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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667816/nitrate-photochemistry-at-the-air-ice-interface-and-in-other-ice-reservoirs
#1
Alexander S McFall, Kasey C Edwards, Cort Anastasio
The photolysis of snowpack nitrate (NO3-) is an important source of gaseous reactive nitrogen species that affect atmospheric oxidants, particularly in remote regions. However, it is unclear whether nitrate photochemistry differs between the three solute reservoirs in/on ice: in liquid-like regions (LLRs) in the ice; within the solid ice matrix; and in a quasi-liquid layer (QLL) at the air-ice interface, where past work indicates photolysis is enhanced. In this work, we explore the photoformation of nitrite in these reservoirs using laboratory ices...
April 18, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667677/theoretical-determination-of-adsorption-and-ionisation-energies-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-on-water-ice
#2
Eric Michoulier, Nadia Ben Amor, Mathias Rapacioli, Jennifer A Noble, Joëlle Mascetti, Céline Toubin, Aude Simon
In dense interstellar environments, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are likely to condense onto or integrate into water ice mantles covering dust grains. Understanding the role of ice in the photo-induced processes involving adsorbed PAHs is therefore a key issue in astrochemistry. This requires (i) the knowledge of PAH-ice interactions, i.e. PAH-ice adsorption energies and local structures at the PAH-ice interface, as well as (ii) the understanding of the fate of electrons in the PAH-ice system upon excitation...
April 18, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667534/assessing-manual-wheelchair-caster-design-for-mobility-in-winter-conditions
#3
M Berthelette, D D Mann, J Ripat, C M Glazebrook
Wheelchair users who live in cold climates are faced with daily difficulties related to personal independence and societal inclusion, as their assistive devices are unable to overcome the physical barriers created by snow and ice. The purpose of the research was to evaluate four commercially available casters to determine which caster performed best on snow-covered surfaces. Performance measures included: travel time, force transfer through the palms of the hands, number of propulsive movements, static resistance to movement, kinetic resistance to movement, and caster penetration into the packed snow...
April 18, 2018: Assistive Technology: the Official Journal of RESNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666764/evaluation-of-a-therapy-for-idiopathic-chronic-enterocolitis-in-rhesus-macaques-macaca-mulatta-and-linked-microbial-community-correlates
#4
Joshua M Taylor, Erik L Clarke, Kate Baker, Abigail Lauder, Dorothy Kim, Aubrey Bailey, Gary D Wu, Ronald G Collman, Lara Doyle-Meyers, Kasi Russell-Lodrigue, James Blanchard, Frederic D Bushman, Rudolf Bohm
Idiopathic chronic enterocolitis (ICE) is one of the most commonly encountered and difficult to manage diseases of captive rhesus macaques ( Macaca mulatta ). The etiology is not well understood, but perturbations in gut microbial communities have been implicated. Here we evaluated the effects of a 14-day course of vancomycin, neomycin, and fluconazole on animals affected with ICE, comparing treated, untreated, and healthy animals. We performed microbiome analysis on duodenal and colonic mucosal samples and feces in order to probe bacterial and/or fungal taxa potentially associated with ICE...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666609/direct-and-indirect-effects-of-penguin-feces-on-microbiomes-in-antarctic-ornithogenic-soils
#5
Yudong Guo, Nengfei Wang, Gaoyang Li, Gabriela Rosas, Jiaye Zang, Yue Ma, Jie Liu, Wenbing Han, Huansheng Cao
Expansion of penguin activity in maritime Antarctica, under ice thaw, increases the chances of penguin feces affecting soil microbiomes. The detail of such effects begins to be revealed. By comparing soil geochemistry and microbiome composition inside (one site) and outside (three sites) of the rookery, we found significant effects of penguin feces on both. First, penguin feces change soil geochemistry, causing increased moisture content (MC) of ornithogenic soils and nutrients C, N, P, and Si in the rookery compared to non-rookery sites, but not pH...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666554/effect-of-different-pre-analytical-conditions-on-plasma-lactate-concentration
#6
Ivana Rako, Ana Mlinaric, Monika Dozelencic, Gordana Fressl Juros, Dunja Rogic
Introduction: Plasma lactate is a frequently used and important parameter for medical decision making. To setup a pre-analytical algorithm, we aimed to investigate the influence of different test tube additives, aliquoting, ice storage and haemolysis on plasma lactate concentrations for possible sparing critically ill (ICU) patients of additional blood drawing. Materials and methods: In our study (N = 177), lactate concentration and haemolysis index (HI) were measured in aliquoted (AHP) and unaliquoted (HP) Li-heparin, NaF/K3 EDTA and NaF/KOX plasma, centrifuged within 15 minutes after venipuncture, on Cobas c501 analyzer...
June 15, 2018: Biochemia Medica: časopis Hrvatskoga Društva Medicinskih Biokemičara
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666527/intransience-of-functional-components-and-distinctive-properties-of-amla-indian-gooseberry-ice-cream-during-short-term-storage
#7
Rajpreet Kaur Goraya, Usha Bajwa
Inclusion of processed amla have been found to enhance the functional properties and nutritional value of ice cream by augmenting the fiber content, total phenols, tannins, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity. The present investigation assessed the changes in these constituents, color values (L, a* and b*), melting rate, sensory scores and microbiological quality of ice cream containing amla shreds, pulp, preserve, candy and powder during 60 days' storage at - 18 to - 20 °C. The total solids increased slightly whereas the antioxidant activity, total phenols, ascorbic acid and tannins decreased on storage...
May 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666523/process-optimization-and-oxidative-stability-of-omega-3-ice-cream-fortified-with-flaxseed-oil-microcapsules
#8
Avinash Gowda, Vivek Sharma, Ankit Goyal, A K Singh, Sumit Arora
Microencapsulated flaxseed oil powder (MFOP) was supplemented for the fortification of α-linolenic acid (ALA, ω-3 fatty acid) in ice cream. Processing parameters were optimized in terms of the stage of homogenization of ice-cream mix, level of fortification (3, 4 and 5%) and flavors (vanilla, butter scotch and strawberry). Data revealed that free fatty acids increased significantly during first 15 days in all the samples and then remained constant. Peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid value first increased up to 30 and 45 days, respectively; and then decreased followed by a gradual increase up to 120 days...
May 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666448/regions-of-open-water-and-melting-sea-ice-drive-new-particle-formation-in-north-east-greenland
#9
M Dall Osto, C Geels, D C S Beddows, D Boertmann, R Lange, J K Nøjgaard, Roy M Harrison, R Simo, H Skov, A Massling
Atmospheric new particle formation (NPF) and growth significantly influences the indirect aerosol-cloud effect within the polar climate system. In this work, the aerosol population is categorised via cluster analysis of aerosol number size distributions (9-915 nm, 65 bins) taken at Villum Research Station, Station Nord (VRS) in North Greenland during a 7 year record (2010-2016). Data are clustered at daily averaged resolution; in total, we classified six categories, five of which clearly describe the ultrafine aerosol population, one of which is linked to nucleation events (up to 39% during summer)...
April 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666384/numerical-simulations-of-a-kilometre-thick-arctic-ice-shelf-consistent-with-ice-grounding-observations
#10
Edward G W Gasson, Robert M DeConto, David Pollard, Chris D Clark
Recently obtained geophysical data show sets of parallel erosional features on the Lomonosov Ridge in the central Arctic Basin, indicative of ice grounding in water depths up to 1280 m. These features have been interpreted as being formed by an ice shelf-either restricted to the Amerasian Basin (the "minimum model") or extending across the entire Arctic Basin. Here, we use a numerical ice sheet-shelf model to explore how such an ice shelf could form. We rule out the "minimum model" and suggest that grounding on the Lomonosov Ridge requires complete Arctic ice shelf cover; this places a minimum estimate on its volume, which would have exceeded that of the modern Greenland Ice Sheet...
April 17, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666349/genetic-disease-in-india-and-the-west-compared-provisional-analysis-of-population-dynamics
#11
Nicholas Mitchison, Timothy Mitchison
The Indian Genetic Disease Database (IGDD) and Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) survey human populations that have different climate histories. Comparison of the two shows an outstanding difference in the relative frequency of recessive disease genes. Several of the diseases mediated at least in part by recessive gene mutations in India are not so mediated in the Western populations covered by OMIM, or are so mediated to a lesser extent. This we attribute to climate history, where population fall leading to inbreeding in the last ice age appears to have reduced the frequency of recessive disease genes in the Western world...
March 2018: Journal of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666256/global-peatland-initiation-driven-by-regionally-asynchronous-warming
#12
Paul J Morris, Graeme T Swindles, Paul J Valdes, Ruza F Ivanovic, Lauren J Gregoire, Mark W Smith, Lev Tarasov, Alan M Haywood, Karen L Bacon
Widespread establishment of peatlands since the Last Glacial Maximum represents the activation of a globally important carbon sink, but the drivers of peat initiation are unclear. The role of climate in peat initiation is particularly poorly understood. We used a general circulation model to simulate local changes in climate during the initiation of 1,097 peatlands around the world. We find that peat initiation in deglaciated landscapes in both hemispheres was driven primarily by warming growing seasons, likely through enhanced plant productivity, rather than by any increase in effective precipitation...
April 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666087/conservative-treatment-in-displaced-fractures-of-the-humeral-capitellum-a-reduction-technique-under-local-anaesthesia
#13
Takahisa Ogawa, Shinichi Shirasawa
We report the case of a 46-year-old woman who struck her right elbow on the ground after a fall on ice. Radiography showed a right humeral capitellar fracture, and CT further confirmed a Dubberley type 1A fracture. Closed reduction was performed under local anaesthesia, and an anatomical position was obtained. After the reduction, her right elbow was casted for 18 days. Three months after the injury, bone union was achieved without displacement, and the active range of motion of her right elbow recovered similar to the unaffected side...
April 17, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664599/bioinspired-materials-for-controlling-ice-nucleation-growth-and-recrystallization
#14
Zhiyuan He, Kai Liu, Jianjun Wang
Ice formation, mainly consisting of ice nucleation, ice growth, and ice recrystallization, is ubiquitous and crucial in wide-ranging fields from cryobiology to atmospheric physics. Despite active research for more than a century, the mechanism of ice formation is still far from satisfactory. Meanwhile, nature has unique ways of controlling ice formation and can provide resourceful avenues to unravel the mechanism of ice formation. For instance, antifreeze proteins (AFPs) protect living organisms from freezing damage via controlling ice formation, for example, tuning ice nucleation, shaping ice crystals, and inhibiting ice growth and recrystallization...
April 17, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663031/urea-and-plasma-ice-nucleating-proteins-promoted-the-modest-freeze-tolerance-in-pleske-s-high-altitude-frog-nanorana-pleskei
#15
Yonggang Niu, Jianjun Wang, Shengkang Men, Yaofeng Zhao, Songsong Lu, Xiaolong Tang, Qiang Chen
The frog Nanorana pleskei (Dicroglossidae) is indigenous to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. To identify its strategies in coping with the cold climate, we measured the hibernacula microhabitat temperature during winter. We also examined the freezing-induced and seasonal variation of several putative cryoprotectants in the heart, liver, brain, kidney and muscle, as well as ice-nucleating protein in plasma. Our results showed that N. pleskei survived exposure to temperatures as low as - 2.5 ± 0.40 °C during hibernation, which was lower than the body fluid freezing point (- 0...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663029/yttrium-90-ibritumomab-tiuxetan-zevalin-followed-by-beam-z-beam-conditioning-regimen-and-autologous-stem-cell-transplantation-asct-in-relapsed-or-refractory-high-risk-b-cell-non-hodgkin-lymphoma-nhl-a-single-institution-italian-experience
#16
Chiara Ciochetto, Barbara Botto, Roberto Passera, Marilena Bellò, Giulia Benevolo, Carola Boccomini, Alessia Castellino, Annalisa Chiappella, Roberto Freilone, Maura Nicolosi, Lorella Orsucci, Clara Pecoraro, Patrizia Pregno, Gianni Bisi, Umberto Vitolo
Chemo-refractory NHL has a very poor outcome; the addiction of RIT to salvage regiment pre ASCT had recently demonstrated promising results.We performed a retrospective sequential study to determine the feasibility of standard Zevalin with BEAM in high-risk relapse/refractory NHL. A matched cohort analysis with a group treated with standard BEAM without Zevalin was performed as secondary endpoint. Between October 2006 and January 2013, 37 NHL patients at high risk for progression or early (< 1 year) or multiple relapses were treated with Z-BEAM and ASCT after R-DHAP or R-ICE as salvage therapy...
April 16, 2018: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662322/a-comparative-trial-of-ice-application-versus-emla-cream-in-alleviation-of-pain-during-botulinum-toxin-injections-for-palmar-hyperhidrosis
#17
Adel Alsantali
Background: Botulinum toxin is a safe and effective therapy for palmar hyperhidrosis, but the associated pain from injections limits the usefulness of this method of treatment. Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of Eutectic Mixture of Local Anesthetics (EMLA) cream versus ice application in alleviation of pain during botulinum toxin injections for palmar hyperhidrosis. Methods: In this prospective study, 23 patients underwent palm Botox injections to treat their excessive sweating...
2018: Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662248/internet-blogs-polar-bears-and-climate-change-denial-by-proxy
#18
Jeffrey A Harvey, Daphne van den Berg, Jacintha Ellers, Remko Kampen, Thomas W Crowther, Peter Roessingh, Bart Verheggen, Rascha J M Nuijten, Eric Post, Stephan Lewandowsky, Ian Stirling, Meena Balgopal, Steven C Amstrup, Michael E Mann
Increasing surface temperatures, Arctic sea-ice loss, and other evidence of anthropogenic global warming (AGW) are acknowledged by every major scientific organization in the world. However, there is a wide gap between this broad scientific consensus and public opinion. Internet blogs have strongly contributed to this consensus gap by fomenting misunderstandings of AGW causes and consequences. Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) have become a "poster species" for AGW, making them a target of those denying AGW evidence...
April 1, 2018: Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662060/author-correction-harmonic-phase-in-polar-liquids-and-spin-ice
#19
Steven T Bramwell
The original version of this Article contained an error in the third sentence of the penultimate paragraph of the 'Definition of the harmonic phase' section of the Results, which incorrectly read 'In the Coulomb phase the tensor S αβ (q) has one zero and two degenerate eigenvalues and it may be represented by an infinitely thin disc of radius 3/2 with its axis parallel to q.' The correct version states '[Formula: see text]' in place of '3/2.'Similarly, the second sentence in the legend of Fig. 3 originally incorrectly read 'In the Coulomb phase it is an infinitely thin disc with radius 3/2, but in the harmonic phase it becomes an oblate spheroid, that evolves from the disc in the low-temperature limit towards a unit sphere at high temperature (disc and example spheroid shown overlaid together)...
April 16, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662058/greenland-records-of-aerosol-source-and-atmospheric-lifetime-changes-from-the-eemian-to-the-holocene
#20
S Schüpbach, H Fischer, M Bigler, T Erhardt, G Gfeller, D Leuenberger, O Mini, R Mulvaney, N J Abram, L Fleet, M M Frey, E Thomas, A Svensson, D Dahl-Jensen, E Kettner, H Kjaer, I Seierstad, J P Steffensen, S O Rasmussen, P Vallelonga, M Winstrup, A Wegner, B Twarloh, K Wolff, K Schmidt, K Goto-Azuma, T Kuramoto, M Hirabayashi, J Uetake, J Zheng, J Bourgeois, D Fisher, D Zhiheng, C Xiao, M Legrand, A Spolaor, J Gabrieli, C Barbante, J-H Kang, S D Hur, S B Hong, H J Hwang, S Hong, M Hansson, Y Iizuka, I Oyabu, R Muscheler, F Adolphi, O Maselli, J McConnell, E W Wolff
The Northern Hemisphere experienced dramatic changes during the last glacial, featuring vast ice sheets and abrupt climate events, while high northern latitudes during the last interglacial (Eemian) were warmer than today. Here we use high-resolution aerosol records from the Greenland NEEM ice core to reconstruct the environmental alterations in aerosol source regions accompanying these changes. Separating source and transport effects, we find strongly reduced terrestrial biogenic emissions during glacial times reflecting net loss of vegetated area in North America...
April 16, 2018: Nature Communications
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