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June 16, 2018: Veterinary Record
Anne K Lorentzen, Luit Penninga
Greenland is not only the largest island in the world, it is also the least densely populated country on the globe. The majority of Greenland's landmass lies within the Arctic Circle. Weather conditions in Arctic areas can be extreme, thus exposing locals and visitors to a high risk of acquiring frostbite injuries. More than two thirds of Greenland is covered by a permanent ice sheet, and temperatures can drop to below -70°C. In addition, frequent storms, occupational exposure, and alcohol all contribute to an increased risk for frostbite injury...
June 12, 2018: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Guiomar D Soria, Jorge R Espinosa, Jorge Ramirez, Chantal Valeriani, Carlos Vega, Eduardo Sanz
We use computer simulations to investigate the effect of salt on homogeneous ice nucleation. The melting point of the employed solution model was obtained both by direct coexistence simulations and by thermodynamic integration from previous calculations of the water chemical potential. Using a seeding approach, in which we simulate ice seeds embedded in a supercooled aqueous solution, we compute the nucleation rate as a function of temperature for a 1.85 NaCl mol per water kilogram solution at 1 bar. To improve the accuracy and reliability of our calculations, we combine seeding with the direct computation of the ice-solution interfacial free energy at coexistence using the Mold Integration method...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Amber B Clemmons, Julianne Orr, Benjamin Andrick, Arpita Gandhi, Claude Sportes, David DeRemer
Evidence supports olanzapine for prophylaxis of chemotherapy-induced nausea/vomiting (CINV) for highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC); however, most studies focus on solid malignancies and single day regimens. A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to compare addition of olanzapine to triplet therapy (fosaprepitant, ondansetron, dexamethasone; FOND-O) versus triplet therapy alone (FOND) in preventing CINV in hematology patients receiving single and multi-day HEC and hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) regimens (NCT02635984)...
June 12, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Jean Cury, Pedro H Oliveira, Fernando de la Cruz, Eduardo P C Rocha
Self-transmissible mobile genetic elements drive horizontal gene transfer between prokaryotes. Some of these elements integrate in the chromosome, whereas others replicate autonomously as plasmids. Recent works showed the existence of few differences, and occasional interconversion, between the two types of elements. Here, we enquired on why evolutionary processes have maintained the two types of mobile genetic elements by comparing integrative and conjugative elements (ICE) with extrachromosomal ones (conjugative plasmids) of the highly abundant MPFT conjugative type...
June 14, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Stefan Muckenhuber, Hanne Sagen
Three GPS trackers have been deployed on sea ice in Fram Strait collecting GPS positions between 7th July 2016 until 10th September 2016 with an interval between 5 and 30 min. For an easy understanding and usage, corresponding satellite images and python scripts are added to the GPS data.
June 2018: Data in Brief
Stefan Muckenhuber, Stein Sandven
1541 Sentinel-1 SAR images, acquired over Fram Strait between 2014 and 2016, were considered for sea ice drift retrieval using an open-source feature tracking algorithm. Based on this SAR image data set, 2026 and 3120 image pairs in HH and HV polarisation were used to calculate monthly mean sea ice velocities at 79 N.
June 2018: Data in Brief
Séverin Ramin, Margaux Hermida, Ingrid Millet, Thibault Murez, Valérie Monnin, Mazen Hamoui, Xavier Capdevila, Jonathan Charbit
BACKROUND: The objective was to assess the predictive performance of different intravascular contrast extravasation (ICE) characteristics for need for pelvic transarterial embolization (TAE) to determine the risk factors of false-positives. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed in our trauma center between 2010 and 2015. All severe trauma patients with pelvic fracture were included. Pelvic ICE characteristics on computed tomography (CT) scan were studied: arterial (aSICE), portal surface (pSICE), and extension (exSICE) anatomic relationships...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Leyla Bashirova, Evgenia Dorokhova, Vadim Sivkov, Ekaterina Novichkova
Data file presents information on the variation in sea surface temperatures (SST), as well as geochemical (e.g. stable isotope, calcium carbonate), micropaleontological and grain size data from the Gloria Drift (Northwest Atlantic). The data are obtained from the three marine sediment gravity core sections (AMK-4493, AI-3646 and AI-3415) which were formed during Quaternary period. Dataset contains SST values (winter and summer: 0-50 water layer) and ice-rafted debris (IRD) counts, each in 308 samples; stable isotope data (δ18 O and δ13 C) from 235 samples; calcium carbonate content from 351 samples; relative abundance of polar species of planktonic foraminifera Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sinistral) (Ehrenberg) in 51 samples, data of grain size analysis in bulk sediments (123 samples) and carbonate-free sediments (664)...
August 2018: Data in Brief
Temitope M John, Joke A Badejo, Segun I Popoola, David O Omole, Jonathan A Odukoya, Priscilla O Ajayi, Mary Aboyade, Aderemi A Atayero
This data article presents data of academic performances of undergraduate students in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) disciplines in Covenant University, Nigeria. The data shows academic performances of Male and Female students who graduated from 2010 to 2014. The total population of samples in the observation is 3046 undergraduates mined from Biochemistry (BCH), Building technology (BLD), Computer Engineering (CEN), Chemical Engineering (CHE), Industrial Chemistry (CHM), Computer Science (CIS), Civil Engineering (CVE), Electrical and Electronics Engineering (EEE), Information and Communication Engineering (ICE), Mathematics (MAT), Microbiology (MCB), Mechanical Engineering (MCE), Management and Information System (MIS), Petroleum Engineering (PET), Industrial Physics-Electronics and IT Applications (PHYE), Industrial Physics-Applied Geophysics (PHYG) and Industrial Physics-Renewable Energy (PHYR)...
June 2018: Data in Brief
Jeremy D Shakun, Lee B Corbett, Paul R Bierman, Kristen Underwood, Donna M Rizzo, Susan R Zimmerman, Marc W Caffee, Tim Naish, Nicholas R Golledge, Carling C Hay
The East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) is the largest potential contributor to sea-level rise. However, efforts to predict the future evolution of the EAIS are hindered by uncertainty in how it responded to past warm periods, for example, during the Pliocene epoch (5.3 to 2.6 million years ago), when atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations were last higher than 400 parts per million. Geological evidence indicates that some marine-based portions of the EAIS and the West Antarctic Ice Sheet retreated during parts of the Pliocene1,2 , but it remains unclear whether ice grounded above sea level also experienced retreat...
June 2018: Nature
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The Antarctic Ice Sheet is an important indicator of climate change and driver of sea-level rise. Here we combine satellite observations of its changing volume, flow and gravitational attraction with modelling of its surface mass balance to show that it lost 2,720 ± 1,390 billion tonnes of ice between 1992 and 2017, which corresponds to an increase in mean sea level of 7.6 ± 3.9 millimetres (errors are one standard deviation). Over this period, ocean-driven melting has caused rates of ice loss from West Antarctica to increase from 53 ± 29 billion to 159 ± 26 billion tonnes per year; ice-shelf collapse has increased the rate of ice loss from the Antarctic Peninsula from 7 ± 13 billion to 33 ± 16 billion tonnes per year...
June 2018: Nature
Andrew Shepherd, Helen Amanda Fricker, Sinead Louise Farrell
Satellite observations have transformed our understanding of the Antarctic cryosphere. The continent holds the vast majority of Earth's fresh water, and blankets swathes of the Southern Hemisphere in ice. Reductions in the thickness and extent of floating ice shelves have disturbed inland ice, triggering retreat, acceleration and drawdown of marine-terminating glaciers. The waxing and waning of Antarctic sea ice is one of Earth's greatest seasonal habitat changes, and although the maximum extent of the sea ice has increased modestly since the 1970s, inter-annual variability is high, and there is evidence of longer-term decline in its extent...
June 2018: Nature
Edward J Brook, Christo Buizert
A growing network of ice cores reveals the past 800,000 years of Antarctic climate and atmospheric composition. The data show tight links among greenhouse gases, aerosols and global climate on many timescales, demonstrate connections between Antarctica and distant locations, and reveal the extraordinary differences between the composition of our present atmosphere and its natural range of variability as revealed in the ice core record. Further coring in extremely challenging locations is now being planned, with the goal of finding older ice and resolving the mechanisms underlying the shift of glacial cycles from 40,000-year to 100,000-year cycles about a million years ago, one of the great mysteries of climate science...
June 2018: Nature
Stephen R Rintoul
The circulation of the Southern Ocean connects ocean basins, links the deep and shallow layers of the ocean, and has a strong influence on global ocean circulation, climate, biogeochemical cycles and the Antarctic Ice Sheet. Processes that act on local and regional scales, which are often mediated by the interaction of the flow with topography, are fundamental in shaping the large-scale, three-dimensional circulation of the Southern Ocean. Recent advances provide insight into the response of the Southern Ocean to future change and the implications for climate, the carbon cycle and sea-level rise...
June 2018: Nature
Wenchang Yang, Gudrun Magnusdottir
Arctic sea ice extent (SIE) achieves its minimum in September each year and this value has been observed to decline steeply over the satellite era of the past three decades. Yet large year-to-year fluctuations are also present in the September SIE and the mechanisms for this variability are still not clear. Here we address this issue by examining the preconditions in meteorological fields in the previous spring and summer from observations and a large ensemble of historical climate model simulations. The focus of this study is on the impact of anomalous moisture transport into the Arctic and the associated surface energy fluxes on the September SIE...
June 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
J Kingslake, R P Scherer, T Albrecht, J Coenen, R D Powell, R Reese, N D Stansell, S Tulaczyk, M G Wearing, P L Whitehouse
To predict the future contributions of the Antarctic ice sheets to sea-level rise, numerical models use reconstructions of past ice-sheet retreat after the Last Glacial Maximum to tune model parameters 1 . Reconstructions of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet have assumed that it retreated progressively throughout the Holocene epoch (the past 11,500 years or so)2-4 . Here we show, however, that over this period the grounding line of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (which marks the point at which it is no longer in contact with the ground and becomes a floating ice shelf) retreated several hundred kilometres inland of today's grounding line, before isostatic rebound caused it to re-advance to its present position...
June 13, 2018: Nature
Robert A Massom, Theodore A Scambos, Luke G Bennetts, Phillip Reid, Vernon A Squire, Sharon E Stammerjohn
Understanding the causes of recent catastrophic ice shelf disintegrations is a crucial step towards improving coupled models of the Antarctic Ice Sheet and predicting its future state and contribution to sea-level rise. An overlooked climate-related causal factor is regional sea ice loss. Here we show that for the disintegration events observed (the collapse of the Larsen A and B and Wilkins ice shelves), the increased seasonal absence of a protective sea ice buffer enabled increased flexure of vulnerable outer ice shelf margins by ocean swells that probably weakened them to the point of calving...
June 13, 2018: Nature
Gözde Konuray, Zerrin Erginkaya
Probiotic microorganisms are generally considered to beneficially affect host health when used in adequate amounts. Although generally used in dairy products, they are also widely used in various commercial food products such as fermented meats, cereals, baby foods, fruit juices, and ice creams. Among lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium are the most commonly used bacteria in probiotic foods, but they are not resistant to heat treatment. Probiotic food diversity is expected to be greater with the use of probiotics, which are resistant to heat treatment and gastrointestinal system conditions...
June 13, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Leendert Vergeynst, Susse Wegeberg, Jens Aamand, Pia Lassen, Ulrich Gosewinkel, Janne Fritt-Rasmussen, Kim Gustavson, Anders Mosbech
New economic developments in the Arctic, such as shipping and oil exploitation, bring along unprecedented risks of marine oil spills. Microorganisms have played a central role in degrading and reducing the impact of the spilled oil during past oil disasters. However, in the Arctic, and in particular in its pristine areas, the self-cleaning capacity and biodegradation potential of the natural microbial communities have yet to be uncovered. This review compiles and investigates the current knowledge with respect to environmental parameters and biochemical constraints that control oil biodegradation in the Arctic...
June 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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