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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731824/evolutionary-scenarios-and-primate-natural-history
#1
Harry W Greene
Scenarios summarize evolutionary patterns and processes by interpreting organismal traits and their natural history correlates in a phylogenetic context. They are constructed by (1) describing phenotypes (including physiology and behavior), ideally with attention to formative roles of development, experience, and culture; (2) inferring homologies, homoplasies, ancestral character states, and their transformations with phylogenetic analyses; and (3) integrating those components with ecological and other ancillary data...
August 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729031/knockout-of-the-urate-oxidase-gene-provides-a-stable-mouse-model-of-hyperuricemia-associated-with-metabolic-disorders
#2
Jie Lu, Xu Hou, Xuan Yuan, Lingling Cui, Zhen Liu, Xinde Li, Lidan Ma, Xiaoyu Cheng, Ying Xin, Can Wang, Keke Zhang, Xuefeng Wang, Wei Ren, Ruixia Sun, Zhaotong Jia, Zibin Tian, Qing-Sheng Mi, Changgui Li
The urate oxidase (Uox) gene encodes uricase that in the rodent liver degrades uric acid into allantoin, forming an obstacle for establishing stable mouse models of hyperuricemia. The loss of uricase in humans during primate evolution causes their vulnerability to hyperuricemia. Thus, we generated a Uox-knockout mouse model on a pure C57BL/6J background using the transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) technique. These Uox-knockout mice spontaneously developed hyperuricemia (over 420 μmol/l) with about 40% survival up to 62 weeks...
July 17, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724702/stereopsis-in-animals-evolution-function-and-mechanisms
#3
REVIEW
Vivek Nityananda, Jenny C A Read
Stereopsis is the computation of depth information from views acquired simultaneously from different points in space. For many years, stereopsis was thought to be confined to primates and other mammals with front-facing eyes. However, stereopsis has now been demonstrated in many other animals, including lateral-eyed prey mammals, birds, amphibians and invertebrates. The diversity of animals known to have stereo vision allows us to begin to investigate ideas about its evolution and the underlying selective pressures in different animals...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723299/support-for-disease-only-genotypes-and-excess-of-homozygosity-at-the-cyth4-primate-specific-gttt-repeat-in-schizophrenia
#4
Ehteram Khademi, Elham Alehabib, Ehsan Esmaili Shandiz, Azadeh Ahmadifard, Monavvar Andarva, Javad Jamshidi, Simin Rahimi-Aliabadi, Ramin Pouriran, Farhad Ramezani Nejad, Nader Mansoori, Neda Shahmohammadibeni, Shaghyegh Taghavi, Parasto Shokraeian, Haleh Akhavan-Niaki, Coro Paisán-Ruiz, Hossein Darvish, Mina Ohadi
OBJECTIVE: The role of short tandem repeats (STRs) in the control of gene expression among species is being increasingly understood following the identification of several instances in which certain STRs occur identically, or expand differentially, in primates versus nonprimates. These STRs may regulate genes that participate in characteristics that have diverged primates from other species (e.g., brain higher order functions). The CYTH4 gene contains the longest tetranucleotide STR in its core promoter, at 7-repeats, and links to the evolution of human and nonhuman primates...
July 19, 2017: Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717965/genomic-properties-of-chromosomal-bands-are-linked-to-evolutionary-rearrangements-and-new-centromere-formation-in-primates
#5
Concetta Federico, Anna Maria Pappalardo, Venera Ferrito, Sabrina Tosi, Salvatore Saccone
Chromosomal rearrangements in humans are largely related to pathological conditions, and phenotypic effects are also linked to alterations in the expression profile following nuclear relocation of genes between functionally different compartments, generally occupying the periphery or the inner part of the cell nuclei. On the other hand, during evolution, chromosomal rearrangements may occur apparently without damaging phenotypic effects and are visible in currently phylogenetically related species. To increase our insight into chromosomal reorganisation in the cell nucleus, we analysed 18 chromosomal regions endowed with different genomic properties in cell lines derived from eight primate species covering the entire evolutionary tree...
July 17, 2017: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710326/cortical-influences-drive-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#6
REVIEW
Andrew Eisen, Heiko Braak, Kelly Del Tredici, Roger Lemon, Albert C Ludolph, Matthew C Kiernan
The early motor manifestations of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), while rarely documented, reflect failure of adaptive complex motor skills. The development of these skills correlates with progressive evolution of a direct corticomotoneuronal system that is unique to primates and markedly enhanced in humans. The failure of this system in ALS may translate into the split hand presentation, gait disturbance, split leg syndrome and bulbar symptomatology related to vocalisation and breathing, and possibly diffuse fasciculation, characteristic of ALS...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710037/rna-editing-independently-occurs-at-three-mir-376a-1-sites-and-may-compromise-the-stability-of-the-microrna-hairpin
#7
Alicia Gallego, Diego A Hartasánchez, Marina Brasó-Vives, Eva Garcia-Ramallo, Maria Lopez-Valenzuela, Neus Baena, Miriam Guitart, Hugo Fernández-Bellon, Ivanela Kondova, Ronald Bontrop, Yukio Kawahara, Yolanda Espinosa-Parrilla
RNA editing is being recognized as an important post-transcriptional mechanism that may have crucial roles in introducing genetic variation and phenotypic diversity. Despite microRNA editing recurrence, defining its biological relevance is still under extended debate. To better understand microRNA editing function and regulation we performed an exhaustive characterization of the A-to-I site-specific patterns in mir-376a-1, a mammalian microRNA which RNA editing is involved in the regulation of development and in disease...
July 11, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708995/evolution-of-the-human-nervous-system-function-structure-and-development
#8
REVIEW
André M M Sousa, Kyle A Meyer, Gabriel Santpere, Forrest O Gulden, Nenad Sestan
The nervous system-in particular, the brain and its cognitive abilities-is among humans' most distinctive and impressive attributes. How the nervous system has changed in the human lineage and how it differs from that of closely related primates is not well understood. Here, we consider recent comparative analyses of extant species that are uncovering new evidence for evolutionary changes in the size and the number of neurons in the human nervous system, as well as the cellular and molecular reorganization of its neural circuits...
July 13, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705975/draft-genome-sequence-of-plasmodium-gonderi-a-malaria-parasite-of-african-old-world-monkeys
#9
Hajime Honma, Satoru Kawai, Daisuke Motooka, Shota Nakamura, Takahiro Tougan, Toshihiro Horii, Nobuko Arisue
Plasmodium gonderi is a primate parasite whose natural host is the African Old World monkeys. Here, we report the draft genome sequence for P. gonderi The data are useful not only for understanding the evolution of malaria but also for allowing the comparative genomics of malaria parasites.
July 13, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690113/male-violence-and-sexual-intimidation-in-a-wild-primate-society
#10
Alice Baniel, Guy Cowlishaw, Elise Huchard
Sexual violence occurring in the context of long-term heterosexual relationships, such as sexual intimidation, is widespread across human populations [1-3]. However, its evolutionary origins remain speculative because few studies have investigated the existence of comparable forms of sexual coercion in animals [4, 5], in which repeated male aggression toward a female provides the aggressor with delayed mating benefits [6]. Here, we test whether male aggression toward females functions as sexual coercion in wild chacma baboons (Papio ursinus)...
July 5, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688459/new-cranium-of-the-large-cercopithecid-primate-theropithecus-oswaldi-leakeyi-hopwood-1934-from-the-paleoanthropological-site-of-makuyuni-tanzania
#11
Stephen R Frost, Charles Saanane, Britt M Starkovich, Hilde Schwartz, Friedemann Schrenk, Katerina Harvati
The Pleistocene hominin site of Makuyuni, near Lake Manyara, Tanzania, is known for fossils attributable to Homo and Acheulean artifacts (Ring et al., 2005; Kaiser et al., 2010; Frost et al., 2012). Here we describe the fossil primate material from the Manyara Beds, which includes the first nearly complete female cranium of Theropithecus oswaldi leakeyi and a proximal tibia from the same taxon. The cranium is dated to between 633 and 780 Ka and the tibia to the Pleistocene. The T. oswaldi lineage is one of the most important among Neogene mammals of Africa: it is both widespread and abundant...
August 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688456/the-social-organization-of-homo-ergaster-inferences-from-anti-predator-responses-in-extant-primates
#12
Erik P Willems, Carel P van Schaik
Patterns of primate socioecology have been used to suggest that the first truly savanna-dwelling hominin, Homo ergaster, lived in sizeable groups. Here, we revisit these estimates and infer additional features of the social organization of these early hominins based on anti-predator responses observed across the primate taxon. We first show that the effect of habitat on primate group size, composition, and sexual dimorphism is negligible after controlling for substrate use and phylogeny: terrestrial species live in larger groups with more and bigger males than arboreal taxa...
August 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683440/genetics-of-cerebellar-and-neocortical-expansion-in-anthropoid-primates-a-comparative-approach
#13
Peter W Harrison, Stephen H Montgomery
What adaptive changes in brain structure and function underpin the evolution of increased cognitive performance in humans and our close relatives? Identifying the genetic basis of brain evolution has become a major tool in answering this question. Numerous cases of positive selection, altered gene expression or gene duplication have been identified that may contribute to the evolution of the neocortex, which is widely assumed to play a predominant role in cognitive evolution. However, the components of the neocortex co-evolve with other functionally interdependent regions of the brain, most notably in the cerebellum...
July 6, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681947/speech-like-orofacial-oscillations-in-stump-tailed-macaque-macaca-arctoides-facial-and-vocal-signals
#14
Aru Toyoda, Tamaki Maruhashi, Suchinda Malaivijitnond, Hiroki Koda
OBJECTIVES: Speech is unique to humans and characterized by facial actions of ∼5 Hz oscillations of lip, mouth or jaw movements. Lip-smacking, a facial display of primates characterized by oscillatory actions involving the vertical opening and closing of the jaw and lips, exhibits stable 5-Hz oscillation patterns, matching that of speech, suggesting that lip-smacking is a precursor of speech. We tested if facial or vocal actions exhibiting the same rate of oscillation are found in wide forms of facial or vocal displays in various social contexts, exhibiting diversity among species...
July 6, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677231/development-of-deep-and-upper-neuronal-layers-in-the-domestic-cat-sheep-and-pig-neocortex
#15
M Glatzle, M Hoops, J Kauffold, J Seeger, S A Fietz
The neocortex plays a key role in cognition, volitional motor control and sensory perception and has undergone tremendous expansion during evolution. The mature neocortex consists of radially aligned neurons that are arranged in six layers. Layers II-VI are often split into two groups: deep and upper layers, both building up the so-called cortical plate during embryonic and foetal development. So far cortical neurogenesis, including the generation of deep and upper layers, has mostly been studied in laboratory rodents and primates...
July 4, 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673920/why-are-there-so-many-explanations-for-primate-brain-evolution
#16
REVIEW
R I M Dunbar, Susanne Shultz
The question as to why primates have evolved unusually large brains has received much attention, with many alternative proposals all supported by evidence. We review the main hypotheses, the assumptions they make and the evidence for and against them. Taking as our starting point the fact that every hypothesis has sound empirical evidence to support it, we argue that the hypotheses are best interpreted in terms of a framework of evolutionary causes (selection factors), consequences (evolutionary windows of opportunity) and constraints (usually physiological limitations requiring resolution if large brains are to evolve)...
August 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670296/the-evolution-of-lateralized-brain-circuits
#17
Michael C Corballis
In the vast clade of animals known as the bilateria, cerebral and behavioral asymmetries emerge against the backdrop of bilateral symmetry, with a functional trade-off between the two. Asymmetries can lead to more efficient processing and packaging of internal structures, but at the expense of efficient adaptation to a natural world without systematic left-right bias. Asymmetries may arise through the fissioning of ancestral structures that are largely symmetrical, creating new circuits. In humans these may include asymmetrical adaptations to language and manufacture, and as one or other hemisphere gains dominance for functions that were previously represented bilaterally...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667373/the-stress-responding-mir-132-3p-shows-evolutionarily-conserved-pathway-interactions
#18
Rotem Haviv, Eden Oz, Hermona Soreq
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA chains that can each interact with the 3'-untranslated region of multiple target transcripts in various organisms, humans included. MiRNAs tune entire biological pathways, spanning stress reactions, by regulating the stability and/or translation of their targets. MiRNA genes are often subject to co-evolutionary changes together with their target transcripts, which may be reflected by differences between paralog mouse and primate miRNA/mRNA pairs. However, whether such evolution occurred in stress-related miRNAs remained largely unknown...
June 30, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665019/cis-regulatory-evolution-in-a-wild-primate-infection-associated-genetic-variation-drives-differential-expression-of%C3%A2-mhc-dqa1-in-vitro
#19
Noah D Simons, Geeta N Eick, Maria Jose Ruiz-Lopez, Patrick A Omeja, Colin A Chapman, Tony L Goldberg, Nelson Ting, Kirstin N Sterner
Few studies have combined genetic association analyses with functional characterization of infection-associated SNPs in natural populations of non-human primates. Here, we investigate the relationship between host genetic variation, parasitism, and natural selection in a population of red colobus (Procolobus rufomitratus tephrosceles) in Kibale National Park, Uganda. We collected parasitological, cellular, and genomic data to test the following hypotheses: 1) MHC-DQA1 regulatory genetic variation is associated with control of whipworm (Trichuris) infection in a natural population of red colobus; 2) infection-associated SNPs are functional in driving differential gene expression in-vitro; and 3) balancing selection has shaped patterns of variation in the MHC-DQA1 promoter...
June 30, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654656/developmental-trajectory-of-the-corpus-callosum-from-infancy-to-the-juvenile-stage-comparative-mri-between-chimpanzees-and-humans
#20
Tomoko Sakai, Akichika Mikami, Juri Suzuki, Takako Miyabe-Nishiwaki, Mie Matsui, Masaki Tomonaga, Yuzuru Hamada, Tetsuro Matsuzawa, Hideyuki Okano, Kenichi Oishi
How brains develop during early life is one of the most important topics in neuroscience because it underpins the neuronal functions that mature during this period. A comparison of the neurodevelopmental patterns among humans and nonhuman primates is essential to infer evolutional changes in neuroanatomy that account for higher-order brain functions, especially those specific to humans. The corpus callosum (CC) is the major white matter bundle that connects the cerebral hemispheres, and therefore, relates to a wide variety of neuronal functions...
2017: PloS One
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