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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149774/hippocampal-ca1-activity-correlated-with-the-distance-to-the-goal-and-navigation-performance
#1
Hugo J Spiers, H Freyja Olafsdottir, Colin Lever
Coding the distance to a future goal is an important function of a neural system supporting navigation. While some evidence indicates the hippocampus increases activity with proximity to the goal, others have found activity to decreases with proximity. To explore goal distance coding in the hippocampus we recorded from CA1 hippocampal place cells in rats as they navigated to learned goals in an event arena with a win-stay lose-shift rule. CA1 activity was positively correlated with the distance - decreasing with proximity to the goal...
November 17, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149692/acute-stress-affects-prospective-memory-functions-via-associative-memory-processes
#2
Ágnes Szőllősi, Péter Pajkossy, Gyula Demeter, Szabolcs Kéri, Mihály Racsmány
Recent findings suggest that acute stress can improve the execution of delayed intentions (prospective memory, PM). However, it is unclear whether this improvement can be explained by altered executive control processes or by altered associative memory functioning. To investigate this issue, we used physical-psychosocial stressors to induce acute stress in laboratory settings. Then participants completed event- and time-based PM tasks requiring the different contribution of control processes and a control task (letter fluency) frequently used to measure executive functions...
November 14, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149666/relationship-between-radiographic-patella-alta-pathology-and-walking-dysfunction-in-children-with-bilateral-spastic-cerebral-palsy
#3
Matthias Hösl, Harald Böhm, Michaela Seltmann, Chakravarthy Ugandhar Dussa, Leonhard Döderlein
BACKGROUND: Patella-alta is very common in patients with Cerebral Palsy (CP). While several diagnostic x-ray indices have been developed for patella-alta in general, the specific relationship with walking dysfunction in CP is only partly understood. METHODS: 33 participants with bilateral spastic CP between 4 and 20 years (GMFCS I-II without previous surgery) that underwent 3D gait analysis as well as a radiographic exam within 0.8 (SD 1.2) months were retrospectively included...
November 10, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149655/one-year-after-ischemic-stroke-changes-in-leg-movement-path-stability-in-a-speed-accuracy-task-but-no-major-effects-on-the-hands
#4
Albertas Skurvydas, Vilma Juodzbaliene, Tomas Darbutas, Marius Brazaitis
First year after the stroke is essential for motor recovery. The main motor control strategy (i.e., faster movement production at the expense of lower movement accuracy and stability, or greater movement accuracy and stability at the expense of slower movement) selected by poststroke patients during a unilateral speed-accuracy task (SAT) remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the poststroke (12 months after stroke) effects on the trade-off between movement speed and accuracy, and intraindividual variability during a motor performance task...
November 14, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149623/the-effect-of-surgical-approach-on-gait-mechanics-after-total-hip-arthroplasty
#5
Joseph Zeni, Kathleen Madara, Hunter Witmer, Riley Gerhardt, James Rubano
BACKGROUND: Few studies have compared the biomechanical outcomes of different surgical approaches for hip arthroplasty. The purpose of this study was to compare hip, pelvic, and trunk kinematics and kinetics between individuals who underwent a posterior or anterolateral approach. METHODS: Forty-five individuals between 40 and 80 years old underwent motion analysis during overground gait prior to hip arthroplasty and 3 months after surgery. Walking speed, hip flexion angle, hip extension angle, adduction angle and moment, trunk angle, trunk lean, and pelvis drop were compared between approaches...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149542/spectrally-encoded-coherence-tomography-and-reflectometry-sectr-simultaneous-en-face-and-cross-sectional-imaging-at-2-gigapixels-per-second
#6
Mohamed T El-Haddad, Ivan Bozic, Yuankai K Tao
Non-invasive biological imaging is crucial for understanding in vivo structure and function. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and reflectance confocal microscopy are two of the most widely used optical modalities for exogenous contrast-free high-resolution three-dimensional imaging in non-fluorescent scattering tissues. However, sample motion remains a critical barrier to raster-scanned acquisition and reconstruction of wide-field anatomically accurate volumetric datasets. We introduce spectrally encoded coherence tomography and reflectometry (SECTR), a high-speed multimodality system for simultaneous OCT and spectrally-encoded reflectance (SER) imaging...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149474/interventions-for-old-world-cutaneous-leishmaniasis
#7
REVIEW
Julio Heras-Mosteiro, Begoña Monge-Maillo, Mariona Pinart, Patricia Lopez Pereira, Emely Garcia-Carrasco, Pedro Campuzano Cuadrado, Ana Royuela, Irene Mendez Roman, Rogelio López-Vélez
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous leishmaniasis, caused by a parasitic infection, is considered one of the most serious skin diseases in many low- and middle-income countries. Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis (OWCL) is caused by species found in Africa, Asia, the Middle East, the Mediterranean, and India. The most commonly prescribed treatments are antimonials, but other drugs have been used with varying success. As OWCL tends to heal spontaneously, it is necessary to justify the use of systemic and topical treatments...
November 17, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149443/migration-of-interneuron-precursors-in-the-nascent-cerebellar-cortex
#8
Annika K Wefers, Christian Haberlandt, Lachezar Surchev, Christian Steinhäuser, Ronald Jabs, Karl Schilling
The cerebellum arguably constitutes one of the best characterized central nervous circuits, and its structure, cellular function, and histogenesis have been described in exceptional quantitative detail. A notable exception to this is the development of its inhibitory interneurons, and in particular the extensive migrations of future basket and stellate cells. Here, we used acute slices from 8-day-old mice to assess the migration of Pax2-EGFP-tagged precursors of these cells en route to the molecular layer during their transit through the nascent cerebellar cortex...
November 17, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149329/polymyxin-derivatives-nab739-and-nab815-are-more-effective-than-polymyxin-b-in-murine-escherichia-coli-pyelonephritis
#9
Martti Vaara, Timo Vaara, Carina Vingsbo Lundberg
Objectives: Extremely multiresistant strains of Enterobacteriaceae, such as those of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, are emerging and spreading at a worrisome speed. Polymyxins (polymyxin B, colistin) are used as last-line therapy against such strains, in spite of their notable nephrotoxicity that may even require discontinuation of the therapy. We have previously developed polymyxin derivatives NAB739 and NAB815 that are better tolerated in cynomolgus monkeys than polymyxin B and are, in contrast to polymyxin B, excreted in the cynomolgus urine to a very significant degree...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149213/optimal-design-and-control-of-an-electromechanical-transfemoral-prosthesis-with-energy-regeneration
#10
Farbod Rohani, Hanz Richter, Antonie J van den Bogert
In this paper, we present the design of an electromechanical above-knee active prosthesis with energy storage and regeneration. The system consists of geared knee and ankle motors, parallel springs for each motor, an ultracapacitor, and controllable four-quadrant power converters. The goal is to maximize the performance of the system by finding optimal controls and design parameters. A model of the system dynamics was developed, and used to solve a combined trajectory and design optimization problem. The objectives of the optimization were to minimize tracking error relative to human joint motions, as well as energy use...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149177/new-brain-lesions-with-no-impact-on-physical-disability-can-impact-cognition-in-early-multiple-sclerosis-a-ten-year-longitudinal-study
#11
D Wybrecht, F Reuter, F Pariollaud, W Zaaraoui, A Le Troter, A Rico, S Confort-Gouny, E Soulier, M Guye, A Maarouf, J-P Ranjeva, J Pelletier, B Audoin
OBJECTIVE: In early multiple sclerosis, although brain T2 lesions accrual are hallmark of the disease, only weak correlations were found between T2 lesions accrual and EDSS progression, the disability scale commonly used in multiple sclerosis studies. This may be related to the very poor sensitivity of EDSS to cognitive dysfunctions that may occur and progress from the first stage of the disease. In the present study, we aimed to demonstrate that cognitive deficits progress during the first ten years of MS and are significantly impacted by new T2 lesions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149084/preparative-separation-and-purification-of-four-glycosides-from-gentianae-radix-by-high-speed-counter-current-chromatography-and-comparison-of-their-anti-no-production-effects
#12
Bao Chen, Yinghua Peng, Xinhui Wang, Zhiman Li, Yinshi Sun
Secoiridoid and iridoid glycosides are the main active components of Gentianaeradix. In this work, one iridoid and three secoiridoid glycosides from Gentianaeradix have been purified by high-speed counter-current chromatography in two runs using different solvent systems. Ethyl acetate-n-butanol-water (2:1:3, v/v/v) was the optimum solvent system to purify ca. 4.36 mg of loganic acid, 3.05 mg of swertiamarin, and 35.66 mg of gentiopicroside with 98.1%, 97.2% and 98.6% purities, respectively, while 31.15 mg of trifloroside with 98...
November 17, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149063/estimating-stair-running-performance-using-inertial-sensors
#13
Lauro V Ojeda, Antonia M Zaferiou, Stephen M Cain, Rachel V Vitali, Steven P Davidson, Leia A Stirling, Noel C Perkins
Stair running, both ascending and descending, is a challenging aerobic exercise that many athletes, recreational runners, and soldiers perform during training. Studying biomechanics of stair running over multiple steps has been limited by the practical challenges presented while using optical-based motion tracking systems. We propose using foot-mounted inertial measurement units (IMUs) as a solution as they enable unrestricted motion capture in any environment and without need for external references. In particular, this paper presents methods for estimating foot velocity and trajectory during stair running using foot-mounted IMUs...
November 17, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148912/influence-of-different-restoration-techniques-on-fracture-resistance-of-root-filled-teeth-in-vitro-investigation
#14
M E Hshad, E E Dalkılıç, G C Ozturk, I Dogruer, F Koray
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the fracture strength of endodontically treated mandibular premolar teeth restored with composites and different reinforcement techniques. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Forty-eight freshly extracted human mandibular premolar teeth were randomly divided into four groups: group IN, group CR, group FRC, and group PRF. Group IN consisted of teeth with intact crowns and served as the control group. In the other three groups, endodontic treatment was performed and standard mesio-occluso-distal (MOD) cavities were prepared...
November 17, 2017: Operative Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148845/speech-recovery-and-language-plasticity-can-be-facilitated-by-sensori-motor-fusion-training-in-chronic-non-fluent-aphasia-a-case-report-study
#15
Célise Haldin, Audrey Acher, Louise Kauffmann, Thomas Hueber, Emilie Cousin, Pierre Badin, Pascal Perrier, Diandra Fabre, Dominic Perennou, Olivier Detante, Assia Jaillard, Hélène Lœvenbruck, Monica Baciu
The rehabilitation of speech disorders benefits from providing visual information which may improve speech motor plans in patients. We tested the proof of concept of a rehabilitation method (Sensori-Motor Fusion, SMF; Ultraspeech player) in one post-stroke patient presenting chronic non-fluent aphasia. SMF allows visualisation by the patient of target tongue and lips movements using high-speed ultrasound and video imaging. This can improve the patient's awareness of his/her own lingual and labial movements, which can, in turn, improve the representation of articulatory movements and increase the ability to coordinate and combine articulatory gestures...
November 17, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148699/controlling-ligand-spacing-on-surface-polyproline-based-fluorous-microarray-as-a-tool-in-spatial-specificity-analysis-and-inhibitor-development-for-carbohydrate-protein-interactions
#16
Tse-Hsueh Lin, Cin-Hao Lin, Ying-Jie Liu, Chun Yi Huang, Yen-Cheng Lin, Sheng-Kai Wang
Multivalent carbohydrate-protein interactions are essential for many biological processes. Convenient characterization for multivalent binding property of proteins will aid the development of molecules to manipulate these processes. We exploited the polyproline helix II (PPII) structure as molecular scaffolds to adjust the distances between glycan ligand attachment sites at 9, 18, and 27 Å on a peptide scaffold. Optimized fluorous groups were also introduced to the peptide scaffold for immobilization to the microarray surface through fluorous interaction to control the orientation of the helical scaffolds...
November 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148611/biomechanical-investigation-of-the-modified-tardieu-scale-in-assessing-knee-extensor-spasticity-poststroke
#17
Samaneh Gholami, Noureddin Nakhostin Ansari, Soofia Naghdi, Azadeh Tabatabaei, Davood Jannat, Maryam Senobari, Mahdi Dadgoo
OBJECTIVE: The modified Tardieu Scale (MTS) is a clinical tool for the measurement of muscle spasticity. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between the MTS and the slope of the work-velocity curve as a biomechanical measure in assessing knee extensor muscle spasticity in patients with stroke. METHODS: Thirty patients with stroke (22 female, 8 male; mean age 55.4 ± 12.0 years) participated in this study. The knee extensor spasticity was assessed with the MTS...
November 17, 2017: Physiotherapy Research International: the Journal for Researchers and Clinicians in Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148432/a-singular-value-decomposition-linear-programming-svdlp-optimization-technique-for-circular-cone-based-robotic-radiotherapy
#18
Bin Liang, Yongbao Li, Wei Ran, Bin Guo, Xuang Xu, Bo Liu, Jiafeng Li, Qiuwen Wu, Fugen Zhou
With robot-controlled linac positioning, the robotic radiotherapy system such as CyberKnife significantly increases the freedom in radiation beam placement, but also imposes more challenges on treatment plan optimization. The resampling mechanism in vendor supplied treatment planning system (MultiPlan) could not fully explore the increased beam direction search space. Besides, a sparse treatment plan (using fewer beams) is desired to improve the treatment efficiency. This study proposes a singular value decomposition linear programming (SVDLP) optimization technique for circular collimator based robotic radiotherapy...
November 17, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148312/experimental-analysis-of-the-process-parameters-affecting-bone-burring-operations
#19
Jonathan R Kusins, O Remus Tutunea-Fatan, Louis M Ferreira
The experimental quantification of the process parameters associated with bone burring represents a desirable outcome both from the perspective of an optimized surgical procedure as well as that of a future implementation into the design of closed-loop controllers used in robot-assisted bone removal operations. Along these lines, the present study presents an experimental investigation of the effects that tool type, rotational speed of the tool, depth of cut, feed rate, cutting track overlap, and tool angle (to a total of 864 total unique combinations) have on bone temperature, tool vibration, and cutting forces associated with superficial bone removal operations...
November 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148216/reproductive-and-neurobehavioral-effects-of-maternal-exposure-to-ethiprole-in-f1-generation-mice
#20
Toyohito Tanaka, Toshinari Suzuki, Akiko Inomata
BACKGROUND: Few published studies are reported for neurobehavioral toxicity of the phenylpyrazole insecticide ethiprole in mammals. This study was designed to evaluate the reproductive and neurobehavioral effects of maternal exposure to ethiprole in mice. METHODS: Ethiprole was given in the diet to provide levels of 0 (control), 0.0002, 0.001, and 0.005% during the gestation and lactation periods. Selected reproductive and neurobehavioral parameters were measured in the F1 generation...
November 17, 2017: Birth defects research
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