keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

primate evolution

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223401/transcriptome-analyses-of-rhesus-monkey-pre-implantation-embryos-reveal-a-reduced-capacity-for-dna-double-strand-break-repair-in-primate-oocytes-and-early-embryos
#1
Xinyi Wang, Denghui Liu, Dajian He, Shengbo Suo, Xian Xia, Xiechao He, Jing-Dong Han, Ping Zheng
Pre-implantation embryogenesis encompasses several critical events including genome reprogramming, zygotic genome activation (ZGA), and cell fate commitment, most of which remain mechanistically unclear in primates. In addition, primates display a high rate of embryo wastage without any clear molecular basis. Understanding the factors involved in genome reprogramming and ZGA will help the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells with high efficiency. Moreover, explaining the molecular basis responsible for embryo wastage in primates will greatly expand our knowledge of species evolution...
February 21, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208702/the-glutamate-dehydrogenase-pathway-and-its-roles-in-cell-and-tissue-biology-in-health-and-disease
#2
REVIEW
Andreas Plaitakis, Ester Kalef-Ezra, Dimitra Kotzamani, Ioannis Zaganas, Cleanthe Spanaki
Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) is a hexameric enzyme that catalyzes the reversible conversion of glutamate to α-ketoglutarate and ammonia while reducing NAD(P)⁺ to NAD(P)H. It is found in all living organisms serving both catabolic and anabolic reactions. In mammalian tissues, oxidative deamination of glutamate via GDH generates α-ketoglutarate, which is metabolized by the Krebs cycle, leading to the synthesis of ATP. In addition, the GDH pathway is linked to diverse cellular processes, including ammonia metabolism, acid-base equilibrium, redox homeostasis (via formation of fumarate), lipid biosynthesis (via oxidative generation of citrate), and lactate production...
February 8, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202622/the-hypertension-pandemic-an-evolutionary-perspective
#3
REVIEW
Bernard C Rossier, Murielle Bochud, Olivier Devuyst
Hypertension affects over 1.2 billion individuals worldwide and has become the most critical and expensive public health problem. Hypertension is a multifactorial disease involving environmental and genetic factors together with risk-conferring behaviors. The cause of the disease is identified in ∼10% of the cases (secondary hypertension), but in 90% of the cases no etiology is found (primary or essential hypertension). For this reason, a better understanding of the mechanisms controlling blood pressure in normal and hypertensive patients is the aim of very active experimental and clinical research...
March 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202600/neoteny-prolongation-of-youth-from-naked-mole-rats-to-naked-apes-humans
#4
REVIEW
Vladimir P Skulachev, Susanne Holtze, Mikhail Y Vyssokikh, Lora E Bakeeva, Maxim V Skulachev, Alexander V Markov, Thomas B Hildebrandt, Viktor A Sadovnichii
It has been suggested that highly social mammals, such as naked mole rats and humans, are long-lived due to neoteny (the prolongation of youth). In both species, aging cannot operate as a mechanism facilitating natural selection because the pressure of this selection is strongly reduced due to 1) a specific social structure where only the "queen" and her "husband(s)" are involved in reproduction (naked mole rats) or 2) substituting fast technological progress for slow biological evolution (humans). Lists of numerous traits of youth that do not disappear with age in naked mole rats and humans are presented and discussed...
April 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202470/the-effect-of-foot-posture-on-capacity-to-apply-free-moments-to-the-ground-implications-for-fighting-performance-in-great-apes
#5
David R Carrier, Christopher Cunningham
In contrast to most other primates, great apes have feet in which the heel supports body weight during standing, walking and running. One possible advantage of this plantigrade foot posture is that it may enhance fighting performance by increasing the ability to apply free moments (i.e. force couples) to the ground. We tested this possibility by measuring performance of human subjects when performing from plantigrade and digitigrade (standing on the ball of the foot and toes) postures. We found that plantigrade posture substantially increased the capacity to apply free moments to the ground and to perform a variety of behaviors that are likely to be important to fighting performance in great apes...
February 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197415/pharmacoinformatics-adaptive-evolution-and-elucidation-of-six-novel-compounds-for-schizophrenia-treatment-by-targeting-daoa-g72-isoforms
#6
Sheikh Arslan Sehgal
Studies on Schizophrenia so far reveal a complex picture of neurological malfunctioning reported to be strongly associated with DAOA. Detailed sequence analyses proved DAOA as a primate specific gene having conserved gene desert region on both upstream and downstream region. The analyses of 10 MB chromosomal region of primates, birds, rodents, and reptiles having DAOA evidenced the conserved part in primates and in the rest of species, while DAOA is only present in primates. DAOA has four isoforms having one interaction partner DAO...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196413/alu-derived-alternative-splicing-events-specific-to-macaca-lineages-in-ctsf-gene
#7
Ja-Rang Lee, Sang-Je Park, Young-Hyun Kim, Se-Hee Choe, Hyeon-Mu Cho, Sang-Rae Lee, Sun-Uk Kim, Ji-Su Kim, Bo-Woong Sim, Bong-Seok Song, Kang-Jin Jeong, Youngjeon Lee, Yeung Bae Jin, Philyong Kang, Jae-Won Huh, Kyu-Tae Chang
Cathepsin F, which is encoded by CTSF, is a cysteine proteinase ubiquitously expressed in several tissues. In a previous study, novel transcripts of the CTSF gene were identified in the crab-eating monkey deriving from the integration of an Alu element-AluYRa1. The occurrence of AluYRa1-derived alternative transcripts and the mechanism of exonization events in the CTSF gene of human, rhesus monkey, and crabeating monkey were investigated using PCR and reverse transcription PCR on the genomic DNA and cDNA isolated from several tissues...
February 14, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186423/translational-repression-of-a-splice-variant-of-cynomolgus-macaque-cxcl1l-by-its-c-terminal-sequence
#8
Hisayuki Nomiyama, Naoki Osada, Ichiro Takahashi, Keiji Terao, Kazuya Yamagata, Osamu Yoshie
We previously isolated a cDNA clone from cynomolgus macaque encoding a novel CXC chemokine that we termed CXCL1L from its close similarity to CXCL1. However, the cDNA consisted of 3 exons instead of 4 exons that were typically seen in other CXC chemokines. Here, we isolated a cDNA encoding the full-length variant of CXCL1L that we termed CXCL1Lβ. CXCL1Lβ is 50 amino acids longer than the original CXCL1L, which we now term CXCL1Lα. The CXCL1Lβ mRNA is much more abundantly expressed in the cynomolgus macaque tissues than CXCL1Lα mRNA...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185863/offspring-mortality-was-a-determinant-factor-in-the-evolution-of-paternal-investment-in-humans-an-evolutionary-game-approach
#9
Diego López Alonso, Isabel M Ortiz-Rodríguez
Some researchers support the belief that man evolved philandering behavior because of the greater reproductive success of promiscuous males. According to this idea, deserting behavior from the man should be expected along with null paternal involvement in offspring care. Paradoxically however, the average offspring investment in the human male is far higher than that of any other male mammal, including other primates. In our work, we have addressed this conundrum by employing evolutionary game theory, using objective payoffs instead of, as are commonly used, arbitrary payoffs...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180973/fatal-attack-on-a-rylands-bald-faced-saki-monkey-pithecia-rylandsi-by-a-black-and-white-hawk-eagle-spizaetus-melanoleucus
#10
Dara B Adams, Sean M Williams
Predation risk has played an important role in primate behavioral evolution, yet natural primate-predator interactions are rarely observed. We describe the consumption and probable predation of an adult bald-faced saki monkey (Pithecia rylandsi) by a black-and-white hawk-eagle (Spizaetus melanoleucus) at the Los Amigos Biological Station in lowland Amazonian Peru. To our knowledge, this is the first published case of a black-and-white hawk-eagle consuming any primate species. We contend that while most reported observations of successful and attempted predation by raptors involves the largest and most notorious species (i...
February 8, 2017: Primates; Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180967/the-evolution-of-the-natural-killer-complex-a-comparison-between-mammals-using-new-high-quality-genome-assemblies-and-targeted-annotation
#11
John C Schwartz, Mark S Gibson, Dorothea Heimeier, Sergey Koren, Adam M Phillippy, Derek M Bickhart, Timothy P L Smith, Juan F Medrano, John A Hammond
Natural killer (NK) cells are a diverse population of lymphocytes with a range of biological roles including essential immune functions. NK cell diversity is in part created by the differential expression of cell surface receptors which modulate activation and function, including multiple subfamilies of C-type lectin receptors encoded within the NK complex (NKC). Little is known about the gene content of the NKC beyond rodent and primate lineages, other than it appears to be extremely variable between mammalian groups...
February 9, 2017: Immunogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178945/comparative-genomics-of-canine-hemoglobin-genes-reveals-primacy-of-beta-subunit-delta-in-adult-carnivores
#12
Sara Zaldívar-López, Jennie L Rowell, Elise M Fiala, Isain Zapata, C Guillermo Couto, Carlos E Alvarez
BACKGROUND: The main function of hemoglobin (Hb) is to transport oxygen in the circulation. It is among the most highly studied proteins due to its roles in physiology and disease, and most of our understanding derives from comparative research. There is great diversity in Hb gene evolution in placental mammals, mostly in the repertoire and regulation of the β-globin subunits. Dogs are an ideal model in which to study Hb genes because: 1) they are members of Laurasiatheria, our closest relatives outside of Euarchontoglires (including primates, rodents and rabbits), 2) dog breeds are isolated populations with their own Hb-associated genetics and diseases, and 3) their high level of health care allows for development of biomedical investigation and translation...
February 8, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163236/evolution-of-the-merozoite-surface-protein-7-msp7-family-in-plasmodium-vivax-and-p-falciparum-a-comparative-approach
#13
Andreína I Castillo, M Andreína Pacheco, Ananias A Escalante
Malaria parasites (genus Plasmodium) are a diverse group found in many species of vertebrate hosts. These parasites invade red blood cells in a complex process comprising several proteins, many encoded by multigene families, one of which is merozoite surface protein 7 (msp7). In the case of Plasmodium vivax, the most geographically widespread human-infecting species, differences in the number of paralogs within multigene families have been previously explained, at least in part, as potential adaptations to the human host...
February 2, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162899/exceptional-evolutionary-expansion-of-prefrontal-cortex-in-great-apes-and-humans
#14
Jeroen B Smaers, Aida Gómez-Robles, Ashley N Parks, Chet C Sherwood
One of the enduring questions that has driven neuroscientific enquiry in the last century has been the nature of differences in the prefrontal cortex of humans versus other animals [1]. The prefrontal cortex has drawn particular interest due to its role in a range of evolutionarily specialized cognitive capacities such as language [2], imagination [3], and complex decision making [4]. Both cytoarchitectonic [5] and comparative neuroimaging [6] studies have converged on the conclusion that the proportion of prefrontal cortex in the human brain is greatly increased relative to that of other primates...
January 27, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157638/probing-human-brain-evolution-and-development-in-organoids
#15
REVIEW
Stefano L Giandomenico, Madeline A Lancaster
Expansion of the neocortex is thought to underpin the higher cognitive abilities of a number of mammalian lineages, such as cetaceans, elephants, and primates, with humans exhibiting a particularly enlarged and dense cerebral cortex. However, the evolutionary and developmental mechanisms that led to this expansion are not well-understood and limited to correlative observations. Historically, this has been due to technical and ethical limitations owing to the intractability of various species for functional studies...
January 31, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155915/age-but-not-anthelmintic-treatment-is-associated-with-urinary-neopterin-levels-in-semi-free-ranging-barbary-macaques
#16
Nadine Müller, Michael Heistermann, Christina Strube, Oliver Schülke, Julia Ostner
Studying host parasite interactions and their implications for evolution and ecology recently received increasing attention, particularly with regard to host physiology and immunity. Here we assess variation of urinary neopterin (uNEO), a marker of cellular immune activation and iummunosenescence, in response to age and anthelmintic treatment in semi-free ranging Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus). Urinary NEO levels were measured via enzyme-immunoassay from 179 urine samples of 43 individuals between 5-29 years of age...
February 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144947/comparative-primate-obstetrics-observations-of-15-diurnal-births-in-wild-gelada-monkeys-theropithecus-gelada-and-their-implications-for-understanding-human-and-nonhuman-primate-birth-evolution
#17
Nga Nguyen, Laura M Lee, Peter J Fashing, Niina O Nurmi, Kathrine M Stewart, Taylor J Turner, Tyler S Barry, Kadie R Callingham, C Barret Goodale, Bryce S Kellogg, Ryan J Burke, Emily K Bechtold, Megan J Claase, G Anita Eriksen, Sorrel C Z Jones, Jeffrey T Kerby, Jacob B Kraus, Carrie M Miller, Thomas H Trew, Yi Zhao, Evan C Beierschmitt, Malcolm S Ramsay, Jason D Reynolds, Vivek V Venkataraman
OBJECTIVES: The birth process has been studied extensively in many human societies, yet little is known about this essential life history event in other primates. Here, we provide the most detailed account of behaviors surrounding birth for any wild nonhuman primate to date. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Over a recent ∼10-year period, we directly observed 15 diurnal births (13 live births and 2 stillbirths) among geladas (Theropithecus gelada) at Guassa, Ethiopia. During each birth, we recorded the occurrence (or absence) of 16 periparturitional events, chosen for their potential to provide comparative evolutionary insights into the factors that shaped birth behaviors in humans and other primates...
February 1, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138077/both-maintenance-and-avoidance-of-rna-binding-protein-interactions-constrain-coding-sequence-evolution
#18
Savisaar Rosina, Laurence D Hurst
While the principal force directing coding sequence (CDS) evolution is selection on protein function, to ensure correct gene expression CDSs must also maintain interactions with RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). Understanding how our genes are shaped by these RNA-level pressures is necessary for diagnostics and for improving transgenes. However, the evolutionary impact of the need to maintain RBP interactions remains unresolved. Are coding sequences constrained by the need to specify RBP binding motifs? If so, what proportion of mutations are affected? Might sequence evolution also be constrained by the need not to specify motifs that might attract unwanted binding, for instance because it would interfere with exon definition? Here, we have scanned human CDSs for motifs that have been experimentally determined to be recognized by RBPs...
January 30, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135258/sequencing-thousands-of-single-cell-genomes-with-combinatorial-indexing
#19
Sarah A Vitak, Kristof A Torkenczy, Jimi L Rosenkrantz, Andrew J Fields, Lena Christiansen, Melissa H Wong, Lucia Carbone, Frank J Steemers, Andrew Adey
Single-cell genome sequencing has proven valuable for the detection of somatic variation, particularly in the context of tumor evolution. Current technologies suffer from high library construction costs, which restrict the number of cells that can be assessed and thus impose limitations on the ability to measure heterogeneity within a tissue. Here, we present single-cell combinatorial indexed sequencing (SCI-seq) as a means of simultaneously generating thousands of low-pass single-cell libraries for detection of somatic copy-number variants...
January 30, 2017: Nature Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128440/evolution-of-the-hominoid-scapula-and-its-implications-for-earliest-hominid-locomotion
#20
Michael S Selby, C Owen Lovejoy
OBJECTIVES: The higher primate scapula has been subject to many explanations of the putative "adaptive value" of its individual traits. However, the shift from the bone's position in above branch quadrupeds to its more posterolateral position in recent hominoids obviously required fundamental changes to its general form. We hypothesize that most features argued to be individually adaptive are more likely secondary consequences of changes in its fundamental bauplan, a view more consistent with modern developmental biology...
January 27, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
keyword
keyword
59114
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"