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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218544/the-molecular-pathway-regulating-bergmann-glia-and-folia-generation-in-the-cerebellum
#1
REVIEW
Alan W Leung, James Y H Li
Evolution of complex behaviors in higher vertebrates and primates require the development of sophisticated neuronal circuitry and the expansion of brain surface area to accommodate the vast number of neuronal and glial populations. To achieve these goals, the neocortex in primates and the cerebellum in amniotes have developed specialized types of basal progenitors to aid the folding of their cortices. In the cerebellum, Bergmann glia constitute such a basal progenitor population, having a distinctive morphology and playing a critical role in cerebellar corticogenesis...
December 8, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216399/evolution-of-acidic-mammalian-chitinase-genes-chia-is-related-to-body-mass-and-insectivory-in-primates
#2
Mareike C Janiak, Morgan E Chaney, Anthony J Tosi
Insects are an important food resource for many primates, but the chitinous exoskeletons of arthropods have long been considered to be indigestible by the digestive enzymes of most mammals. However, recently mice and insectivorous bats were found to produce the enzyme acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase) to digest insect exoskeletons. Here, we report on the gene CHIA and its paralogs, which encode AMCase, in a comparative sample of nonhuman primates. Our results show that early primates likely had three CHIA genes, suggesting that insects were an important component of the ancestral primate diet...
December 5, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215031/a-mechanistic-model-of-human-recall-of-social-network-structure-and-relationship-affect
#3
Elisa Omodei, Matthew E Brashears, Alex Arenas
The social brain hypothesis argues that the need to deal with social challenges was key to our evolution of high intelligence. Research with non-human primates as well as experimental and fMRI studies in humans produce results consistent with this claim, leading to an estimate that human primary groups should consist of roughly 150 individuals. Gaps between this prediction and empirical observations can be partially accounted for using "compression heuristics", or schemata that simplify the encoding and recall of social information...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205327/social-behaviour-and-gut-microbiota-in-red-bellied-lemurs-eulemur-rubriventer-in-search-of-the-role-of-immunity-in-the-evolution-of-sociality
#4
Aura Raulo, Lasse Ruokolainen, Avery Lane, Katherine Amato, Rob Knight, Steven Leigh, Rebecca Stumpf, Bryan White, Karen E Nelson, Andrea L Baden, Stacey R Tecot
Vertebrate gut microbiota form a key component of immunity and a dynamic link between an individual and the ecosystem. Microbiota might play a role in social systems as well, because microbes are transmitted during social contact and can affect host behaviour. Combining methods from behavioural and molecular research, we describe the relationship between social dynamics and gut microbiota of a group-living cooperative species of primate, the red-bellied lemur (Eulemur rubriventer). Specifically, we ask whether patterns of social contact (group membership, group size, position in social network, individual sociality) are associated with patterns of gut microbial composition (diversity and similarity) between individuals and across time...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205083/a-multifactorial-investigation-of-captive-gorillas-intraspecific-gestural-laterality
#5
Jacques Prieur, Simone Pika, Stéphanie Barbu, Catherine Blois-Heulin
Multifactorial investigations of intraspecific laterality of primates' gestural communication aim to shed light on factors that underlie the evolutionary origins of human handedness and language. This study assesses gorillas' intraspecific gestural laterality considering the effect of various factors related to gestural characteristics, interactional context and sociodemographic characteristics of signaller and recipient. Our question was: which factors influence gorillas' gestural laterality? We studied laterality in three captive groups of gorillas (N = 35) focusing on their most frequent gesture types (N = 16)...
December 5, 2017: Laterality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204830/being-a-neural-stem-cell-a-matter-of-character-but-defined-by-the-microenvironment
#6
Evangelia Andreopoulou, Asterios Arampatzis, Melina Patsoni, Ilias Kazanis
The cells that build the nervous system, either this is a small network of ganglia or a complicated primate brain, are called neural stem and progenitor cells. Even though the very primitive and the very recent neural stem cells (NSCs) share common basic characteristics that are hard-wired within their character, such as the expression of transcription factors of the SoxB family, their capacity to give rise to extremely different neural tissues depends significantly on instructions from the microenvironment...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188302/bamboo-specialists-from-two-mammalian-orders-primates-carnivora-share-a-high-number-of-low-abundance-gut-microbes
#7
Erin A McKenney, Michael Maslanka, Allen Rodrigo, Anne D Yoder
Bamboo specialization is one of the most extreme examples of convergent herbivory, yet it is unclear how this specific high-fiber diet might selectively shape the composition of the gut microbiome compared to host phylogeny. To address these questions, we used deep sequencing to investigate the nature and comparative impact of phylogenetic and dietary selection for specific gut microbial membership in three bamboo specialists-the bamboo lemur (Hapalemur griseus, Primates: Lemuridae), giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca, Carnivora: Ursidae), and red panda (Ailurus fulgens, Carnivora: Musteloideadae), as well as two phylogenetic controls-the ringtail lemur (Lemur catta) and the Asian black bear (Ursus thibetanus)...
November 29, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185525/primate-archaeology-evolves
#8
REVIEW
Michael Haslam, R Adriana Hernandez-Aguilar, Tomos Proffitt, Adrian Arroyo, Tiago Falótico, Dorothy Fragaszy, Michael Gumert, John W K Harris, Michael A Huffman, Ammie K Kalan, Suchinda Malaivijitnond, Tetsuro Matsuzawa, William McGrew, Eduardo B Ottoni, Alejandra Pascual-Garrido, Alex Piel, Jill Pruetz, Caroline Schuppli, Fiona Stewart, Amanda Tan, Elisabetta Visalberghi, Lydia V Luncz
Since its inception, archaeology has traditionally focused exclusively on humans and our direct ancestors. However, recent years have seen archaeological techniques applied to material evidence left behind by non-human animals. Here, we review advances made by the most prominent field investigating past non-human tool use: primate archaeology. This field combines survey of wild primate activity areas with ethological observations, excavations and analyses that allow the reconstruction of past primate behaviour...
October 2017: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180746/numts-colonization-in-mammalian-genomes
#9
F M Calabrese, D L Balacco, R Preste, M A Diroma, R Forino, M Ventura, M Attimonelli
The colonization of the nuclear genome by mitochondrial DNA is an ongoing process in eukaryotes and plays an important role in genomic variability. Notwithstanding the DNA sequence availability of about 100 complete eukaryotic genomes, up to now NumtS distribution has been fully reported for a small number of sequenced eukaryotic species. With the aim to clarify the time and way of NumtS evolution, we explored the genomic distribution of NumtS in 23 eukaryotic species using an intra/interspecies in silico approach based on a cross-species similarity search and deeply investigate the evolution of NumtS in mammals...
November 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175608/temporal-ordering-of-substitutions-in-rna-evolution-uncovering-the-structural-evolution-of-the-human-accelerated-region-1
#10
Maria Beatriz Walter Costa, Christian Höner Zu Siederdissen, Dan Tulpan, Peter F Stadler, Katja Nowick
The Human Accelerated Region 1, HAR1, is the most rapidly evolving region in the human genome. It is part of two overlapping long non-coding RNAs, has a length of only 118 nucleotides and features 18 human specific changes compared to an ancestral sequence that is extremely well conserved across non-human primates. The human HAR1 forms a stable secondary structure that is strikingly different from the one in chimpanzee as well as other closely related species, again emphasizing its human-specific evolutionary history...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174633/regulation-of-innate-immune-functions-by-guanylate-binding-proteins
#11
REVIEW
Gerrit J K Praefcke
Guanylate-binding proteins (GBP) are a family of dynamin-related large GTPases which are expressed in response to interferons and other pro-inflammatory cytokines. GBPs mediate a broad spectrum of innate immune functions against intracellular pathogens ranging from viruses to bacteria and protozoa. Several binding partners for individual GBPs have been identified and several different mechanisms of action have been proposed depending on the organisms, the cell type and the pathogen used. Many of these anti-pathogenic functions of GBPs involve the recruitment to and the subsequent destruction of pathogen containing vacuolar compartments, the assembly of large oligomeric innate immune complexes such as the inflammasome, or the induction of autophagy...
November 2, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169316/coevolution-of-siglec-11-and-siglec-16-via-gene-conversion-in-primates
#12
Toshiyuki Hayakawa, Zahra Khedri, Flavio Schwarz, Corinna Landig, Suh-Yuen Liang, Hai Yu, Xi Chen, Naoko T Fujito, Yoko Satta, Ajit Varki, Takashi Angata
BACKGROUND: Siglecs-11 and -16 are members of the sialic acid recognizing Ig-like lectin family, and expressed in same cells. Siglec-11 functions as an inhibitory receptor, whereas Siglec-16 exhibits activating properties. In humans, SIGLEC11 and SIGLEC16 gene sequences are extremely similar in the region encoding the extracellular domain due to gene conversions. Human SIGLEC11 was converted by the nonfunctional SIGLEC16P allele, and the converted SIGLEC11 allele became fixed in humans, possibly because it provides novel neuroprotective functions in brain microglia...
November 23, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167230/absence-of-cd59-in-guinea-pigs-analysis-of-the-cavia-porcellus-genome-suggests-the-evolution-of-a-cd59-pseudogene
#13
Hani Boshra, Wioleta M Zelek, Timothy R Hughes, Santiago Rodriguez de Cordoba, B Paul Morgan
CD59 is a membrane-bound regulatory protein that inhibits the assembly of the terminal membrane attack complex (C5b-9) of complement. From its original discovery in humans almost 30 years ago, CD59 has been characterized in a variety of species, from primates to early vertebrates, such as teleost fish. CD59 is ubiquitous in mammals; however, we have described circumstantial evidence suggesting that guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) lack CD59, at least on erythrocytes. In this study, we have used a combination of phylogenetic analyses with syntenic alignment of mammalian CD59 genes to identify the only span of genomic DNA in C...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166155/drivers-of-diversification-in-individual-life-courses
#14
Raisa Hernández-Pacheco, Ulrich K Steiner
Heterogeneity in life courses among individuals of a population influences the speed of adaptive evolutionary processes, but it is less clear how biotic and abiotic environmental fluctuations influence such heterogeneity. We investigate principal drivers of variability in sequence of stages during an individual's life in a stage-structured population. We quantify heterogeneity by measuring population entropy of a Markov chain, which computes the rate of diversification of individual life courses. Using individual data of a primate population, we show that density regulates the stage composition of the population but that its entropy and the generating moments of heterogeneity are independent of density...
December 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163486/structure-and-diversity-of-the-rhesus-macaque-immunoglobulin-loci-through-multiple-de-novo-genome-assemblies
#15
Akshaya Ramesh, Sam Darko, Axin Hua, Glenn Overman, Amy Ransier, Joseph R Francica, Ashley Trama, Georgia D Tomaras, Barton F Haynes, Daniel C Douek, Thomas B Kepler
The rhesus macaque is a critically important animal model in biomedical research, most recently playing a key role in the development of vaccines against human immunodeficiency virus-1. Nevertheless, the immunoglobulin (Ig) loci of macaques are as yet incompletely determined and our understanding of differences between human and macaque humoral immunity remains deficient. We completed a high-coverage, high-quality whole genome sequencing and assembly project with a single rhesus macaque of Indian origin, and partial genome assemblies using genomic molecular targeting of the Ig loci in nine other rhesus macaques of Indian origin...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162908/human-canonical-cd157-bst1-is-an-alternatively-spliced-isoform-masking-a-previously-unidentified-primate-specific-exon-included-in-a-novel-transcript
#16
Enza Ferrero, Nicola Lo Buono, Simona Morone, Rossella Parrotta, Cecilia Mancini, Alfredo Brusco, Alice Giacomino, Stefania Augeri, Antonio Rosal-Vela, Sonia García-Rodríguez, Mercedes Zubiaur, Jaime Sancho, Alessandra Fiorio Pla, Ada Funaro
CD157/Bst1 is a dual-function receptor and β-NAD(+)-metabolizing ectoenzyme of the ADP-ribosyl cyclase family. Expressed in human peripheral blood neutrophils and monocytes, CD157 interacts with extracellular matrix components and regulates leukocyte diapedesis via integrin-mediated signalling in inflammation. CD157 also regulates cell migration and is a marker of adverse prognosis in epithelial ovarian cancer and pleural mesothelioma. One form of CD157 is known to date: the canonical sequence of 318 aa from a 9-exon transcript encoded by BST1 on human chromosome 4...
November 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161826/modeling-ebola-virus-disease-transmissions-with-reservoir-in-a-complex-virus-life-ecology
#17
Tsanou Berge, Samuel Bowong, Jean Lubuma, Martin Luther Mann Manyombe
We propose a new deterministic mathematical model for the transmission dynamics of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) in a complex Ebola virus life ecology. Our model captures as much as possible the features and patterns of the disease evolution as a three cycle transmission process in the two ways below. Firstly it involves the synergy between the epizootic phase (during which the disease circulates periodically amongst non-human primates populations and decimates them), the enzootic phase (during which the disease always remains in fruit bats population) and the epidemic phase (during which the EVD threatens and decimates human populations)...
February 1, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155331/evolution-of-vomeronasal-receptor-1-v1r-genes-in-the-common-marmoset-callithrix-jacchus
#18
Keiko Moriya-Ito, Takashi Hayakawa, Hikoyu Suzuki, Kimiko Hagino-Yamagishi, Masato Nikaido
Pheromones are crucial for eliciting innate responses and inducing social and sexual behaviors in mammals. The vomeronasal receptor 1 genes, V1Rs, encode members of a pheromone receptor family that are mainly expressed in the vomeronasal organ (VNO). The V1R family shows extraordinary variety in gene number among vertebrates owing to successive gene gains and losses during evolution. Such diversity is believed to reflect a degree of dependence on the VNO. We investigated V1R evolution in primate lineages closely related to humans because these VNOs show a trend toward degeneration...
November 16, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149249/human-accelerated-regions-and-other-human-specific-sequence-variations-in-the-context-of-evolution-and-their-relevance-for-brain-development
#19
Anastasia Levchenko, Alexander Kanapin, Anastasia Samsonova, Raul Gainetdinov
The review discusses, in a format of a timeline, the studies of different types of genetic variants, present in Homo sapiens, but absent in all other primate, mammalian or vertebrate species, tested so far. The main characteristic of these variants is that they are found in regions of high evolutionary conservation. These sequence variations include single nucleotide substitutions (called human accelerated regions), deletions and segmental duplications. The rationale for finding such variations in the human genome is that they could be responsible for traits, specific to our species, of which the human brain is the most remarkable...
November 14, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142114/female-vervet-monkeys-fine-tune-decisions-on-tolerance-versus-conflict-in-a-communication-network
#20
Christèle Borgeaud, Alessandra Schnider, Michael Krützen, Redouan Bshary
Group living promotes opportunities for both cooperation and competition. Selection on the ability to cope with such opposing social opportunities has been proposed as a driving force in the evolution of large brains in primates and other social species. However, we still know little about the degree of complexity involved in such social strategies. Here, we report advanced social strategies in wild vervet monkeys. Building on recent experimental evidence that subordinate females trade grooming for tolerance from higher-ranking individuals during foraging activities, we show that the audience composition strongly affects this trade...
November 29, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
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