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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677702/is-the-pelvis-sexually-dimorphic-in-turtles
#1
Gerardo A Cordero
Variation in the pelvis is intrinsically linked to life history evolution. This is perhaps best exemplified by sexually dimorphic pelvic variation in bipedal primates. Yet, whether this trend is applicable to other taxa is unclear. Using turtle anatomy as a model, I tested the hypothesis that the pelvis is also sexually dimorphic in egg-laying tetrapods. I sampled a natural turtle population with female-biased sexual size dimorphism (i.e. larger females). I show that the area of the egg canal (pelvic aperture) is greater in females...
April 20, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676996/involvement-of-spata31-copy-number-variable-genes-in-human-lifespan
#2
Cemalettin Bekpen, Chen Xie, Almut Nebel, Diethard Tautz
The SPATA31 ( alias FAM75A) gene family belongs to the core duplicon families that are thought to have contributed significantly to hominoid evolution. It is also among the gene families with the strongest signal of positive selection in hominoids. It has acquired new protein domains in the primate lineage and a previous study has suggested that the gene family has expanded its function into UV response and DNA repair. Here we show that over-expression of SPATA31A1 in fibroblast cells leads to premature senescence due to interference with aging-related transcription pathways...
April 19, 2018: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672586/selection-on-the-regulation-of-sympathetic-nervous-activity-in-humans-and-chimpanzees
#3
Kang Seon Lee, Paramita Chatterjee, Eun-Young Choi, Min Kyung Sung, Jaeho Oh, Hyejung Won, Seong-Min Park, Youn-Jae Kim, Soojin V Yi, Jung Kyoon Choi
Adrenergic α2C receptor (ADRA2C) is an inhibitory modulator of the sympathetic nervous system. Knockout mice for this gene show physiological and behavioural alterations that are associated with the fight-or-flight response. There is evidence of positive selection on the regulation of this gene during chicken domestication. Here, we find that the neuronal expression of ADRA2C is lower in human and chimpanzee than in other primates. On the basis of three-dimensional chromatin structure, we identified a cis-regulatory region whose DNA sequences have been significantly accelerated in human and chimpanzee...
April 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669733/evolution-of-dnaasei-hypersensitive-sites-in-mhc-regulatory-regions-of-primates
#4
Yabin Jin, Rachel M Gittelman, Yueer Lu, Xiaohui Liu, Ming D Li, Fei Ling, Joshua M Akey
It has been challenged to determine the disease-causing variant(s) for most major histocompatibility complex (MHC) associated diseases. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that regulatory variation is pervasive and a fundamentally important mechanism governing phenotypic diversity and disease susceptibility. We leveraged DNase I data from 136 human cells to characterize the regulatory landscape of the MHC region, including 4867 DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHSs). We identified thousands of regulatory elements that have been gained or lost in the human or chimpanzee genomes since their evolutionary divergence...
April 18, 2018: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666269/worldwide-distribution-of-the-dcdc2-read1-regulatory-element-and-its-relationship-with-phoneme-variation-across-languages
#5
Mellissa M C DeMille, Kevin Tang, Chintan M Mehta, Christopher Geissler, Jeffrey G Malins, Natalie R Powers, Beatrice M Bowen, Andrew K Adams, Dongnhu T Truong, Jan C Frijters, Jeffrey R Gruen
DCDC2 is a gene strongly associated with components of the phonological processing system in animal models and in multiple independent studies of populations and languages. We propose that it may also influence population-level variation in language component usage. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the evolution and worldwide distribution of the READ1 regulatory element within DCDC2 , and compared its distribution with variation in different language properties. The mutational history of READ1 was estimated by examining primate and archaic hominin sequences...
April 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664134/intra-specific-variation-in-social-organization-of-strepsirrhines
#6
REVIEW
Paul Agnani, Cécile Kauffmann, Loren D Hayes, Carsten Schradin
Strepsirrhines, that is, lemurs, galagos, and lorises, are considered basal primates, making them important to understand the evolution of primate sociality. Apart from some lemurs, they are nocturnal and solitary living, though the view of their sociality nature has changed with field studies being completed. We conducted a review of the primary literature about the social organization (group composition) of strepsirrhines, with the aim to determine whether intra-specific variation in social organization (IVSO) occurs and to determine how many species are pair-living, group-living, or solitary living...
April 17, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663687/what-could-hominoid-fetuses-tell-us-about-human-evolution
#7
Naoki Morimoto
The increasing availability of developmental data on humans and great apes has become essential for furthering our understanding of human evolution. Although postnatal ontogeny is relatively well documented, our knowledge about variation of developmental patterns during the prenatal period among primate species remains lacking. There are various limitations to studying fetuses, but investigating the fetal period, directly or indirectly, has the potential to answer questions that are otherwise difficult to tackle with postnatal examination...
April 16, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661983/the-evolution-of-cpg-density-and-lifespan-in-conserved-primate-and-mammalian-promoters
#8
Adam T McLain, Christopher Faulk
Gene promoters are evolutionarily conserved across holozoans and enriched in CpG sites, the target for DNA methylation. As animals age, the epigenetic pattern of DNA methylation degrades, with highly methylated CpG sites gradually becoming demethylated while CpG islands increase in methylation. Across vertebrates, aging is a trait that varies among species. We used this variation to determine whether promoter CpG density correlates with species' maximum lifespan. Human promoter sequences were used to identify conserved regions in 131 mammals and a subset of 28 primate genomes...
April 14, 2018: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659972/acceleration-of-olfactory-receptor-gene-loss-in-primate-evolution-possible-link-to-anatomical-change-in-sensory-systems-and-dietary-transition
#9
Yoshihito Niimura, Atsushi Matsui, Kazushige Touhara
Primates have traditionally been regarded as vision-oriented animals with low olfactory ability, though this "microsmatic primates" view has been challenged recently. To clarify when and how degeneration of the olfactory system occurred and to specify the relevant factors during primate evolution, we here examined the olfactory receptor (OR) genes from 24 phylogenetically and ecologically diverse primate species. The results revealed that strepsirrhines with curved noses had functional OR gene repertoires that were nearly twice as large as those for haplorhines with simple noses...
April 10, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650972/intentional-communication-between-wild-bonnet-macaques-and-humans
#10
Adwait Deshpande, Shreejata Gupta, Anindya Sinha
Comparative studies of nonhuman communication systems could provide insights into the origins and evolution of a distinct dimension of human language: intentionality. Recent studies have provided evidence for intentional communication in different species but generally in captive settings. We report here a novel behaviour of food requesting from humans displayed by wild bonnet macaques Macaca radiata, an Old World cercopithecine primate, in the Bandipur National Park of southern India. Using both natural observations and field experiments, we examined four different behavioural components-coo-calls, hand-extension gesture, orientation, and monitoring behaviour-of food requesting for their conformity with the established criteria of intentional communication...
April 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648536/silencing-of-transposable-elements-may-not-be-a-major-driver-of-regulatory-evolution-in-primate-ipscs
#11
Michelle C Ward, Siming Zhao, Kaixuan Luo, Bryan J Pavlovic, Mohammad M Karimi, Matthew Stephens, Yoav Gilad
Transposable elements (TEs) comprise almost half of primate genomes and their aberrant regulation can result in deleterious effects. In pluripotent stem cells, rapidly-evolving KRAB-ZNF genes target TEs for silencing by H3K9me3. To investigate the evolution of TE silencing, we performed H3K9me3 ChIP-seq experiments in induced pluripotent stem cells from ten human and seven chimpanzee individuals. We identified four million orthologous TEs and found the SVA and ERV families to be marked most frequently by H3K9me3...
April 12, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643212/stable-social-relationships-between-unrelated-females-increase-individual-fitness-in-a-cooperative-bird
#12
Christina Riehl, Meghan J Strong
Social animals often form long-lasting relationships with fellow group members, usually with close kin. In primates, strong social bonds have been associated with increased longevity, offspring survival and reproductive success. However, little is known about the fitness effects of social bonds between non-kin, especially outside of mammals. In this study, we use long-term field research on a cooperatively breeding bird, the greater ani ( Crotophaga major ), to ask whether adult females benefit by remaining in long-term associations with unrelated, co-breeding females...
April 11, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642851/tracing-the-evolution-of-the-heterotrimeric-g-protein-%C3%AE-subunit-in-metazoa
#13
A D Lokits, H Indrischek, J Meiler, H E Hamm, P F Stadler
BACKGROUND: Heterotrimeric G proteins are fundamental signaling proteins composed of three subunits, Gα and a Gβγ dimer. The role of Gα as a molecular switch is critical for transmitting and amplifying intracellular signaling cascades initiated by an activated G protein Coupled Receptor (GPCR). Despite their biochemical and therapeutic importance, the study of G protein evolution has been limited to the scope of a few model organisms. Furthermore, of the five primary Gα subfamilies, the underlying gene structure of only two families has been thoroughly investigated outside of Mammalia evolution...
April 11, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622929/is-male-rhesus-macaque-facial-coloration-under-intrasexual-selection
#14
Megan Petersdorf, Constance Dubuc, Alexander V Georgiev, Sandra Winters, James P Higham
Exaggerated male traits can evolve under intra- or intersexual selection, but it remains less clear how often both mechanisms act together on trait evolution. While the males of many anthropoid primate species exhibit colorful signals that appear to be badges of status under intrasexual selection, the red facial coloration of male rhesus macaques ( Macaca mulatta ) appears to have evolved primarily under intersexual selection and female mate choice. Nonetheless, experiments show that red color is salient to males, raising the question of whether the signal may also be under intrasexual selection...
November 2017: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618650/siv-mac239-vif-and-human-apobec3b-interactions-resemble-those-between-hiv-1-vif-and-human-apobec3g
#15
Jiayi Wang, Nadine M Shaban, Allison M Land, William L Brown, Reuben S Harris
Several members of the APOBEC3 DNA cytosine deaminase family can potently inhibit Vif-deficient HIV-1 by catalyzing cytosine deamination in viral cDNA and impeding reverse transcription. HIV-1 counteracts restriction with the virally encoded Vif protein, which targets relevant APOBEC3 proteins for proteasomal degradation. HIV-1 Vif is optimized for degrading the restrictive human APOBEC3 repertoire and, in general, lentiviral Vif proteins specifically target the restricting APOBEC3 enzymes of each host species...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618487/integrated-analysis-sheds-light-on-evolutionary-trajectories-of-young-transcription-start-sites-in-the-human-genome
#16
Cai Li, Boris Lenhard, Nicholas M Luscombe
Understanding the molecular mechanisms and evolution of the gene regulatory system remains a major challenge in biology. Transcription Start Sites (TSSs) are especially interesting because they are central to initiating gene expression. Previous studies revealed widespread transcription initiation and fast turnover of TSSs in mammalian genomes. Yet, how new TSSs originate and how they evolve over time remain poorly understood. To address these questions, we analyzed ~200,000 human TSSs by integrating evolutionary (inter- and intra-species) and functional genomic data, particularly focusing on evolutionarily young TSSs that emerged in the primate lineage...
April 4, 2018: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618285/evolution-of-new-mirnas-and-cerebro-cortical-development
#17
Kenneth S Kosik, Tomasz Nowakowski
The noncoding portion of the genome, including microRNAs, has been fertile evolutionary soil for cortical development in primates. A major contribution to cortical expansion in primates is the generation of novel precursor cell populations. Because miRNA expression profiles track closely with cell identity, it is likely that numerous novel microRNAs have contributed to cellular diversity in the brain. The tools to determine the genomic context within which novel microRNAs emerge and how they become integrated into molecular circuitry are now in hand...
April 4, 2018: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610583/contrasted-patterns-of-evolution-of-the-line-1-retrotransposon-in-perissodactyls-the-history-of-a-line-1-extinction
#18
Akash Sookdeo, Crystal M Hepp, Stéphane Boissinot
Background: LINE-1 (L1) is the dominant autonomously replicating non-LTR retrotransposon in mammals. Although our knowledge of L1 evolution across the tree of life has considerably improved in recent years, what we know of L1 evolution in mammals is biased and comes mostly from studies in primates (mostly human) and rodents (mostly mouse). It is unclear if patterns of evolution that are shared between those two groups apply to other mammalian orders. Here we performed a detailed study on the evolution of L1 in perissodactyls by making use of the complete genome of the domestic horse and of the white rhinoceros...
2018: Mobile DNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610309/hip-extensor-mechanics-and-the-evolution-of-walking-and-climbing-capabilities-in-humans-apes-and-fossil-hominins
#19
Elaine E Kozma, Nicole M Webb, William E H Harcourt-Smith, David A Raichlen, Kristiaan D'Août, Mary H Brown, Emma M Finestone, Stephen R Ross, Peter Aerts, Herman Pontzer
The evolutionary emergence of humans' remarkably economical walking gait remains a focus of research and debate, but experimentally validated approaches linking locomotor capability to postcranial anatomy are limited. In this study, we integrated 3D morphometrics of hominoid pelvic shape with experimental measurements of hip kinematics and kinetics during walking and climbing, hamstring activity, and passive range of hip extension in humans, apes, and other primates to assess arboreal-terrestrial trade-offs in ischium morphology among living taxa...
April 2, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608721/glutamine-codon-usage-and-polyq-evolution-in-primates-depend-on-the-q-stretch-length
#20
Pablo Mier, Miguel A Andrade-Navarro
Amino acid usage in a proteome depends mostly on its taxonomy, as it does the codon usage in transcriptomes. Here, we explore the level of variation in the codon usage of a specific amino acid, glutamine, in relation to the number of consecutive glutamine residues. We show that CAG triplets are consistently more abundant in short glutamine homorepeats (polyQ, four to eight residues) than in shorter glutamine stretches (one to three residues), leading to the evolutionary growth of the repeat region in a CAG-dependent manner...
March 1, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
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