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Feng-Ming Spring Kong, Lujun Zhao, Luhua Wang, Yuhchyau Chen, Jie Hu, Xiaolong Fu, Chunxue Bai, Li Wang, Theodore S Lawrence, Mitchell S Anscher, Adam Dicker, Paul Okunieff
Background: Sample quality is critical for biomarker detection in oncology, and platelet degradation and contamination in plasma have a remarkable impact on the ability to accurately quantify many blood-based biomarkers. Platelet factor 4 (PF4) can be used as an indicator to monitor sample quality. This multicenter study aimed to determine the impact of critical components of the blood sample handling process on platelet degradation/contamination and to establish an optimal method for collecting platelet-poor plasma samples...
December 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
Terrie M Williams, Susanna B Blackwell, Beau Richter, Mikkel-Holger S Sinding, Mads Peter Heide-Jørgensen
Until recent declines in Arctic sea ice levels, narwhals (Monodon monoceros) have lived in relative isolation from human perturbation and sustained predation pressures. The resulting naïvety has made this cryptic, deep-diving cetacean highly susceptible to disturbance, although quantifiable effects have been lacking. We deployed a submersible, animal-borne electrocardiograph-accelerometer-depth recorder to monitor physiological and behavioral responses of East Greenland narwhals after release from net entanglement and stranding...
December 8, 2017: Science
The Lancet Psychiatry
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 4, 2017: Lancet Psychiatry
Jing-Jing Li, Zi-Min Hu, Zhong-Min Sun, Jian-Ting Yao, Fu-Li Liu, Pablo Fresia, De-Lin Duan
BACKGROUND: Long-term survival in isolated marginal seas of the China coast during the late Pleistocene ice ages is widely believed to be an important historical factor contributing to population genetic structure in coastal marine species. Whether or not contemporary factors (e.g. long-distance dispersal via coastal currents) continue to shape diversity gradients in marine organisms with high dispersal capability remains poorly understood. Our aim was to explore how historical and contemporary factors influenced the genetic diversity and distribution of the brown alga Sargassum thunbergii, which can drift on surface water, leading to long-distance dispersal...
December 7, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Rongfu Wen, Shanshan Xu, Dongliang Zhao, Yung-Cheng Lee, Xuehu Ma, Ronggui Yang
Self-propelled droplet jumping on nanostructured superhydrophobic surfaces is of interest for a variety of industrial applications including self-cleaning, water harvesting, power generation, and thermal management systems. However, the uncontrolled nucleation-induced Wenzel state of condensed droplets at large surface subcooling (high heat flux) leads to the formation of large pinned droplets, which results in the flooding phenomena and greatly degrades the heat transfer performance. In this work, we present a novel strategy to manipulate droplet behaviors during the process from the droplet nucleation to growth and departure through a combination of spatially controlling initial nucleation for mobile droplets by closely spaced nanowires and promoting the spontaneous outward movement for rapid removal using micropatterned nanowire arrays...
December 7, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jaimie Dufresne, Angelique Florentinus-Mefailoski, Juliet Ajambo, Ammara Ferwa, Peter Bowden, John Marshall
The tryptic peptides from ice cold versus room temperature plasma were identified by C18 liquid chromatography and micro electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Samples collected on ice showed low levels of endogenous tryptic peptides compared to the same samples incubated at room temperature. Plasma on ice contained peptides from albumin, complement, and apolipoproteins and others that were observed by the X!TANDEM and SEQUEST algorithms. In contrast to ice cold samples, after incubation at room temperature, greater numbers of tryptic peptides from well characterized plasma proteins, and from cellular proteins were observed...
2017: Clinical Proteomics
Kate L Hawley, Carolyn M Rosten, Thrond O Haugen, Guttorm Christensen, Martyn C Lucas
Polar regions are characterized by acute seasonal changes in the environment, with organisms inhabiting these regions lacking diel photoperiodic information for parts of the year. We present, to our knowledge, the first high-resolution analysis of diel and seasonal activity of free-living fishes in polar waters (74°N), subject to extreme variation in photoperiod, temperature and food availability. Using biotelemetry, we tracked two sympatric ecomorphs of lake-dwelling Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus n = 23) over an annual cycle...
December 2017: Biology Letters
Feng Dong, Chih-Ming Hung, Xin-Lei Li, Jian-Yun Gao, Qiang Zhang, Fei Wu, Fu-Min Lei, Shou-Hsien Li, Xiao-Jun Yang
BACKGROUND: The glacial-interglacial cycles in the Pleistocene caused repeated range expansion and contraction of species in several regions in the world. However, it remains uncertain whether such climate oscillations had similar impact on East Asian biota, despite its widely recognized importance in global biodiversity. Here we use both molecular and ecological niche profiles on 11 East Asian avian species with various elevational ranges to reveal their response to the late Pleistocene climate changes...
December 6, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Hideki Tanaka, Takuma Yagasaki, Masakazu Matsumoto
We develop a method to evaluate the thermodynamic stability of clathrate hydrates relative to host water and/or guest species. This enables to investigate complete phase behaviors of clathrate hydrates in the whole space of the thermodynamic variables, not only temperature and pressure but also composition, with only the intermolecular interactions as input parameters. A complete phase diagram of clathrate hydrate is settled with this method, specifically the region enclosed by the hydrate/water and hydrate/guest phase boundaries where a clathrate hydrate is the only stable phase...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Hussien Helmy Osman, Miguel Angel Salvadó, Pilar Pertierra, Joshua Engelkemier, Daniel C Fredrickson, J Manuel Recio
The characterization of bonding interactions in molecules and materials is one of the major applications of quantum mechanical calculations. Numerous schemes have been devised to identify and visualize chemical bonds, including the electron localization function, quantum theory of atoms in molecules, and natural bond orbital analysis, whereas the energetics of bond formation are generally analyzed in qualitative terms through various forms of energy partitioning schemes. In this article, we illustrate how the Chemical Pressure (CP) approach recently developed for analyzing atomic size effects in solid state compounds provides a basis for merging these two approaches, in which bonds are revealed through the forces of attraction and repulsion acting between the atoms...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Vincent Gosselin Boucher, Andrée-Anne Parent, Fanie St-Jean Miron, Mario Leone, Alain Steve Comtois
The importance of specific testing has been shown in ice hockey performance and the understanding and connection between them may lead to adapting training and follow up in elite athletes. The aim of the present study was to compare two off-ice power tests with performances on ice with a complete professional hockey team. The broad jump test and the vertical jump test were used for the off-ice evaluations, while the SAS-40 and the repeated skate sprint modify (RSSm) tests were used as the performance variables...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Yu Jia, Ludwig Ehlert, Cecilia Wahlskog, Angela Lundberg, Christian Maurice
Monitoring pollutants in stormwater discharge in cold climates is challenging. An environmental survey was performed by sampling the stormwater from Luleå Airport, Northern Sweden, during the period 2010-2013, when urea was used as a main component of aircraft deicing/anti-icing fluids (ADAFs). The stormwater collected from the runway was led through an oil trap to an infiltration pond to store excess water during precipitation periods and enhance infiltration and water treatment. Due to insufficient capacity, an emergency spillway was established and equipped with a flow meter and an automatic sampler...
December 5, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Ivana Cvijanovic, Benjamin D Santer, Céline Bonfils, Donald D Lucas, John C H Chiang, Susan Zimmerman
From 2012 to 2016, California experienced one of the worst droughts since the start of observational records. As in previous dry periods, precipitation-inducing winter storms were steered away from California by a persistent atmospheric ridging system in the North Pacific. Here we identify a new link between Arctic sea-ice loss and the North Pacific geopotential ridge development. In a two-step teleconnection, sea-ice changes lead to reorganization of tropical convection that in turn triggers an anticyclonic response over the North Pacific, resulting in significant drying over California...
December 5, 2017: Nature Communications
Pierre Dietrich, Jean-François Ghienne, Alexandre Normandeau, Patrick Lajeunesse
The paleogeographic reconstruction of the successive inland positions of a retreating ice sheet is generally constrained by mapping moraines. However, deltaic complexes constructed by sediment-charged meltwater can also provide a record of the retreating ice-margin positions. Here, we examine a serie of ice-contact, ice-distal glaciofluvial and paraglacial depositional systems that developed along the Québec North Shore (eastern Canada) in the context of falling relative sea level during the northward retreat of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS)...
December 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
Maria Schneider, Christof Stamm, Kelvin G M Brockbank, Ulrich A Stock, Martina Seifert
Conventional frozen cryopreservation (CFC) is currently the gold standard for cardiovascular allograft preservation. However, inflammation and structural deterioration limit transplant durability. Ice-free cryopreservation (IFC) already demonstrated matrix structure preservation combined with attenuated immune responses. In this study, we aim to explore the mechanisms of this diminished immunogenicity in vitro. First, we characterized factors released by human aortic tissue after CFC and IFC. Secondly, we analyzed co-cultures with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, purified monocytes, T cells and monocyte-derived macrophages to examine functional immune effects triggered by the tissue or released cues...
December 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
Laurence C Smith, Kang Yang, Lincoln H Pitcher, Brandon T Overstreet, Vena W Chu, Åsa K Rennermalm, Jonathan C Ryan, Matthew G Cooper, Colin J Gleason, Marco Tedesco, Jeyavinoth Jeyaratnam, Dirk van As, Michiel R van den Broeke, Willem Jan van de Berg, Brice Noël, Peter L Langen, Richard I Cullather, Bin Zhao, Michael J Willis, Alun Hubbard, Jason E Box, Brittany A Jenner, Alberto E Behar
Meltwater runoff from the Greenland ice sheet surface influences surface mass balance (SMB), ice dynamics, and global sea level rise, but is estimated with climate models and thus difficult to validate. We present a way to measure ice surface runoff directly, from hourly in situ supraglacial river discharge measurements and simultaneous high-resolution satellite/drone remote sensing of upstream fluvial catchment area. A first 72-h trial for a 63.1-km2 moulin-terminating internally drained catchment (IDC) on Greenland's midelevation (1,207-1,381 m above sea level) ablation zone is compared with melt and runoff simulations from HIRHAM5, MAR3...
December 5, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Wandee Chanprasertpinyo, Nattapimon Bhirommuang, Titiporn Surawattanawiset, Thanwarin Tangsermwong, Pariya Phanachet, Chutintorn Sriphrapradang
BACKGROUND: Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is a sensitive and reliable test for diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). However, poor patient tolerance of glucose solutions is common. We aim to compare the diagnostic value of an ice cream test with a standard OGTT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 104 healthy adults were randomly assigned to either 75-g OGTT or ice cream, followed by a crossover to the other test. RESULTS: Most patients were females (71%)...
December 2017: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
Esther Asensio, Víctor J Ferreira, Gonzalo Gil, Tatiana García-Armingol, Ana M López-Sabirón, Germán Ferreira
The environmental implications of soil salinity caused by accumulation of de-icing salt and leaching in soils of northeastern Spain were examined. For this purpose, the concentrations of ions associated with diagnosing and managing this problem were evaluated from several measurements performed over one year along a road. This analysis demonstrated a higher concentration of soluble Na⁺ in the soil 3 m from a road in the northernmost part of the study area in February, which made the soil saline-sodic. Data from the rest of the study period (during the spring and summer) demonstrated that the de-icing salt moved to areas farther south by runoff water, which caused environmental impacts by modifying soil characteristics...
December 2, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Veronica E Ramirez, Brigitte Poppenberger
Plants in temperate climates utilize cold acclimation modes to improve frost tolerance during phases of active growth. Two papers in this issue of Developmental Cell (Li et al., 2017; Zhao et al., 2017) now highlight the important role MAP kinases play in this process in Arabidopsis thaliana.
December 4, 2017: Developmental Cell
Jesús E Serrano-Negrón, Zhenbo Zhang, Andrea P Rivera-Ruiz, Aditi Banerjee, Eva C Romero-Nutz, Neysharie Sánchez-Torres, Krishna Baksi, Dipak K Banerjee
GRP78 (an Mr 78 kDa calcium dependent glucose binding protein) located in ER lumen. It functions as ER chaperone and translocates proteins for glycosylation at the asparagine residue present in the sequon Asn-X-Ser/Thr. Paraffin sections from N-glycosylation inhibitor tunicamycin treated ER-/PR-/HER2+ (double negative) breast tumor in athymic nude mice exhibited reduced N-glycan but increased GRP78 expression. We have evaluated the effect of tunicamycin on cellular localization of GRP78 in metastatic human breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 (ER-/PR-/HER2-)...
December 1, 2017: Glycobiology
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