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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821812/crows-rival-monkeys-in-cognitive-capacity
#1
Dmitry Balakhonov, Jonas Rose
The present study compares the 'bandwidth of cognition' between crows and primates. Working memory is the ability to maintain and manipulate information over short periods of time - a core component of cognition. The capacity of working memory is tightly limited, in humans correlated with individual intelligence and commonly used synonymously with cognitive capacity. Crows have remarkable cognitive skills and while birds and mammals share neural principles of working memory, its capacity has not been tested in crows...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815964/sex-biased-dispersal-of-human-ancestors
#2
Yukimaru Sugiyama
Some anthropologists and primatologists have argued that, judging by extant chimpanzees and humans, which are female-biased dispersers, the common ancestors of humans and chimpanzees were also female-biased dispersers. It has been thought that sex-biased dispersal patterns have been genetically transmitted for millions of years. However, this character has changed many times with changes in environment and life-form during human evolution and historical times. I examined life-form and social organization of nonhuman primates, among them gatherers (foragers), hunter-gatherers, agriculturalists, industrialists, and modern and extant humans...
July 2017: Evolutionary Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812736/the-evolution-and-population-diversity-of-human-specific-segmental-duplications
#3
Megan Y Dennis, Lana Harshman, Bradley J Nelson, Osnat Penn, Stuart Cantsilieris, John Huddleston, Francesca Antonacci, Kelsi Penewit, Laura Denman, Archana Raja, Carl Baker, Kenneth Mark, Maika Malig, Nicolette Janke, Claudia Espinoza, Holly A F Stessman, Xander Nuttle, Kendra Hoekzema, Tina A Lindsay-Graves, Richard K Wilson, Evan E Eichler
Segmental duplications contribute to human evolution, adaptation and genomic instability but are often poorly characterized. We investigate the evolution, genetic variation and coding potential of human-specific segmental duplications (HSDs). We identify 218 HSDs based on analysis of 322 deeply sequenced archaic and contemporary hominid genomes. We sequence 550 human and nonhuman primate genomic clones to reconstruct the evolution of the largest, most complex regions with protein-coding potential (N = 80 genes from 33 gene families)...
February 17, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812699/primate-brain-size-is-predicted-by-diet-but-not-sociality
#4
Alex R DeCasien, Scott A Williams, James P Higham
The social brain hypothesis posits that social complexity is the primary driver of primate cognitive complexity, and that social pressures ultimately led to the evolution of the large human brain. Although this idea has been supported by studies indicating positive relationships between relative brain and/or neocortex size and group size, reported effects of different social and mating systems are highly conflicting. Here, we use a much larger sample of primates, more recent phylogenies, and updated statistical techniques, to show that brain size is predicted by diet, rather than multiple measures of sociality, after controlling for body size and phylogeny...
March 27, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810713/co-opted-megasatellite-dna-drives-evolution-of-secondary-night-vision-in-azara-s-owl-monkey
#5
Akihiko Koga, Hideyuki Tanabe, Yuriko Hirai, Hiroo Imai, Masanori Imamura, Takao Oishi, Roscoe Stanyon, Hirohisa Hirai
Owl monkeys (genus Aotus) are the only taxon in simian primates that consists of nocturnal or otherwise cathemeral species. Their night vision is superior to that of other monkeys, apes, and humans but not as good as that of typical nocturnal mammals. This incomplete night vision has been used to conclude that these monkeys only secondarily adapted to a nocturnal lifestyle, or to their cathemeral lifestyle that involves high night-time activity. It is known that the rod cells of many nocturnal mammals possess a unique nuclear architecture in which heterochromatin is centrally located...
July 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810710/testing-convergent-evolution-in-auditory-processing-genes-between-echolocating-mammals-and-the-aye-aye-a-percussive-foraging-primate
#6
Richard J Bankoff, Michael Jerjos, Baily Hohman, M Elise Lauterbur, Logan Kistler, George H Perry
Several taxonomically distinct mammalian groups-certain microbats and cetaceans (e.g., dolphins)-share both morphological adaptations related to echolocation behavior and strong signatures of convergent evolution at the amino acid level across seven genes related to auditory processing. Aye-ayes (Daubentonia madagascariensis) are nocturnal lemurs with a specialized auditory processing system. Aye-ayes tap rapidly along the surfaces of trees, listening to reverberations to identify the mines of wood-boring insect larvae; this behavior has been hypothesized to functionally mimic echolocation...
July 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810709/parallel-evolution-of-sperm-hyper-activation-ca2-channels
#7
Jacob C Cooper, Nitin Phadnis
Sperm hyper-activation is a dramatic change in sperm behavior where mature sperm burst into a final sprint in the race to the egg. The mechanism of sperm hyper-activation in many metazoans, including humans, consists of a jolt of Ca2+ into the sperm flagellum via CatSper ion channels. Surprisingly, all nine CatSper genes have been independently lost in several animal lineages. In Drosophila, sperm hyper-activation is performed through the cooption of the polycystic kidney disease 2 (pkd2) Ca2+ channel. The parallels between CatSpers in primates and pkd2 in Drosophila provide a unique opportunity to examine the molecular evolution of the sperm hyper-activation machinery in two independent, nonhomologous calcium channels separated by > 500 million years of divergence...
July 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800766/examining-non-ltr-retrotransposons-in-the-context-of-the-evolving-primate-brain
#8
REVIEW
Sara B Linker, Maria C Marchetto, Iñigo Narvaiza, Ahmet M Denli, Fred H Gage
Researchers have long sought to understand the genetic basis of the cognitive differences between primates, with particular focus on the human brain. Although all mutational types have worked in concert with evolutionary forces to generate the current human brain, in this review we will explore the impact of mobile elements, specifically non-LTR retrotransposons. Non-LTR retrotransposons have contributed coding and regulatory sequences to the genome throughout evolution. During primate evolution there have been multiple waves of LINE retrotransposition as well as the birth of new mobile elements such as the SINEs Alu and SVA and we will explore what kinds of impacts these may have had on the evolving human brain...
August 11, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783206/high-mortality-associated-with-tapeworm-parasitism-in-geladas-theropithecus-gelada-in-the-simien-mountains-national-park-ethiopia
#9
India Schneider-Crease, Randi H Griffin, Megan A Gomery, Thore J Bergman, Jacinta C Beehner
Despite increasing appreciation for parasitism as an important component of primate ecology and evolution, surprisingly few studies have demonstrated the costs of helminth parasitism in primates. Detecting parasite-related costs in primates is particularly difficult because it requires detailed, long-term data on individual host reproductive success, survival, and parasitism. The identification of the larval tapeworm Taenia serialis in geladas under intensive long-term study in the Ethiopian Highlands (Nguyen et al...
August 7, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771513/a-modified-vaccinia-ankara-vaccine-vector-expressing-a-mosaic-h5-hemagglutinin-reduces-viral-shedding-in-rhesus-macaques
#10
Nicholas W Florek, Attapon Kamlangdee, James P Mutschler, Brock Kingstad-Bakke, Nancy Schultz-Darken, Karl W Broman, Jorge E Osorio, Thomas C Friedrich
The rapid antigenic evolution of influenza viruses requires frequent vaccine reformulations. Due to the economic burden of continuous vaccine reformulation and the threat of new pandemics, there is intense interest in developing vaccines capable of eliciting broadly cross-reactive immunity to influenza viruses. We recently constructed a "mosaic" hemagglutinin (HA) based on subtype 5 HA (H5) and designed to stimulate cellular and humoral immunity to multiple influenza virus subtypes. Modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) expressing this H5 mosaic (MVA-H5M) protected mice against multiple homosubtypic H5N1 strains and a heterosubtypic H1N1 virus...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769746/triarchic-psychopathy-dimensions-in-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes-investigating-associations-with-genetic-variation-in-the-vasopressin-receptor-1a-gene
#11
Robert D Latzman, Steven J Schapiro, William D Hopkins
Vasopressin is a neuropeptide known to be associated with the development and evolution of complex socio-emotional behaviors including those relevant to psychopathic personality. In both humans and chimpanzees, recent research suggests a strong genetic contribution to individual variation in psychopathic traits. To date, however, little is known concerning specific genes that might explain the observed heritability of psychopathy. In a relatively large sample of captive chimpanzees (N = 164), the current study thus sought to investigate gene-environment associations between triarchic psychopathy dimensions (i...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768854/presence-of-a-shared-5-leader-sequence-in-ancestral-human-and-mammalian-retroviruses-and-its-transduction-into-feline-leukemia-virus
#12
Junna Kawasaki, Maki Kawamura, Yoshiharu Ohsato, Jumpei Ito, Kazuo Nishigaki
Recombination events induce significant genetic changes, and this process can result in virus genetic diversity or in the generation of novel pathogenicity. We discovered a new recombinant feline leukemia virus (FeLV) gag gene harboring an unrelated insertion, termed the "X-region", which was derived from FcERV-gamma4, a feline endogenous gammaretrovirus. The identified FcERV-gamma4 proviruses have lost their coding capability, but some can express their viral RNA in feline tissues. Although the X-region-carrying recombinant FeLVs appeared to be replication-defective viruses, they were detected in 6...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768268/qualitative-and-quantitative-analysis-of-primary-neocortical-areas-in-selected-mammals
#13
Elisabeth van Kann, Bruno Cozzi, Patrick R Hof, Helmut H A Oelschläger
The present study focuses on the relationship between neocortical structures and functional aspects in three selected mammalian species. Our aim was to compare cortical layering and neuron density in the projection areas (somatomotor, M1; somatosensory, S1; auditory, A1; and visual, V1; each in a wider sense). Morphological and design-based stereological analysis was performed in the wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa) as a representative terrestrial hoofed animal (artiodactyl) and the common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) as a highly derived related aquatic mammal (cetartiodactyl)...
July 29, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761017/social-behavioural-epistemology-and-the-scientific-community
#14
Milind Watve
The progress of science is influenced substantially by social behaviour of and social interactions within the scientific community. Similar to innovations in primate groups, the social acceptance of an innovation depends not only upon the relevance of the innovation but also on the social dominance and connectedness of the innovator. There are a number of parallels between many well-known phenomena in behavioural evolution and various behavioural traits observed in the scientific community. It would be useful, therefore, to use principles of behavioural evolution as hypotheses to study the social behaviour of the scientific community...
July 2017: Journal of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760762/sex-roles-and-adult-sex-ratios-insights-from-mammalian-biology-and-consequences-for-primate-behaviour
#15
REVIEW
Peter M Kappeler
Theoretical models and empirical studies in various taxa have identified important links between variation in sex roles and the number of adult males and females (adult sex ratio (ASR)) in a population. In this review, I examine these relationships in non-human primates. Because most existing theoretical models of the evolution of sex roles focus on the evolutionary origins of sex-biased behaviour, they offer only a general scaffold for predicting variation in sex roles among and within species. I argue that studies examining sex role variation at these more specific levels need to take social organization into account to identify meaningful levels for the measurement of ASR and to account for the fact that ASR and sex roles mutually influence each other...
September 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751609/control-of-species-dependent-cortico-motoneuronal-connections-underlying-manual-dexterity
#16
Zirong Gu, John Kalamboglas, Shin Yoshioka, Wenqi Han, Zhuo Li, Yuka Imamura Kawasawa, Sirisha Pochareddy, Zhen Li, Fuchen Liu, Xuming Xu, Sagara Wijeratne, Masaki Ueno, Emily Blatz, Joseph Salomone, Atsushi Kumanogoh, Mladen-Roko Rasin, Brian Gebelein, Matthew T Weirauch, Nenad Sestan, John H Martin, Yutaka Yoshida
Superior manual dexterity in higher primates emerged together with the appearance of cortico-motoneuronal (CM) connections during the evolution of the mammalian corticospinal (CS) system. Previously thought to be specific to higher primates, we identified transient CM connections in early postnatal mice, which are eventually eliminated by Sema6D-PlexA1 signaling. PlexA1 mutant mice maintain CM connections into adulthood and exhibit superior manual dexterity as compared with that of controls. Last, differing PlexA1 expression in layer 5 of the motor cortex, which is strong in wild-type mice but weak in humans, may be explained by FEZF2-mediated cis-regulatory elements that are found only in higher primates...
July 28, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750248/how-to-tame-an-endogenous-retrovirus-hervh-and-the-evolution-of-human-pluripotency
#17
REVIEW
Christine Römer, Manvendra Singh, Laurence D Hurst, Zsuzsanna Izsvák
HERVH is one of the most successful endogenous retrovirus in the human genome. Relative to other endogenous retroviruses, slower degradation of HERVH internal sequences indicates their potential relevance for the host. HERVH is transcriptionally active during human preimplantation embryogenesis. In this review, we focus on the role of HERVH in regulating human pluripotency. The HERVH-mediated pluripotency network has been evolved recently in primates. Nevertheless, it became an essential feature of human pluripotency...
July 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739950/coevolution-of-cultural-intelligence-extended-life-history-sociality-and-brain-size-in-primates
#18
Sally E Street, Ana F Navarrete, Simon M Reader, Kevin N Laland
Explanations for primate brain expansion and the evolution of human cognition and culture remain contentious despite extensive research. While multiple comparative analyses have investigated variation in brain size across primate species, very few have addressed why primates vary in how much they use social learning. Here, we evaluate the hypothesis that the enhanced reliance on socially transmitted behavior observed in some primates has coevolved with enlarged brains, complex sociality, and extended lifespans...
July 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739927/culture-extends-the-scope-of-evolutionary-biology-in-the-great-apes
#19
Andrew Whiten
Discoveries about the cultures and cultural capacities of the great apes have played a leading role in the recognition emerging in recent decades that cultural inheritance can be a significant factor in the lives not only of humans but also of nonhuman animals. This prominence derives in part from these primates being those with whom we share the most recent common ancestry, thus offering clues to the origins of our own thoroughgoing reliance on cumulative cultural achievements. In addition, the intense research focus on these species has spawned an unprecedented diversity of complementary methodological approaches, the results of which suggest that cultural phenomena pervade the lives of these apes, with potentially major implications for their broader evolutionary biology...
July 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731824/evolutionary-scenarios-and-primate-natural-history
#20
Harry W Greene
Scenarios summarize evolutionary patterns and processes by interpreting organismal traits and their natural history correlates in a phylogenetic context. They are constructed by (1) describing phenotypes (including physiology and behavior), ideally with attention to formative roles of development, experience, and culture; (2) inferring homologies, homoplasies, ancestral character states, and their transformations with phylogenetic analyses; and (3) integrating those components with ecological and other ancillary data...
August 2017: American Naturalist
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