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Shetal A Patel, Andy J Minn
The success of immune checkpoint blockade in patients with a wide variety of malignancies has changed the treatment paradigm in oncology. However, combination therapies with immune checkpoint blockade will be needed to overcome resistance and broaden the clinical utility of immunotherapy. Here we discuss a framework for rationally designing combination therapy strategies based on enhancing major discriminatory functions of the immune system that are corrupted by cancer-namely, antigenicity, adjuvanticity, and homeostatic feedback inhibition...
March 20, 2018: Immunity
Zhao Dehua, Chu Mingming, Wang Jisheng
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of gemcitabine (GEM) at 30 min standard-dose infusion (30 min-SDI) compared with prolonged low-dose infusion (P-LDI) in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: Electronic databases including Pubmed, EMbase, Cochrane Library, CNKI, CBM, and VIP were searched using keywords "GEM", "P-LDI", and "NSCLC". Review Manager 5.3 was used to perform the meta-analysis. Primary endpoints were overall response rate (ORR) and 1-year survival rate (1-year SR)...
2018: PloS One
Shouhua Wang, Yanqing Li, Chaozhuo Li, Yijun Qiao, Shuling He
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to determine the need for supportive care among women suffering from breast cancer in China and to identify its potential determinants to inform the development of effective and efficient healthcare services across different settings. MATERIAL AND METHODS In a tertiary-care hospital in Weifang, China, between July 2015 and January 2016, all women attending the Breast Cancer Clinic for regular physical examinations after treatment for breast cancer were consecutively recruited...
March 21, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Benjamin B Kasten, Patsy G Oliver, Harrison Kim, Jinda Fan, Soldano Ferrone, Kurt R Zinn, Donald J Buchsbaum
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive subtype of breast cancer with a poor prognosis. There is a clinical need for effective, targeted therapy strategies that destroy both differentiated TNBC cells and TNBC cancer initiating cells (CICs), as the latter are implicated in the metastasis and recurrence of TNBC. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4) is overexpressed on differentiated tumor cells and CICs obtained from TNBC patient specimens, suggesting that CSPG4 may be a clinically relevant target for the imaging and therapy of TNBC...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ippokratis Pountos, Peter V Giannoudis
The fixation of impending or pathologic fractures is challenging and their successful management can have a favourable impact on the quality of life of the patient. The progression of the metastatic bone disease can cause significant pain and disability but also could result in the loosening and subsequent failure of the implants. To prevent the additional local growth, postoperative radiotherapy is often recommended, and many patients receive endocrine or chemotherapy Areas Covered: Several reports support the antineoplastic drugs to bone cement as an adjuvant to improve implant stability as well as to prevent local cancer progression and failure of reconstructive devices used to treat patients with pathologic fractures...
March 21, 2018: Expert Review of Medical Devices
Zipei Cao, Lijuan Wei, Weizhi Zhu, Xuping Yao
BACKGROUND: Reduction of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A) (p16 and p14) expression through DNA methylation has been reported in prostate cancer (PCa). This meta-analysis was conducted to assess the difference of p16 and p14 methylation between PCa and different histological types of nonmalignant controls and the correlation of p16 or p14 methylation with clinicopathological features of PCa. METHODS: According to the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) statement criteria, articles were searched in PubMed, Embase, EBSCO, Wanfang, and CNKI databases...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Bin Sato, Mitsuro Kanda, Chie Tanaka, Daisuke Kobayashi, Naoki Iwata, Norifumi Hattori, Masaya Suenaga, Masamichi Hayashi, Suguru Yamada, Kenta Murotani, Michitaka Fujiwara, Yasuhiro Kodera
BACKGROUND: Surgical resection is the mainstay of treatment for patients with gastric cancer (GC). Development of a simple, high-performance, integrated scoring system is needed to provide appropriate management. This study aimed to evaluate predictive values of the systemic inflammation score (SIS) for short- and long-term outcomes of patients who underwent surgery for GC. METHODS: A total of 187 patients who underwent gastrectomy for pT2-4 GC without preoperative treatment were analyzed...
March 20, 2018: World Journal of Surgery
Chang Hyun Lee, Jong Kyu Kim, Hyun Jung Jun, Duk-Joo Lee, Wook Namkoong, Jae Ho Oh
Objective: To evaluate the compliance and satisfaction of rehabilitation recommendations for advanced cancer patients hospitalized in the palliative care unit. Methods: Advanced cancer patients admitted to a hospice palliative care unit were recruited. Patients with advanced cancer and a life expectancy of less than 6 months, as assumed by the oncologist were included. Patients who were expected to die within 3 days were excluded. ECOG and Karnofsky performance scales, function ambulatory category, level of ambulation, and survival days were evaluated under the perspective of comprehensive rehabilitation...
February 2018: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
Ladan Goshayeshi, Benyamin Hoseini, Zahra Yousefli, Alireza Khooie, Kobra Etminani, Abbas Esmaeilzadeh, Amin Golabpour
Background and aim: Gastric cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers in the world. Characterized by poor prognosis, it is a frequent cause of cancer in Iran. The aim of the study was to design a predictive model of survival time for patients suffering from gastric cancer. Methods: This was a historical cohort conducted between 2011 and 2016. Study population were 277 patients suffering from gastric cancer. Data were gathered from the Iranian Cancer Registry and the laboratory of Emam Reza Hospital in Mashhad, Iran...
December 2017: Electronic Physician
Zhipeng Pan, Mengya Chen, Xingxing Hu, Hua Wang, Jiajia Yang, Congjun Zhang, Faming Pan, Guoping Sun
Background: Recent studies have reported the associations between vitamin D receptor ( VDR ) polymorphisms and colorectal cancer (CRC), but the results were not always consistent. This meta-analysis aims to evaluate whether VDR polymorphisms are associated with CRC susceptibility. Materials And Methods: Studies on the associations between VDR polymorphisms and CRC were retrieved from the Web of Science, PubMed, the Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM), Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Wanfang (Chinese) databases...
February 27, 2018: Oncotarget
Fang Hu, Xiaowei Mao, Yujun Zhang, Xiaoxuan Zheng, Ping Gu, Huimin Wang, Xueyan Zhang
Purpose: To evaluate the clinical value of circulating tumor cells as a surrogate to detect epidermal growth factor receptor mutation in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Methods: We searched the electronic databases, and all articles meeting predetermined selection criteria were included in this study. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, and diagnostic odds ratio were calculated. The evaluation indexes of the diagnostic performance were the summary receiver operating characteristic curve and area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curve...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Andrew T Kunzmann, Aaron P Thrift, Chris R Cardwell, Jesper Lagergren, Shaohua Xie, Brian T Johnston, Lesley A Anderson, John Busby, Úna C McMenamin, Andrew D Spence, Helen G Coleman
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The prognosis for most patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is poor because they present with advanced disease. Models developed to identify patients at risk for EAC and increase early detection have been developed based on data from case-control studies. We analyzed data from a prospective study to identify factors available to clinicians that identify individuals with a high absolute risk of EAC. METHODS: We collected data from 355,034 individuals (all older than 50 years) without a prior history of cancer enrolled in the United Kingdom Biobank prospective cohort study from 2006 through 2010; clinical data were collected through September 2014...
March 17, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Elena Manea, Alexandre Escande, Sophie Bockel, Mohamed Khettab, Isabelle Dumas, Ioana Lazarescu, Ingrid Fumagalli, Philippe Morice, Eric Deutsch, Christine Haie-Meder, Cyrus Chargari
PURPOSE: To study correlations between dose-volume parameters of the whole bladder and bladder trigone and late urinary toxicity in locally advanced cervical cancer patients treated with pulsed-dose-rate brachytherapy. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Patients with locally advanced cervical cancer treated with chemoradiation therapy and pulsed-dose-rate brachytherapy from 2004 to 2015 were included. Cumulative dose-volume parameters of the whole bladder and bladder trigone were converted into 2-Gy/fraction equivalents (EQD2, with α/β = 3 Gy); these parameters, as well as clinical factors, were analyzed as predictors of toxicity in patients without local relapse...
February 13, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Anya Romanoff, Hank Schmidt, Matthew McMurray, Christina Weltz, Monica Schwartzman, Kathryn Friedman, Laurie Margolies, Elisa Port
The role of MRI in the workup of newly diagnosed breast cancer patients remains controversial. Breast MRI detects additional disease, but this has not translated into improved outcomes. In light of a dramatic rise in MRI use, we investigated patterns of MRI ordering for newly diagnosed breast cancer. All newly diagnosed breast cancer cases presenting for surgical management to a specialized breast center from 2011 to 2013 were reviewed. Patients who had an MRI ordered by their operating surgeon were compared with those who had an MRI completed previously...
March 1, 2018: American Surgeon
Hwi Young Kim, Dong Hyeon Lee, Jeong-Hoon Lee, Young Youn Cho, Eun Ju Cho, Su Jong Yu, Yoon Jun Kim, Jung-Hwan Yoon
BACKGROUND: Prediction of the outcome of sorafenib therapy using biomarkers is an unmet clinical need in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim was to develop and validate a biomarker-based model for predicting sorafenib response and overall survival (OS). METHODS: This prospective cohort study included 124 consecutive HCC patients (44 with disease control, 80 with progression) with Child-Pugh class A liver function, who received sorafenib...
March 20, 2018: BMC Cancer
Luis Jara-Palomares, Remedios Otero, David Jimenez, Juan Manuel Praena-Fernandez, Carme Font, Conxita Falga, Silvia Soler, David Riesco, Peter Verhamme, Manuel Monreal
The usefulness of a diagnostic workup for occult cancer in patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE) is controversial. We used the RIETE (Registro Informatizado Enfermedad Trombo Embólica) database to perform a nested case-control study to validate a prognostic score that identifies patients with unprovoked VTE at increased risk for cancer. We dichotomized patients as having low- (≤2 points) or high (≥3 points) risk for cancer, and tried to validate the score at 12 and 24 months. From January 2014 to October 2016, 11,695 VTE patients were recruited...
2018: PloS One
Oğuz Ahmet Hasdemir, Serhat Tokgöz, Fulya Köybaşıoğlu, Harun Karabacak, Cüneyt Yücesoy, Gökşen İnanç İmamoğlu
BACKGROUND: Metaplastic carcinoma of the breast (MpBC) is defined as a group of heterogeneous malignant neoplasms that contain glandular and non-glandular components with mixed epithelial and mesenchymal differentiations. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to research the clinical and pathological characteristics of MpBC determining its rank among all breast cancers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Metaplastic carcinoma of the breast was found in 7 out of 1,164 patients who had been diagnosed with breast cancer within the period of 12 years in our hospital...
March 19, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Jeffrey M Ryckman, Chi Lin, Charles B Simone, Vivek Verma
OBJECTIVE: The standard of care for clinical IA cervical cancer is surgery, but nonoperative cases may receive definitive radiation therapy (RT). Herein, we investigated national practice patterns associated with the administration of definitive RT as compared with hysterectomy-based surgery (HYS) as well as delivery of adjuvant RT after HYS. METHODS/MATERIALS: The National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) was queried for clinical IA primary cervical cancer cases (2004-2013) receiving definitive RT or HYS with or without adjuvant RT...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
Qian Zhou, Hui Zeng, Peng Ye, Yu Shi, Juan Guo, Xinghua Long
Increasing evidence has shown that the dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) is associated with drug resistance. Fulvestrant and tamoxifen represent the major endocrine drugs for the treatment of breast cancer patients, and yet little is known about the biological mechanisms of acquiring resistance to fulvestrant and tamoxifen, let alone the differences between cell lines resistant to these two drugs. Exploration of the differential miRNA profiles between these two cell lines is a useful way to further clarify these resistance mechanisms...
March 19, 2018: Anti-cancer Drugs
Amanda R Jimenez, Arielle Shaeffer Weiss, Anthony C Campagna
Lung Cancer is the primary cause of cancer-related death in the United States. We have recognized a need for novel methods of identification and consideration of enrollment into a lung cancer screening program for those at the highest risk of lung cancer. Our primary goal was to determine if pulmonary function test (PFT) demographic data would be useful in identifying patients for lung cancer screening. We retrospectively reviewed PFTs performed at Lahey Hospital & Medical Center (LHMC) January 2012 through January 2013 and found that of patients identified as high risk of lung cancer, 89% had passed through our PFT lab but had not yet been screened...
February 19, 2018: Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease, Archivio Monaldi Per le Malattie del Torace
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