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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793187/stapp-spatiotemporal-analysis-of-plantar-pressure-measurements-using-statistical-parametric-mapping
#1
Brian G Booth, Noël L W Keijsers, Jan Sijbers, Toon Huysmans
BACKGROUND: Pedobarography produces large sets of plantar pressure samples that are routinely subsampled (e.g. using regions of interest) or aggregated (e.g. center of pressure trajectories, peak pressure images) in order to simplify statistical analysis and provide intuitive clinical measures. RESEARCH QUESTION: We hypothesize that these data reductions discard gait information that can be used to differentiate between groups or conditions. METHODS: To test the hypothesis of null information loss, we created an implementation of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) for dynamic plantar pressure datasets (i...
May 3, 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793170/effective-size-selection-of-mos-2-nanosheets-by-a-novel-liquid-cascade-centrifugation-influences-of-the-flakes-dimensions-on-electrochemical-and-photoelectrochemical-applications
#2
Marzieh Kajbafvala, Mansoor Farbod
Although liquid phase exfoliation is a powerful method to produce MoS2 nanosheets in large scale, but its effectiveness is limited by the diversity of produced nanosheets sizes. Here a novel approach for separation of MoS2 flakes having various lateral sizes and thicknesses based on the cascaded centrifugation has been introduced. This method involves a pre-separation step which is performed through low-speed centrifugation to avoid the deposition of large area single and few-layers by the heavier particles...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793108/manganese-contamination-affects-the-motor-performance-of-wild-northern-quolls-dasyurus-hallucatus
#3
Ami Fadhillah Amir Abdul Nasir, Skye F Cameron, Amanda C Niehaus, Christofer J Clemente, Frank A von Hippel, Robbie S Wilson
Neuromotor deficits are an important sign of manganese (Mn) toxicity in humans and laboratory animals. However, the impacts of Mn exposure on the motor function of wild animals remains largely unknown. Here, we assessed the impact of chronic exposure to Mn from active mining operations on Groote Eylandt, Australia on the motor function of the semi-arboreal northern quoll (Dasyurus hallucatus), an endangered species. The three motor tests conducted-maximum sprint speed on a straight run, manoeuvrability around a corner, and motor control on a balance beam-showed that elevated Mn body burden did not diminish performance of these traits...
May 21, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792815/molecular-mechanisms-of-fast-neurotransmitter-release
#4
Axel T Brunger, Ucheor B Choi, Ying Lai, Jeremy Leitz, Qiangjun Zhou
This review summarizes current knowledge of synaptic proteins that are central to synaptic vesicle fusion in presynaptic active zones, including SNAREs (soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor attachment protein receptors), synaptotagmin, complexin, Munc18 (mammalian uncoordinated-18), and Munc13 (mammalian uncoordinated-13), and highlights recent insights in the cooperation of these proteins for neurotransmitter release. Structural and functional studies of the synaptic fusion machinery suggest new molecular models of synaptic vesicle priming and Ca2+ -triggered fusion...
May 20, 2018: Annual Review of Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792551/aponeurosis-influences-the-relationship-between-muscle-gearing-and-force
#5
Carolyn M Eng, Thomas J Roberts
Aponeuroses are connective tissues found on the surface of pennate muscles and are in close association with muscle fascicles. In addition to transmitting muscle forces to the external tendon, aponeurosis has been hypothesized to influence the direction of muscle shape change during a contraction. Muscle shape changes affect muscle contractile force and velocity because they influence the gear ratio with which muscle fascicles transmit force and velocity to the tendon. If aponeurosis modulates muscle shape changes, altering the aponeurosis' radial integrity with incisions should alter gearing...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792522/love-sex-and-personality-pathology-a-life-history-view-of-personality-pathologies-and-sociosexuality
#6
Peter K Jonason, Virgil Zeigler-Hill, Talia Hashmani
Love and sex are fundamental needs of most people, yet little research has examined such aspects of life in relation to personality pathologies. We examined the associations between pathological personality traits (i.e., negative affectivity, disinhibition, antagonism, psychoticism, and detachment) and sociosexuality (i.e., short-term mating orientation, long-term mating orientation, and sexual behavior) among 702 university students. In addition, we examined the mediating role of life history speed and tested whether sex moderated the associations that these pathological personality traits had with sociosexuality...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Sex Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792505/a-new-test-for-the-assessment-of-working-memory-in-clinical-settings-validation-and-norming-of-a-month-ordering-task
#7
Imke Buekenhout, José Leitão, Ana A Gomes
Month ordering tasks have been used in experimental settings to obtain measures of working memory (WM) capacity in older/clinical groups based solely on their face validity. We sought to assess the appropriateness of using a month ordering task in other contexts, including clinical settings, as a psychometrically sound WM assessment. To this end, we constructed a month ordering task (ucMOT), studied its reliability (internal consistency and temporal stability), and gathered construct-related and criterion-related validity evidence for its use as a WM assessment...
May 24, 2018: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792389/therapist-assisted-vision-therapy-improves-outcome-for-stroke-patients-with-homonymous-hemianopia-alone-or-combined-with-oculomotor-dysfunction
#8
Peter Smaakjær, Signe Tornøe Tødten, Rune Skovgaard Rasmussen
OBJECTIVE: To improve visual performance and perception in stroke patients suffering from visual impairments by the use of therapist-assisted vision therapy. METHODS: This study was an interventional efficacy open-label investigation. The vision therapy was designed to enhance binocular vision, and saccadic ability, and vergence ranges maximally, and for patients with hemianopia also to improve peripheral awareness. The vision training consisted of one lesson a week for 12 weeks carried out by an optometrist and a vision therapist...
May 24, 2018: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792285/associations-between-trunk-postural-control-in-walking-and-unstable-sitting-at-various-levels-of-task-demand
#9
Julian C Acasio, Courtney M Butowicz, Pawel R Golyski, Maury A Nussbaum, Brad D Hendershot
Trunk postural control (TPC) has been investigated in several populations and tasks. Previous work observed targeted training of TPC via isolated trunk control tasks may improve performance in other activities (e.g., walking). However, the nature of this relationship remains unknown. We therefore investigated the relationship between TPC, at both the global (i.e., response to finite perturbations) and local (i.e., resistance to continuous perturbations) levels, during walking and unstable sitting, both at varying levels of task demand...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792238/mapping-the-neuroanatomic-substrates-of-cognition-in-familial-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#10
Rachel Muster, Saadia Choudhury, Wendy Sharp, Steven Kasparek, Gustavo Sudre, Philip Shaw
BACKGROUND: While the neuroanatomic substrates of symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been investigated, less is known about the neuroanatomic correlates of cognitive abilities pertinent to the disorder, particularly in adults. Here we define the neuroanatomic correlates of key cognitive abilities and determine if there are associations with histories of psychostimulant medication. METHODS: We acquired neuroanatomic magnetic resonance imaging data from 264 members of 60 families (mean age 29...
May 24, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792182/boostme-accurately-predicts-dna-methylation-values-in-whole-genome-bisulfite-sequencing-of-multiple-human-tissues
#11
Luli S Zou, Michael R Erdos, D Leland Taylor, Peter S Chines, Arushi Varshney, Stephen C J Parker, Francis S Collins, John P Didion
BACKGROUND: Bisulfite sequencing is widely employed to study the role of DNA methylation in disease; however, the data suffer from biases due to coverage depth variability. Imputation of methylation values at low-coverage sites may mitigate these biases while also identifying important genomic features associated with predictive power. RESULTS: Here we describe BoostMe, a method for imputing low-quality DNA methylation estimates within whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) data...
May 23, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791977/no-association-between-rate-of-torque-development-and-onset-of-muscle-activity-with-increased-risk-of-hamstring-injury-in-elite-football
#12
Nicol van Dyk, Roald Bahr, Angus F Burnett, Evert Verhagen, Damien von Tiggelen, Erik Witvrouw
INTRODUCTION: Hamstring injuries remain a significant burden in sports that involve high speed running. In elite male football, hamstring injury has repeatedly been identified as the most common noncontact injury, representing 12% of all injuries. As the incidence remains high, investigations are aimed at better understanding how to improve prevention efforts. Intrinsic risk factors such as strength have been investigated extensively in a cohort of professional football players; however, other intrinsic measures of neuromuscular function have not been studied in this cohort...
May 23, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791970/effect-of-high-intensity-resistance-circuit-based-training-in-hypoxia-on-aerobic-performance-and-repeat-sprint-ability
#13
Domingo J Ramos-Campo, Ismael Martínez-Guardado, Guillermo Olcina, Cristian Marín-Pagán, Francisco J Martínez-Noguera, Jorge Carlos-Vivas, Pedro E Alcaraz, Jacobo A Rubio-Arias
Recent acute studies have shown that high-intensity resistance circuit-based (HRC) training in hypoxia increases metabolic stress. However, no intervention studies have yet proven their effectiveness. This study aimed to analyse the effect of 8 weeks of HRC in hypoxia on aerobic performance, resting energy expenditure (REE), repeat sprint ability (RSA) and haematological variables. Twenty-eight subjects were assigned to hypoxia (FiO2 =15%; HRChyp : n=15; age: 24.6±6.8 years; height: 177.4±5.9 cm; weight: 74...
May 23, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791924/return-to-sport-after-acl-surgery-a-comparison-between-two-different-reconstructive-techniques
#14
Matteo Baldassarri, Luca Perazzo, Diego Ghinelli, Marco Ricciarelli, Federico Pilla, Roberto Buda
The anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) has become a very common surgical procedure. One of the main success indicators of the surgical procedure is the return to preinjury sporting level. In recent years, reconstructive techniques have been geared toward less morbidity and optimized ligaments process to speed up the recovery of sports activity. This study compares clinical and imaging data, to evaluate the timing of return to sport, of two populations undergoing ACLR using two different techniques: ACLR with hamstring maintaining tibial insertion (MHG) and an all-inside technique with complete hamstring detachment (DHG)...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Knee Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791867/longitudinal-assessment-of-chemotherapy-induced-changes-in-brain-and-cognitive-functioning-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Mingmei Li, Karen Caeyenberghs
In addition to the burden of a life-threatening diagnosis, cancer patients are struggling with adverse side-effects from cancer treatment. Chemotherapy has been linked to an array of cognitive impairments and alterations in brain structure and function ("chemobrain"). In this review, we summarized the existing evidence that evaluate the changes in cognitive functioning and brain with chemotherapy, as assessed using structural and functional MRI-based techniques in a longitudinal design. This review followed the latest PRISMA guidelines using Embase, Medline, PsychINFO, Scopus, and Web of Science databases with date restrictions from 2012-2017...
May 20, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791481/a-semi-nonparametric-poisson-regression-model-for-analyzing-motor-vehicle-crash-data
#16
Xin Ye, Ke Wang, Yajie Zou, Dominique Lord
This paper develops a semi-nonparametric Poisson regression model to analyze motor vehicle crash frequency data collected from rural multilane highway segments in California, US. Motor vehicle crash frequency on rural highway is a topic of interest in the area of transportation safety due to higher driving speeds and the resultant severity level. Unlike the traditional Negative Binomial (NB) model, the semi-nonparametric Poisson regression model can accommodate an unobserved heterogeneity following a highly flexible semi-nonparametric (SNP) distribution...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791464/the-influence-of-increased-distal-loading-on-metabolic-cost-efficiency-and-kinematics-of-roller-ski-skating
#17
Conor M Bolger, Veronica Bessone, Peter Federolf, Gertjan Ettema, Øyvind Sandbakk
The purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of increased loading of the roller ski on metabolic cost, gross efficiency, and kinematics of roller ski skating in steep and moderate terrain, while employing two incline-specific techniques. Ten nationally ranked male cross-country skiers were subjected to four 7-minute submaximal intervals, with 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 kg added beneath the roller-ski in a randomized order. This was done on two separate days, with the G2 skating at 12% incline and 7 km/h speed and G3 skating at 5% incline and 14 km/h speed, respectively...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791412/shock-wave-imaging-by-density-recovery-from-intensity-measurements
#18
Biswajit Medhi, Gopalakrishna M Hegde, Kalidevapura Jagannath Reddy, Debasish Roy, Ram Mohan Vasu
A method for quantitative estimation of density variation in high-speed flow, which uses light as an interrogating tool, is described. The wavefront distortion of the interrogating beam induced by the compressible flow field is estimated quantitatively, in which the density gradient of the flow field is seen as refractive-index gradient by the probing beam. The distorted wavefront is measured quantitatively by using the cross-sectional intensities of the distorted wavefront along the optical axis. Iterative algorithms are developed using both deterministic (Gauss-Newton) and stochastic (ensemble Kalman filter) update strategies to recover unknown parameters such as the phase of the wavefront or the refractive index distribution in the flow directly from the measured intensities...
May 20, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791403/quality-enhancement-and-gpu-acceleration-for-a-full-color-holographic-system-using-a-relocated-point-cloud-gridding-method
#19
Yu Zhao, Ki-Chul Kwon, Munkh-Uchral Erdenebat, Md-Sifatul Islam, Seok-Hee Jeon, Nam Kim
The calculation of realistic full-color holographic displays is hindered by the high computational cost. Previously, we suggested a point cloud gridding (PCG) method to calculate monochrome holograms of real objects. In this research, a relocated point cloud gridding (R-PCG) method is proposed to enhance the reconstruction quality and accelerate the calculation speed in GPU for a full-color holographic system. We use a depth camera to acquire depth and color information from the real scene then reconstruct the point cloud model virtually...
May 20, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791401/investigation-of-index-change-in-compression-molding-of-as-40-se-50-s-10-chalcogenide-glass
#20
Lin Zhang, Wenchen Zhou, Neil J Naples, Allen Y Yi
Chalcogenide glasses are emerging as alternative materials for low-cost and high-volume glass molding processes for infrared optics. In precision glass molding, it is well documented that the refractive index variation in the molded elements can lead to substantial amounts of aberrations. The variation has such a significant effect that the optical designs with molded lenses need to be carefully considered and compensated for index variation to achieve targeted optical performance. This research is aimed to evaluate the refractive index change of a chalcogenide glass during the molding process by both finite element method-based simulation and optical experiment...
May 20, 2018: Applied Optics
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