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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156850/harness-the-synergy-between-targeted-therapy-and-immunotherapy-what-have-we-learned-and-where-are-we-headed
#1
REVIEW
Xiaoyan Liu, Qing Zhou, Yan Xu, Minjiang Chen, Jing Zhao, Mengzhao Wang
Since the introduction of imatinib for the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia, several oncogenic mutations have been identified in various malignancies that can serve as targets for therapy. More recently, a deeper insight into the mechanism of antitumor immunity and tumor immunoevasion have facilitated the development of novel immunotherapy agents. Certain targeted agents have the ability of inhibiting tumor growth without causing severe lymphocytopenia and amplifying antitumor immune response by increasing tumor antigenicity, enhancing intratumoral T cell infiltration, and altering the tumor immune microenvironment, which provides a rationale for combining targeted therapy with immunotherapy...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156846/s100a14-rs11548103-g-a-polymorphism-is-associated-with-a-decreased-risk-of-esophageal-cancer-in-a-chinese-population
#2
Yang Zhao, Feng Yao, Weifeng Tang, Haiyong Gu, Heng Zhao
Objective: In China in 2009, esophageal cancer was the fifth most commonly diagnosed malignancy and the fourth leading cause of malignancy-related death. Accumulating evidence indicates that genetic factors might play an important role in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) carcinogenesis. Materials and Methods: In total, we recruited 629 ESCC patients and 686 controls. Genetic variations in the S100A14, MLH1, SMAD7 and CCL22/MDC genes were measured using the ligation detection reaction method...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156792/liquid-biopsy-in-colon-cancer-comparison-of-different-circulating-dna-extraction-systems-following-absolute-quantification-of-kras-mutations-using-intplex-allele-specific-pcr
#3
Vera Kloten, Nadine Rüchel, Nadina Ortiz Brüchle, Janina Gasthaus, Nils Freudenmacher, Florian Steib, Jolein Mijnes, Julian Eschenbruch, Marcel Binnebösel, Ruth Knüchel, Edgar Dahl
Non-invasive molecular analysis of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is a promising application in personalized cancer management, although there is still much to learn about the biological characteristics of ctDNA. The present study compared absolute amounts of KRAS mutated ctDNA and total circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients (n=50) from various stages and healthy controls (n=8) by Intplex allele-specific and digital droplet PCR. In addition, the impact of two prominent extraction techniques (silica-based membrane vs...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156773/association-of-acyp2-and-mphosph6-genetic-polymorphisms-with-the-risk-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-carriers
#4
Yingai Zhang, Shunlan Wang, Xiaohong Wen, Shufang Zhang, Yijun Yang
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the dominant histologic type of primary liver cancer, and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the major causes of HCC in the chronic HBV. Our study was investigated the association between the polymorphisms of ACYP2 and MPHOSPH6 genes and the risk of HCC induced by HBV infection. A total of 490 subjects were divided into two groups: 248 HBV patients with HCC (Case group), and 242 HBV patients without HCC (Control group). Unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156731/mir-21-modulates-the-effect-of-ezh2-on-the-biological-behavior-of-human-lung-cancer-stem-cells-in-vitro
#5
Hui Xia, Wen Zhang, Baoshi Zhang, Yingnan Zhao, Yunlong Zhao, Shaojun Li, Yang Liu
Non-small-cell lung cancer has a high mortality rate and poor prognosis. Therefore, novel therapeutic approaches are urgently needed to enhance patient survival rates. In this study, we investigated the effects of miR-21 and EZH2 on the biological behavior of human lung cancer stem cells in vitro. We found increased expression of EZH2 and miR-21 in LCSCs, and miR-21 overexpression increased EZH2 levels in LCSCs. In addition, EZH2 and miR-21 knockdown increased the sensitivity of LCSCs to chemo- and radiation therapy, and exogenous EZH2 expression rescued the effects of anti-miR-21...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156714/investigation-of-factors-affecting-the-efficacy-of-3c23k-a-human-monoclonal-antibody-targeting-misiir
#6
Sarah E Gill, Qing Zhang, Gary L Keeney, William A Cliby, S John Weroha
MISIIR is a potential target for ovarian cancer (OC) therapy due to its tissue-specific pattern of expression. 3C23K is a novel therapeutic monoclonal anti-MISIIR antibody designed to recruit effector cells and promote cell death through ADCC (antibody dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity). Our objective was to determine the tolerability and efficacy of 3C23K in OC patient-derived xenografts (PDX) and to identify factors affecting efficacy. Quantitative RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and flow cytometry were used to categorize MISIIR expression in established PDX models derived from primary OC patients...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156675/glioblastoma-and-glioblastoma-stem-cells-are-dependent-on-functional-mth1
#7
Linda Pudelko, Pegah Rouhi, Kumar Sanjiv, Helge Gad, Christina Kalderén, Andreas Höglund, Massimo Squatrito, Alberto J Schuhmacher, Steven Edwards, Daniel Hägerstrand, Ulrika Warpman Berglund, Thomas Helleday, Lars Bräutigam
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an aggressive form of brain cancer with poor prognosis. Cancer cells are characterized by a specific redox environment that adjusts metabolism to its specific needs and allows the tumor to grow and metastasize. As a consequence, cancer cells and especially GBM cells suffer from elevated oxidative pressure which requires antioxidant-defense and other sanitation enzymes to be upregulated. MTH1, which degrades oxidized nucleotides, is one of these defense enzymes and represents a promising cancer target...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156582/in-memoriam-paolo-cappa
#8
EDITORIAL
Eduardo Palermo, Stefano Rossi, Fabrizio Patanè, Jeffrey Laut, Maurizio Porfiri
Prof. Paolo Cappa passed away on 26 August 2016, at the age of 59, after a long and courageous fight against cancer. Paolo Cappa was a Professor in Mechanical and Thermal Measurements and Experimental Biomechanics in the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering of Sapienza University of Rome, where he had also served as the Head of the Department, and a Research Professor in the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering of New York University Tandon School of Engineering. During his intense, yet short, career, he made several significant scientific contributions within the discipline of Mechanical and Thermal Measurements, pioneering fundamental applications to Biomechanics...
November 18, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156447/pd-1-blockade-in-advanced-nsclc-a-focus-on-pembrolizumab
#9
REVIEW
Solange Peters, Keith M Kerr, Rolf Stahel
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is one of the most prevalent cancers and is responsible for a large proportion of all cancer-related deaths. Current treatment options are inadequate, reflecting a substantial unmet clinical need. Increasing knowledge regarding the mechanisms and genetic aberrations underlying tumor development and growth has heralded a new era of therapy in oncology, moving away from indiscriminate cytotoxic chemotherapy toward more finely focused, targeted medicine. The development of small-molecule drugs and monoclonal antibodies directed toward specific components of dysfunctional molecular or immune pathways, and mutated genes specific to particular cancer types, is leading the field to more personalized and less toxic treatment options, many of which have demonstrated greater efficacy and survival benefits than their chemotherapeutic counterparts...
October 23, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156385/interaction-with-the-gdf8-11-pathway-reveals-treatment-options-for-adenocarcinoma-of-the-breast
#10
Christoph Wallner, Marius Drysch, Mustafa Becerikli, Henriette Jaurich, Johannes Maximilian Wagner, Stephanie Dittfeld, Julia Nagler, Kamran Harati, Mehran Dadras, Stathis Philippou, Marcus Lehnhardt, Björn Behr
Breast adenocarcinoma continues to be the most frequently diagnosed tumor entity. Despite established therapy options, mortality for breast cancer remains to be as high as 40,000 patients in the US annually. Thus, a need to develop a patient-oriented, targeted therapy exists. In this study, we investigated the interaction of breast adenocarcinoma with the ubiquitously present protein Follistatin and subsequently the GDF8/11 pathway. We analyzed primary histological samples from adenocarcinoma patients for expression of Follistatin and GDF8/11...
November 17, 2017: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155705/identification-and-characterization-of-metastatic-factors-by-gene-transfer-into-the-novel-rip-tag-rip-tva-murine-model
#11
George Zhang, Yudan Chi, Yi-Chieh Nancy Du
Metastatic cancer accounts for 90% of deaths in patients with solid tumors. There is an urgent need to better understand the drivers of cancer metastasis and to identify novel therapeutic targets. To investigate molecular events that drive the progression from primary cancer to metastasis, we have developed a bitransgenic mouse model, RIP-Tag; RIP-tva. In this mouse model, the rat insulin promoter (RIP) drives the expression of the SV40 T antigen (Tag) and the receptor for subgroup A avian leukosis virus (tva) in pancreatic β cells...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155624/functional-and-targeted-lymph-node-imaging-in-prostate-cancer-current-status-and-future-challenges
#12
Harriet C Thoeny, Sebastiano Barbieri, Johannes M Froehlich, Baris Turkbey, Peter L Choyke
Patients with prostate cancer who have regional lymph node (LN) metastases face an increased risk of death from disease and are therefore treated aggressively. Surgical LN dissection is the established method of staging regional nodes; however, this invasive technique carries substantial morbidities and a noninvasive imaging method is needed to reduce or eliminate the need for extended pelvic LN dissections (ePLND). Conventional computed tomography and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging have proven insensitive and nonspecific because both use nodal size criteria, which is notoriously inaccurate...
December 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155611/can-chemotherapy-related-acute-care-visits-be-accurately-identified-in-administrative-data
#13
Monika K Krzyzanowska, Katherine Enright, Rahim Moineddin, Lingsong Yun, Melanie Powis, Mohammed Ghannam, Eva Grunfeld
PURPOSE: There is increasing interest in using administrative data to examine treatment-related complications that lead to emergency department (ED) visits or hospitalizations (H). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability of billing codes for identifying chemotherapy-related acute care visits (CRVs) among women with early-stage breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cohort was identified by using deterministically linked health databases and consisted of women who were diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer who started adjuvant chemotherapy between 2007 and 2009 in Ontario, Canada...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Oncology Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154919/patient-reported-outcomes-and-opioid-use-by-outpatient-cancer-patients
#14
N Moryl, V Dave, P Glare, A Bokhari, V T Malhotra, A Gulati, J Hung, V Puttanniah, Y Griffo, R Tickoo, A Wiesenthal, S D Horn, C E Inturrisi
The Memorial Sloan-Kettering Pain Registry contains patient characteristics, treatments, and outcomes for a prospective cohort of 1534 chronic pain cancer patients who were seen at outpatient pain service clinics. Average pain intensity (Brief Pain Inventory) was reported as mild by 24.6% of patients, moderate by 41.5%, and severe by 33.9%. The patient's report of average percent pain relief and health state (EQ-5D) was inversely related to average pain intensity category, while measures of pain interference, number of worst pain locations, and physical and psychological distress were directly related to pain intensity category...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154890/relating-to-the-experience-of-contingency-in-patients-with-advanced-cancer-an-interview-study-in-american-patients
#15
Renske Kruizinga, Najmeh Jafari, Michael Scherer-Rath, Hans Schilderman, Jennifer Bires, Christina Puchalski, Hanneke van Laarhoven
INTRODUCTION: Being diagnosed with incurable cancer can be a life changing experience, evoking different spiritual questions and needs. Confronting a serious life-threatening event that occurs not only often unexpected but can also disrupt a person's self-image and ideals of their personhood. This confrontation makes it difficult for people to integrate it into their personal life story - otherwise referred to as an experience of contingency. Different modes of relating to the contingent life event of having cancer have been studied in a Dutch patient population...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154796/treatment-of-cancer-by-low-intensity-laser-radiation-therapy
#16
REVIEW
Sahar E Abo-Neima
Cancer treatment is one of the main challenges that face the scientific centers all over the world. The cancer incidence percentage increases year after year. The most used treatment for cancer is chemotherapy which is an application of systemic cytotoxic drug inside the patient. There are two main problems in chemotherapy that the cytotoxic drug is given systematically and cannot be localized in the tumor region in most cases that lead to killing the cancer cells as well as normal cells; and that cause the chemotherapy side effects like anemia, decrease in all blood cells count and platelets, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, hair and nails loss and may cause a kind of blood toxicity...
November 14, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154238/ctrc-gene-polymorphism-may-increase-pancreatic-cancer-risk-preliminary-study
#17
Stanisław Głuszek, Artur Kowalik, Dorota Kozieł, Iwona Wawrzycka, Martyna Głuszek-Osuch, Jarosław Matykiewicz
Pancreatic cancer is often fatal due to delayed diagnosis and treatment difficulties. OBJECTIVE: To analyze selected SPINK1, CTRC, CFTR, and PRSS1 gene mutations in cancer tissue and blood samples of patients with pancreatic tumors. MATERIALS AND METHOD: We enrolled 16 consecutive patients diagnosed with pancreatic tumors. We collected cancer tissue, normal pancreatic tissue, and blood samples for genetic tests. The control group consisted of 419 healthy individuals...
October 31, 2017: Polski Przeglad Chirurgiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154173/prognostic-value-of-tumour-infiltrating-lymphocytes-in-small-her2-positive-breast-cancer
#18
Carmen Criscitiello, Vincenzo Bagnardi, Giancarlo Pruneri, Andrea Vingiani, Angela Esposito, Nicole Rotmensz, Giuseppe Curigliano
BACKGROUND: The standard treatment for patients with small, node-negative, human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer (BC) is still controversial. Our aim was to assess the prognostic role of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in patients with stage pT1a-b HER2-positive BC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Haematoxylin and eosin slides from node-negative, pT1a-b HER2-positive BC surgical specimens were retrieved from pathology archives to assess TILs and their association with outcome...
November 15, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153372/impact-of-experimental-design-on-pet-radiomics-in-predicting-somatic-mutation-status
#19
Stephen S F Yip, Chintan Parmar, John Kim, Elizabeth Huynh, Raymond H Mak, Hugo J W L Aerts
PURPOSE: PET-based radiomic features have demonstrated great promises in predicting genetic data. However, various experimental parameters can influence the feature extraction pipeline, and hence, Here, we investigated how experimental settings affect the performance of radiomic features in predicting somatic mutation status in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. METHODS: 348 NSCLC patients with somatic mutation testing and diagnostic PET images were included in our analysis...
December 2017: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153370/loco-regional-staging-accuracy-in-oesophageal-cancer-how-good-are-we-in-the-modern-era
#20
David Bunting, Tim Bracey, Bruce Fox, Richard Berrisford, Tim Wheatley, Grant Sanders
INTRODUCTION: Accuracy of locoregional staging in patients with oesophageal cancer is critical in determining operability and the need for neoadjuvant treatment. Imaging technology has advanced significantly in recent years but it is not known whether this translates to improved staging accuracy. This study investigates staging accuracy in relation to CT, EUS, PET-CT and final pre-operative stage. It specifically addresses the accuracy of staging with respect to the threshold for administering neoadjuvant therapies...
December 2017: European Journal of Radiology
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