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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527687/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-typhoid-conjugate-vaccines-in-five-endemic-low-and-middle-income-settings
#1
Marina Antillón, Joke Bilcke, A David Paltiel, Virginia E Pitzer
BACKGROUND: Typhoid fever remains endemic in low- and middle-income countries. Programmatic use of existing vaccines is limited, but upcoming typhoid conjugate vaccines (TCVs) could warrant wider use. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of five TCV delivery strategies in three urban areas (Delhi and Kolkata, India and Nairobi, Kenya) and two rural settings (Lwak, Kenya and Dong Thap, Vietnam) with varying incidence. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We evaluated routine infant vaccination with and without catch-up campaigns among older individuals...
May 17, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527648/a-case-of-amebiasis-with-negative-serologic-markers-that-caused-intra-abdominal-abscess
#2
Rie Tanaka, Norihiro Furusyo, Rinne Takeda, Sho Yamasaki, Akira Kusaga, Eiichi Ogawa, Masayuki Murata, Ryota Nakanishi, Yoshihiko Maehara
A 23-year-old Japanese woman presented with abdominal distention following fever, diarrhea, and abdominal pain during a stay in Taiwan. Serology for the detection of amebic-antibodies and stool microscopic examination were both negative. A computed tomography scan showed a 13 cm diameter abscess spreading from the lower abdominal wall to the pelvic retroperitoneal space. Needle aspiration of the abscess was done under computed tomography guidance, and microscopy of the aspirated fluid revealed trophozoites of Entamoeba...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527286/-possible-oral-transmission-of-chagas-disease-among-hydrocarbons-sector-workers-in-casanare-colombia-2014
#3
Liliana Patricia Zuleta-Dueñas, Ángela Johana López-Quiroga, Fernando Torres-Torres, Oneida Castañeda-Porras
INTRODUCTION: Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent for Chagas disease, can be transmitted by oral intake of contaminated food or drinks. During epidemiological week 14 of 2014, two cases of acute Chagas disease were notified among hydrocarbons sector workers in Paz de Ariporo, Casanare. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the affected population, to establish control and prevention measures and to confirm the outbreak. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted an outbreak investigation that included the following components: a) Search for symptomatic people compatible with Chagas disease according to the case definition for their referral to medical services; b) entomological survey (192/197 houses); c) sanitary inspection and microbiological analysis of food samples; and d) study of reservoirs...
June 1, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527279/-cases-of-acute-pesticide-poisoning-in-colonia-puerto-pirap%C3%A3-itap%C3%A3%C2%BAa-paraguay-february-2014
#4
María Esther Pedrozo, Sandra Ocampos, Rosa Galeano, Andrea Ojeda, Agueda Cabello, Dalva De Assis
In Paraguay, pesticides are the causative agent in 13.7% of poisonings, especially organophosphorus compounds. Such poisoning produces the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase generating three possible clinical conditions: acute poisoning, intermediate syndrome or late neurotoxicity. We present 15 cases of acute poisoning, ten women and five men from a rural community between 5 and 67 years of age, whose symptoms began after using water contaminated by pesticides from the community network. The most common symptoms were nausea and vomiting, followed by abdominal pain, headache, fever, itching, red eyes and sweating...
June 1, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527249/-sociodemographic-and-clinical-characteristics-of-patients-infected-with-leptospira-spp-treated-at-four-hospitals-in-medell%C3%A3-n-colombia-2008-2013
#5
Lina María Echeverri-Toro, Sara Penagos, Laura Castañeda, Pablo Villa, Santiago Atehortúa, Faiver Ramírez, Carlos Restrepo, Sigifredo Ospina, Yuli Agudelo, Alicia Hidrón, Paola Agudelo, Eliana Valderrama, Carlos Andrés Agudelo
INTRODUCTION: Leptospirosis remains a significant health problem in tropical regions including Latin America, where its presentation is 100 times higher than that observed in other regions of the world. Mortality reaches 10% in severe cases. Its diagnosis is challenging because clinical manifestations during the initial phase are non-specific and because of limited availability of diagnostic tests. OBJECTIVE: To describe the demographic and clinical characteristics and the outcomes in hospitalized patients with leptospirosis...
January 24, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527248/-clinical-and-demographic-profile-and-risk-factors-for-clostridium-difficile-infection
#6
Carlos Carvajal, Carlos Pacheco, Fabián Jaimes
INTRODUCTION: Clostridium difficile infection is the leading cause of nosocomial infectious diarrhea. The increasing incidence added to a lower rate of response to the initial treatment and higher rates of relapse has generated a higher burden of the disease. OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical characteristics of hospitalized patients with C. difficile infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We made a nested case-cohort study. We reviewed medical records of the patients with nosocomial diarrhea for whom an assay for toxin A-B of C...
January 24, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526816/delineation-of-b-cell-epitopes-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhi-hemolysin-e-potential-antibody-therapeutic-target
#7
Chai Fung Chin, Jing Yi Lai, Yee Siew Choong, Amy Amilda Anthony, Asma Ismail, Theam Soon Lim
Hemolysin E (HlyE) is an immunogenic novel pore-forming toxin involved in the pathogenesis of typhoid fever. Thus, mapping of B-cell epitopes of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) is critical to identify key immunogenic regions of HlyE. A random 20-mer peptide library was used for biopanning with enriched anti-HlyE polyclonal antibodies from typhoid patient sera. Bioinformatic tools were used to refine, analyze and map the enriched peptide sequences against the protein to identify the epitopes. The analysis identified both linear and conformational epitopes on the HlyE protein...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526593/cardiac-tamponade-as-an-initial-presentation-for-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#8
William Li, Thomas Frohwein, Kenneth Ong
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease which follows a relapsing and remitting course that can manifest in any organ system. While classic manifestations consist of arthralgia, myalgia, frank arthritis, a malar rash and renal failure to name a few, cardiac tamponade, however, is a far less common and far more dangerous presentation. We highlight the case of a 61year-old male with complaints of acute onset shortness of breath and generalized body aches associated with a fever and chills in the ER...
April 29, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526434/a-systematic-review-of-portomesenteric-vein-thrombosis-after-sleeve-gastrectomy
#9
Osama Shaheen, Jacqueline Siejka, Bala Thatigotla, Dang Tuan Pham
BACKGROUND: Portomesenteric vein thrombosis (PMVT) is considered an uncommon complication in general surgery; nevertheless, with the growing popularity of sleeve gastrectomy (SG) as a bariatric procedure we have seen an increase in the occurrence of this complication. OBJECTIVES: To elucidate the question if it is a procedure-related complication and explore the modalities of prevention and treatment of this complication, a systematic review of available literature regarding PMVT events after SG was conducted...
March 27, 2017: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526310/working-with-influenza-like-illness-presenteeism-among-us-health-care-personnel-during-the-2014-2015-influenza-season
#10
Sophia Chiu, Carla L Black, Xin Yue, Stacie M Greby, A Scott Laney, Angela P Campbell, Marie A de Perio
BACKGROUND: Health care personnel (HCP) working while experiencing influenza-like illness (ILI) contribute to influenza transmission in health care settings. Studies focused on certain HCP occupations or work settings have demonstrated that some HCP often continue to work while ill. METHODS: Using a national nonprobability Internet panel survey of 1,914 HCP during the 2014-2015 influenza season, we calculated the frequency of working with self-reported ILI (ie, fever and cough or sore throat) and examined reasons for working with ILI by occupation and work setting...
May 16, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526220/lumbar-puncture-for-all-febrile-infants-29-56-days-old-a-retrospective-cohort-reassessment-study
#11
Richard Scarfone, Ashlee Murray, Payal Gala, Fran Balamuth
OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of bacterial meningitis (BM) among all febrile infants 29-56 days old undergoing a lumbar puncture (LP) in the emergency department of a tertiary care children's hospital and the number of low-risk febrile infants with BM to reassess the need for routine LP in these infants. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study using a quality improvement registry from July 2007-April 2014. Infants included were 29-56 days old with fever and who had an LP in the emergency department...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526075/testing-times-trends-in-availability-price-and-market-share-of-malaria-diagnostics-in-the-public-and-private-healthcare-sector-across-eight-sub-saharan-african-countries-from-2009-to-2015
#12
Kara Hanson, Catherine Goodman
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization guidelines have recommended that all cases of suspected malaria should receive a confirmatory test with microscopy or a malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT), however evidence from sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) illustrates that only one-third of children under five with a recent fever received a test. The aim of this study was to evaluate availability, price and market share of microscopy and RDT from 2009/11 to 2014/15 in 8 SSA countries, to better understand barriers to improving access to malaria confirmatory testing in the public and private health sectors...
May 19, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526066/transovarial-transmission-of-denv-in-aedes-aegypti-in-the-amazon-basin-a-local-model-of-xenomonitoring
#13
Cristiano Fernandes da Costa, Ricardo Augusto Dos Passos, José Bento Pereira Lima, Rosemary Aparecida Roque, Vanderson de Souza Sampaio, Thais Bonifácio Campolina, Nágila Francinete Costa Secundino, Paulo Filemon Paolucci Pimenta
BACKGROUND: Transovarial transmission of dengue virus in Aedes spp. mosquitoes is considered an important mechanism for the maintenance of the virus in nature and may be implicated in the occurrence of outbreaks and epidemics of the disease. However, there are few studies involving transovarial transmission and viral vector monitoring as a surveillance tool and control strategy. The present study evaluated transovarial transmission of dengue virus in Aedes aegypti populations as a xenomonitoring strategy in municipalities of the Amazonas state...
May 19, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525510/zika-virus-obstetric-and-pediatric-anesthesia-considerations
#14
Jacqueline L Tutiven, Benjamin T Pruden, James S Banks, Mario Stevenson, David J Birnbach
As of November 2016, the Florida Department of Health (FDH) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have confirmed more than 4000 travel-related Zika virus (ZIKV) infections in the United States with >700 of those in Florida. There have been 139 cases of locally acquired infection, all occurring in Miami, Florida. Within the US territories (eg, Puerto Rico, US Virgin Islands), >30,000 cases of ZIKV infection have been reported. The projected number of individuals at risk for ZIKV infection in the Caribbean and Latin America approximates 5 million...
June 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524832/measles-outbreak-in-pediatric-hematology-and-oncology-patients-in-shanghai-2015
#15
Yan-Ling Ge, Xiao-Wen Zhai, Yan-Feng Zhu, Xiang-Shi Wang, Ai-Mei Xia, Yue-Fang Li, Mei Zeng
BACKGROUND: Despite substantial progress toward measles control are making in China, measles outbreaks in immunocompromised population still pose a challenge to interrupt endemic transmission. This study aimed to investigate the features of measles in pediatric hematology and oncology patients and explore the reasons behind the outbreak. METHODS: We collected demographic, epidemiological, and clinical data of immunocompromised measles children. All suspected measles cases were laboratory-confirmed based on the presence of measles IgM and/or identification of measles RNA...
June 5, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524825/chinese-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-treatment-and-research-group-registry-ix-clinical-features-and-survival-of-childhood-onset-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-in-china
#16
Chan-Yuan Wu, Cai-Feng Li, Qing-Jun Wu, Jian-Hua Xu, Lin-Di Jiang, Lu Gong, Feng-Qi Wu, Jie-Ruo Gu, Jiu-Liang Zhao, Meng-Tao Li, Yan Zhao, Xiao-Feng Zeng
BACKGROUND: Approximately 15-20% cases of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are diagnosed in children. There have been a few studies reporting the epidemiological data of pediatric-onset SLE (cSLE) in China, neither comparing the differences between cSLE and adult-onset SLE (aSLE). The aim of this study was to describe the impact of age of onset on clinical features and survival in cSLE patients in China based on the Chinese SLE Treatment and Research group (CSTAR) database. METHODS: We made a prospective study of 225 cSLE patients (aged Results: The mean age of cSLE patients was 12...
June 5, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524741/a-surgical-case-of-mycotic-aneurysm-with-staphylococcus-lugdunensis-endocarditis
#17
Kosuke Mukaihara, Kazuhisa Matsumoto, Jun Kadono, Yutaka Imoto
A 74-year-old man with a history of mitral valve repair was referred to our hospital with fever and diagnosed with mitral valve endocarditis involving occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery. Bacterial cultures showed Staphylococcus lugdunensis. Despite antibiotic therapy, orthopnea ensued due to valve destruction. Emergency mitral valve replacement was performed. Computed tomography on postoperative day 10 revealed a rapidly expanding mycotic aneurysm of the superior mesenteric artery. Aneurysmectomy was undertaken...
May 2017: Asian Cardiovascular & Thoracic Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523896/hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-in-a-newborn-presenting-as-blueberry-muffin-baby
#18
Krista N Larson, Sergio R Gaitan, Benjamin J Stahr, Dean S Morrell
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare, life-threatening hyperinflammatory syndrome characterized by uncontrolled activation and proliferation of proinflammatory cytokines. Initial presentation commonly includes fever, hepatosplenomegaly, and pancytopenia; 6 to 65% of cases also have a concurrent cutaneous eruption. We present the case of a 6-day-old premature infant boy with congenital severe thrombocytopenia, anemia, and hepatosplenomegaly who presented with several cutaneous violaceous papules and nodules and was found to have HLH...
May 2017: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523589/alternating-acetaminophen-and-ibuprofen-versus-monotherapies-in-improvements-of-distress-and-reducing-refractory-fever-in-febrile-children-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Shuanghong Luo, Mengdong Ran, Qiuhong Luo, Min Shu, Qin Guo, Yu Zhu, Xiaoping Xie, Chongfan Zhang, Chaomin Wan
BACKGROUND: No evidence can be found in the medical literature about the efficacy of alternating acetaminophen and ibuprofen treatment in children with refractory fever. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to assess the effect of alternating acetaminophen and ibuprofen therapy on distress and refractory fever compared with acetaminophen or ibuprofen as monotherapy in febrile children. METHODS: A total of 474 febrile children with axillary temperature ≥38...
May 18, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523387/seroprevalence-of-economically-important-viral-pathogens-in-swine-populations-of-trinidad-and-tobago-west-indies
#20
Jamie R V Sookhoo, Arianne Brown-Jordan, Lemar Blake, Ridley B Holder, Sharon M Brookes, Stephen Essen, Christine V F Carrington, Ian H Brown, Christopher A L Oura
The objective of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence and identify the strains of swine influenza virus (SwIV), as well as the seroprevalence of porcine parvovirus (PPV), transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2), and classical swine fever virus (CSFV) in pigs in Trinidad and Tobago (T&T). Blood samples (309) were randomly collected from pigs at farms throughout T&T...
May 18, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
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