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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221763/inactivation-clearance-and-functional-effects-of-lung-instilled-short-and-long-silver-nanowires-in-rats
#1
Kian Fan Chung, Joanna Seiffert, Shu Chen, Ioannis G Theodorou, Angela Erin Goode, Bey Fen Leo, Catriona M McGilvery, Farhana Hussain, Coen Wiegman, Christos Rossios, Jie Zhu, Jicheng Gong, Farid Tariq, Vladimir Yufit, Alexander J Monteith, Teruo Hashimoto, Jeremy N Skepper, Mary P Ryan, Junfeng Jim Zhang, Teresa D Tetley, Alexandra E Porter
There is a potential for silver nanowires (AgNWs) to be inhaled but there is little information on their health effects and their chemical transformation inside the lungs in vivo. We studied the effects of short (S-AgNWs; 1.5µm) and long (L-AgNWs; 10 µm) nanowires instilled into the lungs of Sprague-Dawley rats. S- and L-AgNWs were phagocytosed and degraded by macrophages; there was no frustrated phagocytosis. Interestingly, both AgNWs were internalized in alveolar Type II epithelial cells (ATII), with precipitation of Ag2S on their surface as secondary Ag2S nanoparticles...
February 21, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219839/sinigrin-inhibits-production-of-inflammatory-mediators-by-suppressing-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-mapk-pathways-or-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-in-macrophages
#2
Hee-Weon Lee, Chung Gi Lee, Dong-Kwon Rhee, Sung Hee Um, Sukneung Pyo
Sinigrin (2-propenyl glucosinolate) is found mainly in broccoli, brussels sprouts, and black mustard seeds. Recently, sinigrin has received attention for its role in disease prevention and health. This study investigated the effect of sinigrin on macrophage function, including the activity of Nod-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome. In a concentration-dependent manner, sinigrin inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production and the expression of COX-2 and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in RAW 264...
February 17, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217371/pathogenic-mechanisms-of-pancreatitis
#3
REVIEW
Murli Manohar, Alok Kumar Verma, Sathisha Upparahalli Venkateshaiah, Nathan L Sanders, Anil Mishra
Pancreatitis is inflammation of pancreas and caused by a number of factors including pancreatic duct obstruction, alcoholism, and mutation in the cationic trypsinogen gene. Pancreatitis is represented as acute pancreatitis with acute inflammatory responses and; chronic pancreatitis characterized by marked stroma formation with a high number of infiltrating granulocytes (such as neutrophils, eosinophils), monocytes, macrophages and pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs). These inflammatory cells are known to play a central role in initiating and promoting inflammation including pancreatic fibrosis, i...
February 6, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216598/clinical-signs-staphylococcus-and-atopic-eczema-related-seromarkers
#4
Kam Lun Hon, Kathy Yin Ching Tsang, Jeng Sum C Kung, Ting Fan Leung, Christopher W K Lam, Chun Kwok Wong
: Childhood eczema or atopic dermatitis (AD) is a distressing disease associated with pruritus, sleep disturbance, impaired quality of life and Staphylococcus aureus isolation. The pathophysiology of AD is complex and various seromarkers of immunity are involved. We investigated if anti-staphylococcal enterotoxin IgE (anti-SE), selected seromarkers of T regulatory (Treg), T helper (Th) and antigen-presenting cells (APC) are associated with clinical signs of disease severity and quality of life...
February 14, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215032/nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-regulated-by-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-dapk-contributed-to-paraquat-induced-acute-kidney-injury
#5
Zhenning Liu, Xiaokai Wang, Yu Wang, Min Zhao
Paraquat can result in dysfunction of multiple organs after ingestion in human. However, the mechanisms of nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation in acute kidney injury have not been clearly demonstrated. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of NLRP3 inflammasome activation and its regulation by nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and death-associated protein kinase (DAPK). Male Wistar rats were treated with intraperitoneal injection of paraquat at 20 mg/kg, and NF-κB inhibitor BAY 11-7082 was pretreated at 10 mg/kg 1 h before paraquat exposure...
February 18, 2017: Immunologic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209719/adaptive-nk-cells-can-persist-in-patients-with-gata2-mutation-depleted-of-stem-and-progenitor-cells
#6
Heinrich Schlums, Moonjung Jung, Hongya Han, Jakob Theorell, Venetia Bigley, Samuel C C Chiang, David S J Allan, Jan K Davidson-Moncada, Rachel E Dickinson, Tim D Holmes, Amy P Hsu, Danielle Townsley, Thomas Winkler, Weixin Wang, Pål Aukrust, Ingvild Nordøy, Katherine R Calvo, Steve M Holland, Matthew Collin, Cynthia E Dunbar, Yenan T Bryceson
Heterozygous GATA2 mutation is associated with immunodeficiency, lymphedema, and myelodysplastic syndrome. Disease presentation is variable, often coinciding with loss of circulating dendritic cells, monocytes, B cells, and NK cells. Nonetheless, in a proportion of patients carrying GATA2 mutation, NK cells persist. We found that peripheral blood NK cells in symptomatic patients uniformly lacked expression of the transcription factor PLZF, as well as expression of intracellular signaling proteins FcϵRγ, SYK, and EAT-2 in a variegated manner...
February 16, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209095/leptospira-seropositivity-as-a-risk-factor-for-mesoamerican-nephropathy
#7
Alejandro Riefkohl, Oriana Ramírez-Rubio, Rebecca L Laws, Michael D McClean, Daniel E Weiner, James S Kaufman, Renee L Galloway, Sean V Shadomy, Marta Guerra, Juan José Amador, José Marcel Sánchez, Damaris López-Pilarte, Chirag R Parikh, Jessica H Leibler, Daniel R Brooks
BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is postulated as a possible cause of Mesoamerican Nephropathy (MeN) in Central American workers. OBJECTIVES: Investigate job-specific Leptospira seroprevalence and its association with kidney disease biomarkers. METHODS: In 282 sugarcane workers, 47 sugarcane applicants and 160 workers in other industries, we measured anti-leptospiral antibodies, serum creatinine, and urinary injury biomarkers, including neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), interleukin-18 (IL-18), and N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase (NAG)...
February 17, 2017: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207794/protected-graft-copolymer-formulated-fibroblast-growth-factors-mitigate-the-lethality-of-partial-body-irradiation-injury
#8
Gerardo M Castillo, Akiko Nishimoto-Ashfield, Cynthia C Jones, Kasim K Kabirov, Alexander Zakharov, Alexander V Lyubimov
We evaluated the mitigating effects of fibroblast growth factor 4 and 7 (FGF4 and FGF7, respectively) in comparison with long acting protected graft copolymer (PGC)-formulated FGF4 and 7 (PF4 and PF7, respectively) administered to C57BL/6J mice a day after exposure to LD50/30 (15.7 Gy) partial body irradiation (PBI) which targeted the gastrointestinal (GI) system. The PGC that we developed increased the bioavailability of FGF4 and FGF7 by 5- and 250-fold compared to without PGC, respectively, and also sustained a 24 hr presence in the blood after a single subcutaneous administration...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202417/triptolide-attenuates-pressure-overload-induced-myocardial-remodeling-in-mice-via-the-inhibition-of-nlrp3-inflammasome-expression
#9
Rujun Li, Kuiying Lu, Yao Wang, Mingxing Chen, Fengyu Zhang, Hui Shen, Deshan Yao, Kaizheng Gong, Zhengang Zhang
Triptolide is the predominant active component of the Chinese herb Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F (TwHF) that has been widely used to treat several chronic inflammatory diseases due to its immunosuppressive, anti-inflammatory, and anti-proliferative properties. In the present study, we elucidated the cardioprotective effects of triptolide against cardiac dysfunction and myocardial remodeling in chronic pressure-overloaded hearts. Furthermore, the potential mechanisms of triptolide were investigated. For this purpose, C57/BL6 mice were anesthetized and subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC) or sham operation...
February 12, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197210/orientin-ameliorates-lps-induced-inflammatory-responses-through-the-inhibitory-of-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-and-nlrp3-inflammasome
#10
Qingfei Xiao, Zhihui Qu, Ying Zhao, Liming Yang, Pujun Gao
Inflammation is a complex response to diverse pathological conditions, resulting in negative rather than protective effects when uncontrolled. Orientin (Ori), a flavonoid component isolated from natural plants, possesses abundant properties. Thus, we aimed to discover the potential therapeutic effects of orientin on lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced inflammation in RAW 264.7 cells and the underlying mechanisms. In our studies, we evaluated the effects of Ori on proinflammatory mediator production stimulated by LPS, including tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α, interleukin- (IL-) 6, IL-18, and IL-1β, along with prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and NO...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195558/elevated-pre-treatment-il-18-level-is-associated-with-hbeag-seroconversion-in-hiv-hbv-coinfection
#11
Yijia Li, Jing Xie, Huanling Wang, Yang Han, Nidan Wang, Chloe L Thio, Taisheng Li
BACKGROUND: In hepatitis B virus (HBV) infected patients, hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion is associated with better outcomes. Interleukin-18 (IL-18) controls hepatitis B replication in a mouse model. However, its role in treatment response in HIV/HBV co-infected patients is unknown. METHODS: We enrolled 35 treatment-naïve, HBeAg positive, HIV/HBV co-infected patients. HBV DNA, HIV RNA, CD4 cell count, HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) quantification (qHBsAg), HBeAg quantification (qHBeAg) and IL-18 levels were measured prior to, at 24 and 48 weeks of HBV-active combination antiretroviral therapy (cART)...
February 14, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192059/inflammasomes-key-mediators-of-lung-immunity
#12
Judie A Howrylak, Kiichi Nakahira
Inflammasomes are key inflammatory signaling platforms that detect microbial substances, sterile environmental insults, and molecules derived from host cells. Activation of the inflammasome promotes caspase-1-mediated secretion of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 and pyroptosis. Recent developments in this field demonstrate the crucial role of the inflammasome in a wide range of disease models. Although inflammasomes are a crucial part of host defense mechanisms against pathogens, the exuberant immune response resulting from inflammasome activation also contributes to the development of various diseases...
February 10, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191008/the-nlrp3-and-pyrin-inflammasomes-implications-in-the-pathophysiology-of-autoinflammatory-diseases
#13
REVIEW
Carlos de Torre-Minguela, Pablo Mesa Del Castillo, Pablo Pelegrín
Inflammasomes are multiprotein complexes that critically control different aspects of innate and adaptive immunity. Among them we could highlight the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines that induce and maintain the inflammatory response. Usually, inflammasomes result from oligomerization of a nucleotide-binding domain-like receptor (NLR) after sensing different pathogenic or endogenous sterile dangerous signals; however, other proteins such as absent in melanoma 2, retinoic acid-inducible gene I, or pyrin could also form inflammasome platforms...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189064/oral-application-of-carbon-nanofibers-in-rats-increases-blood-concentration-of-il6-and-il10-and-decreases-locomotor-activity
#14
Nina Vitalievna Sayapina, Tatyana Anantolievna Batalova, Alexander Alexandrovich Sergievich, Mikhail Anatolievich Shtarberg, Eugeny Alexandrovich Borodin, Pavel Pavlovich Khoroshikh, Vladimir Victorovich Chaika, Vladimir Valerievich Kodintsev, Alexey Anatolievich Vedyagin, Ilya Vladimirovich Mishakov, Antonis Vakis, Petra Henrich-Noack, Aristidis M Tsatsakis, Ayse Basak Engin, Kirill Golokhvast
Carbon nanofibers (CNF) are versatile nanomaterials that are widely used in various fields of science and technology. As a consequence, animals as well as humans may be exposed to such compounds via different routes. We hypothesized that oral intake of CNF will lead to an inflammatory reaction and consequently induce behavioral impairments. To address this issue, rats were fed with 500mg/kgCNF for 14days and their locomotor activity, emotional status and cognition were quantified by testing the animals in an open field set-up, elevated plus maze and in the universal problem solving box which provides information about motivation and cognition...
January 24, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187765/does-a-lack-of-physical-activity-explain-the-rheumatoid-arthritis-lipid-profile
#15
Hiba AbouAssi, Margery A Connelly, Lori A Bateman, K Noelle Tune, Janet L Huebner, Virginia B Kraus, Deborah A Winegar, James D Otvos, William E Kraus, Kim M Huffman
BACKGROUND: In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), cardiovascular risk is associated with paradoxical reductions in total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). Concentrations of small LDL (LDL-P) and HDL (HDL-P) particles are also reduced with increased inflammation and disease activity in RA patients. Here we sought to identify which measure(s) of inflammation, disease activity and cardiometabolic risk contribute most to the RA-associated lipoprotein profile...
February 10, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178290/prenatal-exposure-to-respiratory-syncytial-virus-alters-postnatal-immunity-and-airway-smooth-muscle-contractility-during-early-life-reinfections
#16
Paul M Brown, Terri J Harford, Vandana Agrawal, Belinda Yen-Lieberman, Fariba Rezaee, Giovanni Piedimonte
Maternal viral infections can have pathological effects on the developing fetus which last long after birth. Recently, maternal-fetal transmission of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was shown to cause postnatal airway hyperreactivity (AHR) during primary early-life reinfection; however, the influence of prenatal exposure to RSV on offspring airway immunity and smooth muscle contractility during recurrent postnatal reinfections remains unknown. Therefore, we sought to determine whether maternal RSV infection impairs specific aspects of cell-mediated offspring immunity during early-life reinfections and the mechanisms leading to AHR...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176248/interleukin-18-induced-cell-adhesion-molecule-expression-is-associated-with-feedback-regulation-by-ppar-%C3%AE-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-in-apo-e-mice
#17
Owais Mohammad Bhat, P Uday Kumar, N Harishankar, L Ravichandaran, A Bhatia, Veena Dhawan
Focal recruitment of monocytes and lymphocytes is one of the earliest detectable cellular responses in atherosclerotic lesion formation. Endothelium may regulate leukocyte recruitment by expressing specific adhesion molecules. Interleukin-18 is a proinflammatory cytokine that plays an important role in vascular pathologies. The present study highlights the modulation of adhesion molecules and PPAR-γ by IL-18 and proposes a novel feedback mechanism by which PPAR-γ may regulate IL-18 expression. Three groups of normal chow diet-fed, male Apo E-/- mice, aged 12 weeks (n = 6/group) were employed: Gp I, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) (2 mo): Gp II, recombinant IL-18 (rIL-18) (1 mo) followed by PBS (1 mo); Gp III, rIL-18 (1 mo) followed by pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) (1 mo)...
February 7, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174758/interferon-alpha-promotes-th1-response-and-epithelial-apoptosis-via-inflammasome-activation-in-human-intestinal-mucosa
#18
Anne Jarry, Florent Malard, Chantal Bou-Hanna, Guillaume Meurette, Mohamad Mohty, Jean-François Mosnier, Christian L Laboisse, Céline Bossard
BACKGOUND & AIMS: Several lines of investigation suggest that interferon (IFN) alpha can alter human intestinal mucosa homeostasis. These include the endogenous production of IFN alpha in celiac disease or inflammatory bowel diseases, as well as the occurrence of intestinal side effects of exogenous IFN alpha used as a therapeutic tool. Here, we present an ex vivo translational approach to investigate the effects of IFN alpha on the human normal intestinal mucosa, as well as its underlying mechanisms...
January 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174259/proinflammatory-cytokines-predict-the-incidence-and-progression-of-distal-sensorimotor-polyneuropathy-kora-f4-ff4-study
#19
Christian Herder, Julia M Kannenberg, Cornelia Huth, Maren Carstensen-Kirberg, Wolfgang Rathmann, Wolfgang Koenig, Margit Heier, Sonja Püttgen, Barbara Thorand, Annette Peters, Michael Roden, Christa Meisinger, Dan Ziegler
OBJECTIVE: Experimental and epidemiological studies have implicated inflammatory processes in the pathogenesis of distal sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSPN), but prospective studies are lacking. We hypothesized that biomarkers of inflammation predict the development and progression of DSPN in a population-based cohort. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This study was based on participants aged 62-81 years from the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA) F4/FF4 cohort, with a mean follow-up of 6...
February 7, 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169000/regulation-and-functions-of-nlrp3-inflammasome-during-influenza-virus-infection
#20
Teneema Kuriakose, Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti
The NLRP3 inflammasome constitutes a major antiviral host defense mechanism during influenza virus infection. Inflammasome assembly in virus-infected cells facilitates autocatalytic processing of pro-caspase-1 and subsequent cleavage and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18. The NLRP3 inflammasome is critical for induction of both innate and adaptive immune responses during influenza virus infection. Inflammasome-dependent antiviral responses also regulate immunopathology and tissue repair in the infected lungs...
February 3, 2017: Molecular Immunology
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