocompromised patients. Severe cytomegalovirus infection in previously healthy individuals is rare. Here we present an unusual case of cytomegalovirus infection with neurological and pulmonary involvement in a previously healthy young woman with no history of immuno-suppression. Unfortunately, the disease followed a malignant course and despite the efforts of the medical staff the patient died. CMV infection should be considered in the diagnostic work-up of immunocompetent patients with fever and unexplained neurological or pulmonary manifestations...
June 1, 2018: Le Infezioni in Medicina
David Murphy, Pedro Reche, Darren R Flower
Dengue virus affects approximately 130 countries. 25% of infections result in febrile, self-limiting illness; heterotypic infection results in potentially fatal Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever or Dengue Shock Syndrome. Only one vaccine is currently available. Its efficacy is very variable. Thus, to target Dengue, we used an innovative immunoinformatic protocol to design a putative epitope ensemble vaccine by selecting an optimal set of highly-conserved epitopes with experimentally-verified immunogenicity. From 1597 CD4+ and MHC II epitopes, 6 MHC Class I epitopes (RAVHADMGYW, GPWHLGKLEM, GLYGNGVVTK, NMIIMDEAHF, KTWAYHGSY, WAYHGSYEV) and 9 MHC Class II epitopes (LAKAIFKLTYQNKVV, GKIVGLYGNGVVTTS, AAIFMTATPPGSVEA, AAIFMTATPPGTADA, GKTVWFVPSIKAGND, KFWNTTIAVSMANIF, RAIWYMWLGARYLEF, VGTYGLNTFTNMEVQ, WTLMYFHRRDLRLAA) were selected; this candidate vaccine achieved a world population coverage of 92...
June 21, 2018: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
Tarang Sharma, Chandresh Sharma, Anurag Sankhyan, Sanjiv Pal Bedi, Shinjini Bhatnagar, Navin Khanna, Vikas Gautam, Sunil Sethi, Sudhanshu Vrati, Ashutosh Tiwari
Typhoid fever caused by human restricted Salmonella typhi presents a considerable health burden on developing South-Asian nations like India. The suboptimal sensitivity and specificity associated with culture-based isolation of etiological agent and the extensively used surface antigen-based serological assays often lead to misdiagnosis and inappropriate antimicrobial treatment. The increasing reports of the emergence of resistant strains and undefined disease burden signify the critical need for an inexpensive, reliable, easy-to-use, and highly sensitive diagnostic test for typhoid fever...
June 21, 2018: Immunologic Research
Satomi Kasashima, Atsuhiro Kawashima, Fuminori Kasashima, Masamitsu Endo, Yasushi Matsumoto, Kengo Kawakami
Immunoglobulin (IgG) 4-related diseases (IgG4-RDs) are fibro-inflammatory conditions characterized by tumorous swelling and serum IgG4 levels. Intrapelvic IgG4-RD has been subclassified according to the localization site and aortic shape as IgG4-related aortic aneurysms (IgG4-AAs), periaortitis (IgG4-PA), and retroperitoneal fibrosis (IgG4-RF). The IgG4-AA pathogenesis would involve interleukin (IL)-6 upregulation, and Th2-predominant and Treg-activated immune conditions. We characterized the features of intrapelvic IgG4-RD lesions, including presence of vascular lesions...
June 21, 2018: Heart and Vessels
Tesfaye Telila, Elsayed Mohamed, Kurt M Jacobson
Rheumatic heart disease remains a major cause of significant mortality and morbidity in the developing world. Rheumatic mitral and aortic stenosis are the two most common valvular sequelae of acute rheumatic fever. Open surgical procedures with either valve replacement or surgical commissurotomy have largely been replaced by percutaneous commissurotomy and balloon valvuloplasty for selected patients since the early 1980s. The purpose of our review is to examine the literature for any recent advancement in procedural techniques of balloon valvuloplasty for selected patients with rheumatic mitral and or aortic stenosis...
June 22, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
Brian Rha, Rebecca M Dahl, Jocelyn Moyes, Alison M Binder, Stefano Tempia, Sibongile Walaza, Daoling Bi, Michelle J Groome, Ebrahim Variava, Fathima Naby, Kathleen Kahn, Florette Treurnicht, Adam L Cohen, Susan I Gerber, Shabir A Madhi, Cheryl Cohen
Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRTI) in young children, but data on surveillance case definition performance in estimating burdens have been limited. Methods: We enrolled children aged <5 years hospitalized for ALRTI (or neonatal sepsis in young infants) through active prospective surveillance at 5 sentinel hospitals in South Africa and collected nasopharyngeal aspirates from them for RSV molecular diagnostic testing between 2009 and 2014...
June 21, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Mohsen Meidani, Masoome Baniasadi, Farzin Khorvash
Background: Increasing use of different chemotherapy regimens, organ transplants, etc., has led to the increasing number of neutropenic patients. Overall, 10% of patients affected by cancer who are under treatment with anticancer drugs, regardless of the tumor type, are susceptible to febrile neutropenia. The study was performed to evaluate the frequency of bloodstream fungal infections in pediatric patients with febrile neutropenia in Sayed Al-Shohada Hospital (Cancer Referral Center in Isfahan) in 2010-2012...
2018: Advanced Biomedical Research
Bhupen Barman, Iadarilang Tiewsoh, Kryshanlang G Lynrah, Baphira Wankhar, Neel Kanth Issar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Tropical Parasitology
Jitendra Singh, Anju Dinkar, Rana Gopal Singh, Shishir Kapoor
Malaria is one of the very common causes of fever in the Indian subcontinent with significant morbidity and mortality. In endemic areas, malaria infection may manifest with a variety of systemic complications ranging from mild to the life-threatening condition including atypical presentations and sometimes a clinical dilemma. We herein report a case of 35-year-old male laborer with complaints of fever, headache, and altered consciousness whose presentation was as case of clinical meningitis, developed acute hepatitis, kidney injury, and necrotizing pancreatitis...
January 2018: Tropical Parasitology
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