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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102329/leads-in-arctic-pack-ice-enable-early-phytoplankton-blooms-below-snow-covered-sea-ice
#1
Philipp Assmy, Mar Fernández-Méndez, Pedro Duarte, Amelie Meyer, Achim Randelhoff, Christopher J Mundy, Lasse M Olsen, Hanna M Kauko, Allison Bailey, Melissa Chierici, Lana Cohen, Anthony P Doulgeris, Jens K Ehn, Agneta Fransson, Sebastian Gerland, Haakon Hop, Stephen R Hudson, Nick Hughes, Polona Itkin, Geir Johnsen, Jennifer A King, Boris P Koch, Zoe Koenig, Slawomir Kwasniewski, Samuel R Laney, Marcel Nicolaus, Alexey K Pavlov, Christopher M Polashenski, Christine Provost, Anja Rösel, Marthe Sandbu, Gunnar Spreen, Lars H Smedsrud, Arild Sundfjord, Torbjørn Taskjelle, Agnieszka Tatarek, Jozef Wiktor, Penelope M Wagner, Anette Wold, Harald Steen, Mats A Granskog
The Arctic icescape is rapidly transforming from a thicker multiyear ice cover to a thinner and largely seasonal first-year ice cover with significant consequences for Arctic primary production. One critical challenge is to understand how productivity will change within the next decades. Recent studies have reported extensive phytoplankton blooms beneath ponded sea ice during summer, indicating that satellite-based Arctic annual primary production estimates may be significantly underestimated. Here we present a unique time-series of a phytoplankton spring bloom observed beneath snow-covered Arctic pack ice...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102270/marijuana-s-benefits-antarctic-ice-cracks-and-a-500-million-donation
#2
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 18, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101802/cold-pcr-technologies-in-the-area-of-personalized-medicine-methodology-and-applications
#3
REVIEW
Florence Mauger, Alexandre How-Kit, Jörg Tost
Somatic mutations bear great promise for use as biomarkers for personalized medicine, but are often present only in low abundance in biological material and are therefore difficult to detect. Many assays for mutation analysis in cancer-related genes (hotspots) have been developed to improve diagnosis, prognosis, prediction of drug resistance, and monitoring of the response to treatment. Two major approaches have been developed: mutation-specific amplification methods and methods that enrich and detect mutations without prior knowledge on the exact location and identity of the mutation...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100401/modelling-the-long-term-evolution-of-worst-case-arctic-oil-spills
#4
Hauke Blanken, Louis Bruno Tremblay, Susan Gaskin, Alexander Slavin
We present worst-case assessments of contamination in sea ice and surface waters resulting from hypothetical well blowout oil spills at ten sites in the Arctic Ocean basin. Spill extents are estimated by considering Eulerian passive tracers in the surface ocean of the MITgcm (a hydrostatic, coupled ice-ocean model). Oil in sea ice, and contamination resulting from melting of oiled ice, is tracked using an offline Lagrangian scheme. Spills are initialized on November 1st 1980-2010 and tracked for one year. An average spill was transported 1100km and potentially affected 1...
January 15, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098464/clustering-of-uracil-molecules-on-ice-nanoparticles
#5
Andriy Pysanenko, Jaroslav Kocisek, Dana Nachtigallova, Viktoriya Poterya, Michal Farnik
We generate a molecular beam of ice nanoparticles (H2O)N, N ∼130 - 220, which pick up several individual gas phase uracil (U) or 5-bromouracil (BrU) molecules. The mass spectra of the doped nanoparticles prove that the uracil and bromouracil molecules coagulate to clusters on the ice nanoparticles. Calculations of U and BrU monomers and dimers on the ice nanoparticles provide theoretical support for the cluster formation. The (U)nH(+) and (BrU)nH(+) intensity dependencies on m extracted from the mass spectra suggest a smaller tendency of BrU to coagulate compared to U, which is substantiated by a lower mobility of bromouracil on the ice surface...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098141/one-million-years-of-glaciation-and-denudation-history-in-west-greenland
#6
Astrid Strunk, Mads Faurschou Knudsen, David L Egholm, John D Jansen, Laura B Levy, Bo H Jacobsen, Nicolaj K Larsen
The influence of major Quaternary climatic changes on growth and decay of the Greenland Ice Sheet, and associated erosional impact on the landscapes, is virtually unknown beyond the last deglaciation. Here we quantify exposure and denudation histories in west Greenland by applying a novel Markov-Chain Monte Carlo modelling approach to all available paired cosmogenic (10)Be-(26)Al bedrock data from Greenland. We find that long-term denudation rates in west Greenland range from >50 m Myr(-1) in low-lying areas to ∼2 m Myr(-1) at high elevations, hereby quantifying systematic variations in denudation rate among different glacial landforms caused by variations in ice thickness across the landscape...
January 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097750/the-structure-of-glycine-dihydrate-implications-for-the-crystallization-of-glycine-from-solution-and-its-structure-in-outer-space
#7
Wenqian Xu, Qiang Zhu, Chunhua Tony Hu
Glycine, the simplest amino acid, is also the most polymorphous. Herein, we report the structure determination of a long unknown phase of glycine, which was first reported by Pyne and Suryanarayanan in 2001. To date, this phase has only been prepared at 208 K as nanocrystals within ice. Through computational crystal-structure prediction and powder X-ray diffraction methods, we identified this elusive phase as glycine dihydrate (GDH), representing the first report on the structure of a hydrated glycine structure...
January 18, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096618/evaluation-of-sperm-recovered-after-slaughter-from-cauda-epididymides-of-red-sokoto-bucks
#8
A H Abu, A I Kisani, T Ahemen
AIM: Viable spermatozoa could be recovered from the cauda epididymides for the purpose of preservation of genetic material of male animals with desirable traits and for use in reproductive biotechnology. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of storage time on testicular and epididymal biometry, sperm reserves and epididymal sperm characteristics of red Sokoto bucks post mortem. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Testes-epididymides were collected immediately after slaughter of mature red Sokoto bucks and transported in ice chest to the laboratory...
December 2016: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096431/activation-of-respiratory-muscles-does-not-occur-during-cold-submergence-in-bullfrogs-lithobates-catesbeianus
#9
Joseph M Santin, Lynn K Hartzler
Semiaquatic frogs may not breathe air for several months because they overwinter in ice-covered ponds. In contrast to many vertebrates that experience decreased motor performance after inactivity, respiratory motor function in bullfrogs, Lithobates catesbeianus, remains functional following cold-submergence. Unlike mammalian hibernators with unloaded limb muscles and inactive locomotor systems, respiratory mechanics of frogs counterintuitively allow for ventilatory maneuvers when submerged. Thus we hypothesized that bullfrogs generate respiratory motor patterns during cold-submergence to avoid disuse and preserve motor performance...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096246/chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-is-latency-in-symptom-onset-explained-by-tau-propagation
#10
Joshua Kriegel, Zachary Papadopoulos, Ann C McKee
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative tauopathy associated with repetitive mild brain trauma. CTE, previously termed "dementia pugilistica," has been identified in American football, ice hockey, baseball, rugby and soccer players, boxers, wrestlers, and military personnel exposed to blast and other traumatic brain injuries. There is often a long latency period between an individual's exposure to repetitive brain trauma and the clinical symptoms of CTE. The pathology of CTE is characterized by a progression from isolated focal perivascular hyperphosphorylated tau lesions in the cerebral cortex to a widespread tauopathy that involves diffuse cortical and medial temporal lobe regions...
January 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095929/the-provision-of-healthy-food-in-a-school-tuck-shop-does-it-influence-primary-school-students-perceptions-attitudes-and-behaviours-towards-healthy-eating
#11
Francette Bekker, Maritha Marais, Nelene Koen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate students' tuck shop buying behaviour, choices of lunchbox items and healthy eating perceptions and attitudes at a school with a nutritionally regulated tuck shop and a school with a conventional tuck shop. DESIGN: Mixed-methods research comprising a cross-sectional survey and focus groups. SETTING: Bloemfontein, South Africa. SUBJECTS: Randomly selected grade 2 to 7 students from a school with a nutritionally regulated tuck shop (school A; n 116) and a school with a conventional tuck shop (school B; n 141) completed a self-administered questionnaire about perceptions, attitudes, buying behaviours and lunchbox content...
January 18, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093299/freeze-concentration-induced-plga-and-polystyrene-nanoparticle-aggregation-imaging-and-rational-design-of-lyoprotection
#12
Lin Niu, Jayanth Panyam
Long-term storage of stable nanoparticulate systems is critical to the utilization of nanotechnology in biomedical applications. Freeze-drying or lyophilization is the most commonly used approach to preparing stable injectable nano formulations. A detailed understanding of the freezing stress on nanoparticles is essential to the successful preservation of original particle attributes and to the development of reliable lyophilization processes. However, visualization of the freezing process and the underlying mechanisms that result in particle aggregation remains challenging...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092920/evolutionary-genomics-of-the-cold-adapted-diatom-fragilariopsis-cylindrus
#13
Thomas Mock, Robert P Otillar, Jan Strauss, Mark McMullan, Pirita Paajanen, Jeremy Schmutz, Asaf Salamov, Remo Sanges, Andrew Toseland, Ben J Ward, Andrew E Allen, Christopher L Dupont, Stephan Frickenhaus, Florian Maumus, Alaguraj Veluchamy, Taoyang Wu, Kerrie W Barry, Angela Falciatore, Maria I Ferrante, Antonio E Fortunato, Gernot Glöckner, Ansgar Gruber, Rachel Hipkin, Michael G Janech, Peter G Kroth, Florian Leese, Erika A Lindquist, Barbara R Lyon, Joel Martin, Christoph Mayer, Micaela Parker, Hadi Quesneville, James A Raymond, Christiane Uhlig, Ruben E Valas, Klaus U Valentin, Alexandra Z Worden, E Virginia Armbrust, Matthew D Clark, Chris Bowler, Beverley R Green, Vincent Moulton, Cock van Oosterhout, Igor V Grigoriev
The Southern Ocean houses a diverse and productive community of organisms. Unicellular eukaryotic diatoms are the main primary producers in this environment, where photosynthesis is limited by low concentrations of dissolved iron and large seasonal fluctuations in light, temperature and the extent of sea ice. How diatoms have adapted to this extreme environment is largely unknown. Here we present insights into the genome evolution of a cold-adapted diatom from the Southern Ocean, Fragilariopsis cylindrus, based on a comparison with temperate diatoms...
January 16, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092384/emerging-investigator-series-a-14-year-depositional-ice-record-of-perfluoroalkyl-substances-in-the-high-arctic
#14
John J MacInnis, Katherine French, Derek C G Muir, Christine Spencer, Alison Criscitiello, Amila O De Silva, Cora J Young
To improve understanding of long-range transport of perfluoroalkyl substances to the High Arctic, samples were collected from a snow pit on the Devon Ice Cap in spring 2008. Snow was analyzed for perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), including perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs), as well as perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA). PFAAs were detected in all samples dated from 1993 to 2007. PFAA fluxes ranged from <1 to hundreds of ng per m(2) per year. Flux ratios of even-odd PFCA homologues were mostly between 0...
January 16, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090035/effect-of-ice-quenching-on-the-change-in-hardness-of-a-pd-au-zn-alloy-during-porcelain-firing-simulation
#15
Hye-Jeong Shin, Min-Jung Kim, Hyung-Il Kim, Yong Hoon Kwon, Hyo-Joung Seol
This study examined the effect of ice-quenching after degassing on the change in hardness of a Pd-Au-Zn alloy during porcelain firing simulations. By ice-quenching after degassing, the specimens were softened due to homogenization without the need for an additional softening heat treatment. The lowered hardness by ice-quenching after degassing was recovered greatly from the first stage of porcelain firing process by controlling the cooling rate. The increase in hardness during cooling after porcelain firing was attributed to the precipitation of the f...
January 13, 2017: Dental Materials Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089534/in-situ-measurements-of-light-absorbing-impurities-in-snow-of-glacier-on-mt-yulong-and-implications-for-radiative-forcing-estimates
#16
Hewen Niu, Shichang Kang, Xiaofei Shi, Rukumesh Paudyal, Yuanqing He, Gang Li, Shijin Wang, Tao Pu, Xiaoyi Shi
The Tibetan Plateau (TP) or the third polar cryosphere borders geographical hotspots for discharges of black carbon (BC). BC and dust play important roles in climate system and Earth's energy budget, particularly after they are deposited on snow and glacial surfaces. BC and dust are two kinds of main light-absorbing impurities (LAIs) in snow and glaciers. Estimating concentrations and distribution of LAIs in snow and glacier ice in the TP is of great interest because this region is a global hotspot in geophysical research...
January 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088543/transformation-of-terrestrial-organic-matter-along-thermokarst-affected-permafrost-coasts-in-the-arctic
#17
George Tanski, Hugues Lantuit, Saskia Ruttor, Christian Knoblauch, Boris Radosavljevic, Jens Strauss, Juliane Wolter, Anna M Irrgang, Justine Ramage, Michael Fritz
The changing climate in the Arctic has a profound impact on permafrost coasts, which are subject to intensified thermokarst formation and erosion. Consequently, terrestrial organic matter (OM) is mobilized and transported into the nearshore zone. Yet, little is known about the fate of mobilized OM before and after entering the ocean. In this study we investigated a retrogressive thaw slump (RTS) on Qikiqtaruk - Herschel Island (Yukon coast, Canada). The RTS was classified into an undisturbed, a disturbed (thermokarst-affected) and a nearshore zone and sampled systematically along transects...
January 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088158/infrared-spectra-and-band-strengths-of-amorphous-and-crystalline-n2o
#18
R L Hudson, M J Loeffler, P A Gerakines
Infrared transmission spectra from 4000 to 400 cm(-1), and associated band strengths and absorption coefficients, are presented for the first time for both amorphous and crystalline N2O. Changes in the spectra as a function of ice thickness and ice temperature are shown. New measurements of density, refractive index, and specific refraction are reported for amorphous and crystalline N2O. Comparisons are made to published results, and the most-likely reason for some recent disagreements in the literature is discussed...
January 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087010/breaking-the-ice-urine-proteomics-of-medullary-sponge-kidney-disease
#19
Somchai Chutipongtanate
Urinary proteomics is a promising tool for biomarker investigation, particularly in complex kidney diseases. Fabris and colleagues report that urinary laminin subunit alpha-2 is a potential diagnostic marker of medullary sponge kidney (MSK) disease by using a label-free quantitative proteomics platform and a clinically compatible enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The neglected issue of stone pathogenesis was also evidenced. This commentary discusses several considerations in biomarker validation, and how urinary proteomics breaks new ground in MSK research...
February 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086860/nicotiana-attenuata-data-hub-nadh-an-integrative-platform-for-exploring-genomic-transcriptomic-and-metabolomic-data-in-wild-tobacco
#20
Thomas Brockmöller, Zhihao Ling, Dapeng Li, Emmanuel Gaquerel, Ian T Baldwin, Shuqing Xu
BACKGROUND: Nicotiana attenuata (coyote tobacco) is an ecological model for studying plant-environment interactions and plant gene function under real-world conditions. During the last decade, large amounts of genomic, transcriptomic and metabolomic data have been generated with this plant which has provided new insights into how native plants interact with herbivores, pollinators and microbes. However, an integrative and open access platform that allows for the efficient mining of these -omics data remained unavailable until now...
January 13, 2017: BMC Genomics
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