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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926929/functional-and-evolutionary-analyses-identify-proteolysis-as-a-general-mechanism-for-nlrp1-inflammasome-activation
#1
Joseph Chavarría-Smith, Patrick S Mitchell, Alvin M Ho, Matthew D Daugherty, Russell E Vance
Inflammasomes are cytosolic multi-protein complexes that initiate immune responses to infection by recruiting and activating the Caspase-1 protease. Human NLRP1 was the first protein shown to form an inflammasome, but its physiological mechanism of activation remains unknown. Recently, specific variants of mouse and rat NLRP1 were found to be activated upon N-terminal cleavage by the anthrax lethal factor protease. However, agonists for other NLRP1 variants, including human NLRP1, are not known, and it remains unclear if they are also activated by proteolysis...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924271/amino-acid-residues-of-bitter-taste-receptor-tas2r16-that-determine-sensitivity-in-primates-to-%C3%AE-glycosides
#2
Hiroo Imai, Nami Suzuki-Hashido, Yoshiro Ishimaru, Takanobu Sakurai, Lijie Yin, Wenshi Pan, Masaji Ishiguro, Katsuyoshi Masuda, Keiko Abe, Takumi Misaka, Hirohisa Hirai
In mammals, bitter taste is mediated by TAS2Rs, which belong to the family of seven transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors. Since TAS2Rs are directly involved in the interaction between mammals and their dietary sources, it is likely that these genes evolved to reflect species-specific diets during mammalian evolution. Here, we analyzed the amino acids responsible for the difference in sensitivities of TAS2R16s of various primates using a cultured cell expression system. We found that the sensitivity of TAS2R16 varied due to several amino acid residues...
2016: Biophysics and Physicobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923733/cognitive-control-of-vocalizations-in-the-primate-ventrolateral-dorsomedial-frontal-vlf-dmf-brain-network
#3
REVIEW
Loh Kep Kee, Petrides Michael, Hopkins D William, Procyk Emmanuel, Amiez Céline
This review centers on the neural mechanisms underlying the primate cognitive control of vocalizations i.e. the capacity to regulate vocal productions in a goal-directed manner. In both human and non-human primates (NHPs), two main frontal brain regions are associated with top-down vocal control: a ventrolateral frontal region (VLF), comprising the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and ventral premotor region; and a dorsomedial frontal region (DMF), comprising the mid-cingulate cortex, pre-supplementary and supplementary motor areas...
December 3, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923731/social-modulation-of-cognition-lessons-from-rhesus-macaques-relevant-to-education
#4
REVIEW
Elisabetta Monfardini, Amélie J Reynaud, Jérôme Prado, Martine Meunier
Any animal, human or non-human, lives in a world where there are others like itself. Individuals' behaviors are thus inevitably influenced by others, and cognition is no exception. Long acknowledged in psychology, social modulations of cognition have been neglected in cognitive neuroscience. Yet, infusing this classic topic in psychology with brain science methodologies could yield valuable educational insights. In recent studies, we used a non-human primate model, the rhesus macaque, to identify social influences representing ancient biases rooted in evolution, and neuroimaging to shed light on underlying mechanisms...
December 3, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922051/catalysis-and-structure-of-zebrafish-urate-oxidase-provide-insights-into-the-origin-of-hyperuricemia-in-hominoids
#5
Marialaura Marchetti, Anastasia Liuzzi, Beatrice Fermi, Romina Corsini, Claudia Folli, Valentina Speranzini, Francesco Gandolfi, Stefano Bettati, Luca Ronda, Laura Cendron, Rodolfo Berni, Giuseppe Zanotti, Riccardo Percudani
Urate oxidase (Uox) catalyses the first reaction of oxidative uricolysis, a three-step enzymatic pathway that allows some animals to eliminate purine nitrogen through a water-soluble compound. Inactivation of the pathway in hominoids leads to elevated levels of sparingly soluble urate and puts humans at risk of hyperuricemia and gout. The uricolytic activities lost during evolution can be replaced by enzyme therapy. Here we report on the functional and structural characterization of Uox from zebrafish and the effects on the enzyme of the missense mutation (F216S) that preceded Uox pseudogenization in hominoids...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913843/molecular-evolution-in-historical-perspective
#6
Edna Suárez-Díaz
In the 1960s, advances in protein chemistry and molecular genetics provided new means for the study of biological evolution. Amino acid sequencing, nucleic acid hybridization, zone gel electrophoresis, and immunochemistry were some of the experimental techniques that brought about new perspectives to the study of the patterns and mechanisms of evolution. New concepts, such as the molecular evolutionary clock, and the discovery of unexpected molecular phenomena, like the presence of repetitive sequences in eukaryotic genomes, eventually led to the realization that evolution might occur at a different pace at the organismic and the molecular levels, and according to different mechanisms...
December 2016: Journal of Molecular Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886811/morphoarchitectural-variation-in-south-african-fossil-cercopithecoid-endocasts
#7
Amélie Beaudet, Jean Dumoncel, Frikkie de Beer, Benjamin Duployer, Stanley Durrleman, Emmanuel Gilissen, Jakobus Hoffman, Christophe Tenailleau, John Francis Thackeray, José Braga
Despite the abundance of well-preserved crania and natural endocasts in the South African Plio-Pleistocene cercopithecoid record, which provide direct information relevant to the evolution of their endocranial characteristics, few studies have attempted to characterize patterns of external brain morphology in this highly successful primate Superfamily. The availability of non-destructive penetrating radiation imaging systems, together with recently developed computer-based analytical tools, allow for high resolution virtual imaging and modeling of the endocranial casts and thus disclose new perspectives in comparative paleoneurology...
December 2016: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886204/characterization-of-structural-connectivity-of-the-default-mode-network-in-dogs-using-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#8
Jennifer L Robinson, Madhura Baxi, Jeffrey S Katz, Paul Waggoner, Ronald Beyers, Edward Morrison, Nouha Salibi, Thomas S Denney, Vitaly Vodyanoy, Gopikrishna Deshpande
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) provides us an insight into the micro-architecture of white-matter tracts in the brain. This method has proved promising in understanding and investigating the neuronal tracts and structural connectivity between the brain regions in primates as well as rodents. The close evolutionary relationship between canines and humans may have spawned a unique bond in regard to social cognition rendering them useful as an animal model in translational research. In this study, we acquired diffusion data from anaesthetized dogs and created a DTI-based atlas for a canine model which could be used to investigate various white matter diseases...
November 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884462/dual-neural-network-model-for-the-evolution-of-speech-and-language
#9
REVIEW
Steffen R Hage, Andreas Nieder
Explaining the evolution of speech and language poses one of the biggest challenges in biology. We propose a dual network model that posits a volitional articulatory motor network (VAMN) originating in the prefrontal cortex (PFC; including Broca's area) that cognitively controls vocal output of a phylogenetically conserved primary vocal motor network (PVMN) situated in subcortical structures. By comparing the connections between these two systems in human and nonhuman primate brains, we identify crucial biological preadaptations in monkeys for the emergence of a language system in humans...
November 21, 2016: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884401/the-make-love-not-war-ape-bonobos-and-late-twentieth-century-explanations-for-war-and-peace
#10
Deborah Weinstein
Why do people fight wars? Following the devastation of the Second World War, this question became particularly pressing. Postwar scholars in the human sciences, from political science to anthropology, investigated the role of human nature in the causes of war even as they debated the very meaning of human nature itself. Among the wide-ranging efforts of postwar social and behavioral scientists to explain the causes of war, research on primate aggression became a compelling approach to studying the evolution of human warfare...
November 21, 2016: Endeavour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883046/holding-on-co-evolution-between-infant-carrying-and-grasping-behaviour-in-strepsirrhines
#11
Louise Peckre, Anne-Claire Fabre, Christine E Wall, David Brewer, Erin Ehmke, David Haring, Erin Shaw, Kay Welser, Emmanuelle Pouydebat
The origin and evolution of manual grasping remain poorly understood. The ability to cling requires important grasping abilities and is essential to survive in species where the young are carried in the fur. A previous study has suggested that this behaviour could be a pre-adaptation for the evolution of fine manipulative skills. In this study we tested the co-evolution between infant carrying in the fur and manual grasping abilities in the context of food manipulation. As strepsirrhines vary in the way infants are carried (mouth vs...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881787/sensory-and-working-memory-representations-of-small-and-large-numerosities-in-the-crow-endbrain
#12
Helen M Ditz, Andreas Nieder
: Neurons in the avian nidopallium caudolaterale (NCL), an endbrain structure that originated independently from the mammalian neocortex, process visual numerosities. To clarify the code for number in this anatomically distinct endbrain area in birds, neuronal responses to a broad range of numerosities were analyzed. We recorded single-neuron activity from the NCL of crows performing a delayed match-to-sample task with visual numerosities as discriminanda. The responses of >20% of randomly selected neurons were modulated significantly by numerosities ranging from one to 30 items...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878434/regional-selection-of-the-brain-size-regulating-gene-casc5-provides-new-insight-into-human-brain-evolution
#13
Lei Shi, Enzhi Hu, Zhenbo Wang, Jiewei Liu, Jin Li, Ming Li, Hua Chen, Chunshui Yu, Tianzi Jiang, Bing Su
Human evolution is marked by a continued enlargement of the brain. Previous studies on human brain evolution focused on identifying sequence divergences of brain size regulating genes between humans and nonhuman primates. However, the evolutionary pattern of the brain size regulating genes during recent human evolution is largely unknown. We conducted a comprehensive analysis of the brain size regulating gene CASC5 and found that in recent human evolution, CASC5 has accumulated many modern human specific amino acid changes, including two fixed changes and six polymorphic changes...
November 22, 2016: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872723/a-human-reproductive-approach-to-the-study-of-infertility-in-chimpanzees-an-experience-at-leon-s-zoological-park-mexico
#14
Raul Eduardo Piña-Aguilar, Janet López-Saucedo, Lilia Ivone Ruiz-Galaz, José de Jesús Barroso-Padilla, Mayra Celina Gallegos-Rivas, Claudia González-Ortega, Antonio Martin Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez
Great apes are mammals close to humans in their genetic, behavioral, social and evolutionary characteristics and new genomic information is revolutionizing our understanding of evolution in primates. However, all these species are endangered. While there are many global programs to protect these species, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) projects that in a near future the wild populations will decrease significantly. Nowadays, the relevance of captive populations of great apes is becoming critical for research and understanding of pathophysiology of diseases...
2016: Veterinary Research Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872299/the-emergence-of-longevous-populations
#15
Fernando Colchero, Roland Rau, Owen R Jones, Julia A Barthold, Dalia A Conde, Adam Lenart, Laszlo Nemeth, Alexander Scheuerlein, Jonas Schoeley, Catalina Torres, Virginia Zarulli, Jeanne Altmann, Diane K Brockman, Anne M Bronikowski, Linda M Fedigan, Anne E Pusey, Tara S Stoinski, Karen B Strier, Annette Baudisch, Susan C Alberts, James W Vaupel
The human lifespan has traversed a long evolutionary and historical path, from short-lived primate ancestors to contemporary Japan, Sweden, and other longevity frontrunners. Analyzing this trajectory is crucial for understanding biological and sociocultural processes that determine the span of life. Here we reveal a fundamental regularity. Two straight lines describe the joint rise of life expectancy and lifespan equality: one for primates and the second one over the full range of human experience from average lifespans as low as 2 y during mortality crises to more than 87 y for Japanese women today...
November 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871788/do-monkeys-have-a-theory-of-mind-how-to-answer-the-question
#16
REVIEW
Hélène Meunier
Since Premack and Woodruf (1978), the study of mindreading abilities in nonhumans, especially primates, has been thoroughly investigated. But attempts to understand the evolution of this aspect of human intelligence have mainly focused on comparisons between apes and human infants, while relatively little is known about the abilities of monkeys. This lack of data on monkeys seems mainly due to the hypothesis of a cognitive "gap" between apes and monkeys. However, in recent years monkeys have been featuring more prominently in the landscape of social cognition research, and some of these systematic studies appear promising...
November 18, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870346/divided-zygomatic-bone-in-primates-with-implications-of-skull-morphology-and-biomechanics
#17
Qian Wang, Paul C Dechow
Typically the zygoma is a single bone in the facial skeleton whose shape uniquely copes with loads associated with mastication. Rarely but naturally, the zygoma is divided into two or more parts by supernumerary sutures. These extra intrazygomatic sutures are located at an area of critical morphological and biomechanical importance, yet their impacts have not been studied. In this study, the morphological and possible biomechanical consequences of the divided zygoma (DZ) were investigated in primates including rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), orangutans (Pongo abelii and P...
December 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870341/development-structure-and-function-of-the-zygomatic-bones-what-is-new-and-why-do-we-care
#18
Paul C Dechow, Qian Wang
This issue of The Anatomical Record is the first of a two-volume set on the zygoma (also called the cheek bone, the zygomatic bone, the malar, or the jugal, the latter term being used in vertebrates other than mammals). The zygoma is an important component of the craniofacial skeleton, in which the zygoma is a connection between the midfacial and the cranial skeletons; has a functional role as the origin of one of the masticatory muscles, the masseter muscle, and several facial muscles; has been considered as an essential buttress of the facial skeleton for resisting masticatory forces; and has importance for determining phylogenetic relationships...
December 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865584/cooperation-and-deception-in-primates
#19
Katie Hall, Sarah F Brosnan
Though competition and cooperation are often considered opposing forces in an arms race driving natural selection, many animals, including humans, cooperate in order to mitigate competition with others. Understanding others' psychological states, such as seeing and knowing, others' goals and intentions, and coordinating actions are all important for complex cooperation-as well as for predicting behavior in order to take advantage of others through tactical deception, a form of competition. We outline evidence of primates' understanding of how others perceive the world, and then consider how the evidence from both deception and cooperation fits this framework to give us a more complete understanding of the evolution of complex social cognition in primates...
November 16, 2016: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864630/the-interlaminar-glia-from-serendipity-to-hypothesis
#20
REVIEW
Jorge A Colombo
An account of work performed at the UNA laboratories since 1992 on the detection and description of interlaminar glial processes, is presented. The incidental observation (serendipity) of longer than expected glial processes in the superficial layers of the cerebral cortex in hemiparkinsonian Cebus apella monkeys, was expanded afterwards to cover the largest possible sampling of representatives of mammalian orders and species, as well as in experimental and pathological conditions, in human and non-human primates...
November 18, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
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