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Long acting insulin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816532/comparing-clinical-outcomes-and-costs-for-different-treatment-intensification-approaches-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-uncontrolled-on-basal-insulin-adding-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonists-vs-adding-rapid-acting-insulin-or-increasing-basal-insulin
#1
Philip Levin, Tao Fan, Xue Song, Damion Nero, Brian Davis, Bong-Chul Chu
Objective-Not all patients with type 2 diabetes achieve the recommended glycated hemoglobin A1c (A1C) levels after adequate titration of basal insulin (BI). Current intensification approaches include addition of rapid-acting insulin (RAI) or a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA), but it is not clear which strategy results in better long-term outcomes. Methods-This retrospective analysis of health insurance claims data in the US MarketScan database compared glycemic control and healthcare resource utilization and costs 12 months after adding GLP-1 RA to BI vs adding RAI or increasing BI doses...
August 17, 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794173/glucose-potentiates-%C3%AE-cell-function-by-inducing-tph1-expression-in-rat-islets
#2
Yuqing Zhang, Ruyuan Deng, Xue Yang, Wan Xu, Yun Liu, Fengying Li, Juan Zhang, Hongju Tang, Xueying Ji, Yufang Bi, Xiao Wang, Libin Zhou, Guang Ning
Impaired pancreatic β-cell function is the primary defect in type 2 diabetes. Glucose is an important regulator of β-cell growth and function; however, the mechanisms that are involved in the chronic adaptation of β-cells to hyperglycemia remain largely unknown. In the present study, global gene expression patterns revealed that tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (Tph1) was the most profound of genes that are up-regulated in rat islets exposed to high glucose. Calcium and cAMP signals synergistically mediated glucose-stimulated Tph1 transcription in β-cells by activating cAMP-responsive element-binding protein and promoting its binding with a Tph1 promoter...
August 9, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792863/addition-of-insulin-to-parenteral-nutrition-for-control-of-hyperglycemia
#3
Adam McCulloch, Vishakha Bansiya, Jeremy M Woodward
Administration of parenteral nutrition (PN) may result in hyperglycemia in patients with preexisting diabetes or disease-related insulin resistance, and it can be associated with increased rates of complications. Treatment requires insulin therapy. Insulin can be administered subcutaneously, intravenously via a variable rate sliding scale, or by adding it directly to the PN. The last method is a potentially attractive technique for a number of reasons-it could deliver the insulin intravenously at a steady rate alongside carbohydrates, and in malnourished patients with little subcutaneous tissue, it may prevent the need for frequent insulin injections...
August 1, 2017: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780057/top-down-mass-spectrometric-immunoassay-for-human-insulin-and-its-therapeutic-analogs
#4
Dobrin Nedelkov, Eric E Niederkofler, Paul E Oran, Scott Peterman, Randall W Nelson
Measurement of insulin and its therapeutic analogs is important in diabetes, hypoglycemia, sports anti-doping and toxicology. Commercial insulin immunoassays fail to detect commonly prescribed insulin analogs. Because of their unique sequences and masses, these analogs are readily measured and distinguished with mass spectrometric (MS) assays. Reviewed here is an insulin mass spectrometric immunoassay (MSIA) that combines micro-scale immunoaffinity capture with sensitive MS detection of insulin and its therapeutic analogs...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774890/mir-338-controls-bpa-triggered-pancreatic-islets-insulin-secretory-dysfunction-from-compensation-to-decompensation-by-targeting-pdx-1
#5
Jie Wei, Dongxiao Ding, Tao Wang, Qiong Liu, Yi Lin
Bisphenol A (BPA) can disrupt glucose homeostasis and impair pancreatic islet function; however, the mechanisms behind these effects are poorly understood. Male mice (4 wk old) were treated with BPA (50 or 500 μg/kg/day) for 8 wk. Whole-body glucose homeostasis, pancreatic islet morphology and function, and miR-338-mediated molecular signal transduction analyses were examined. We showed that BPA treatment led to a disruption of glucose tolerance and a compensatory increase of pancreatic islets insulin secretion and pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (Pdx1) expression in mice...
August 3, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767190/insulin-degludec-in-the-first-trimester-of-pregnancy-report-of-two-cases
#6
Agostino Milluzzo, Andrea Tumminia, Nunzio M Scalisi, Lucia Frittitta, Riccardo Vigneri, Laura Sciacca
Insulin degludec is an extra-long-acting insulin analog that allows for enhanced efficacy and flexibility in the injection time. However, it is not approved for use during pregnancy. We report the pregnancy outcome and newborn conditions in two type 1 diabetic women who continued pre-conception degludec treatment during embryogenesis. No pregnancy complication or congenital neonatal malformation was observed. Both babies presented with hypoglycemia and required neonatal intensive care unit admission. Degludec treatment did not cause adverse effects in the mothers or malformations in the newborns...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762200/rapid-acting-and-human-insulins-hexamer-dissociation-kinetics-upon-dilution-of-the-pharmaceutical-formulation
#7
Klaus Gast, Anja Schüler, Martin Wolff, Anja Thalhammer, Harald Berchtold, Norbert Nagel, Gudrun Lenherr, Gerrit Hauck, Robert Seckler
PURPOSE: Comparison of the dissociation kinetics of rapid-acting insulins lispro, aspart, glulisine and human insulin under physiologically relevant conditions. METHODS: Dissociation kinetics after dilution were monitored directly in terms of the average molecular mass using combined static and dynamic light scattering. Changes in tertiary structure were detected by near-UV circular dichroism. RESULTS: Glulisine forms compact hexamers in formulation even in the absence of Zn(2+)...
July 31, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733926/perioperative-management-of-endocrine-insufficiency-after-total-pancreatectomy-for-neoplasia
#8
REVIEW
Ajay V Maker, Raashid Sheikh, Vinita Bhagia
PURPOSE: Indications for total pancreatectomy (TP) have increased, including for diffuse main duct intrapapillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas and malignancy; therefore, the need persists for surgeons to develop appropriate endocrine post-operative management strategies. The brittle diabetes after TP differs from type 1/2 diabetes in that patients have absolute deficiency of insulin and functional glucagon. This makes glucose management challenging, complicates recovery, and predisposes to hospital readmissions...
July 21, 2017: Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731178/microrna-379-acts-as-a-tumor-suppressor-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-by-targeting-the-igf%C3%A2-1r-mediated-akt-and-erk-pathways
#9
Fangzheng Zhou, Long Nie, Dali Feng, Siyan Guo, Ren'na Luo
Lung cancer is one of the most common types of malignancy in humans and is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths among men and women worldwide. Aberrantly expressed microRNAs in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) contribute to tumor occurrence and development as either tumor suppressors or promoters. MicroRNA-379 (miR‑379) is dysregulated in several types of human cancer. However, its expression pattern, role and underlying mechanism in NSCLC progression and metastasis are poorly understood. In this study, assay of reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that miR‑379 was downregulated in both NSCLC tissue and cell lines...
September 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721081/insulin-glargine-300-u-ml-for-basal-insulin-therapy-in-type-1-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#10
REVIEW
Ip Tim Lau, Ka Fai Lee, Wing Yee So, Kathryn Tan, Vincent Tok Fai Yeung
OBJECTIVE: To review published clinical studies on the efficacy and safety of new insulin glargine 300 units/mL (Gla-300), a new long-acting insulin analog, for the treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T1DM, T2DM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data sources comprised primary research articles on Gla-300, including pharmacodynamic, pharmacokinetic, and clinical studies. RESULTS: In pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic studies, Gla-300 showed a flatter time-action profile and longer duration of action than Gla-100...
2017: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721067/phase-i-dose-escalation-study-of-long-acting-pasireotide-in-patients-with-neuroendocrine-tumors
#11
James C Yao, Jennifer A Chan, Alain C Mita, Madan G Kundu, Karina Hermosillo Reséndiz, Ke Hu, Shoba Ravichandran, Jonathan R Strosberg, Edward M Wolin
This phase I study aimed at determining the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and characterizing the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics (PKs), and efficacy of pasireotide in patients with advanced neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Patients were enrolled in two phases: dose-escalation phase (to determine the MTD) at a starting dose of 80 mg pasireotide long-acting release (LAR) i.m. followed by a dose-expansion phase (to evaluate safety and prelimi-nary efficacy). Associations between PK/pharmacodynamic parameters and clinical outcomes were evaluated using linear regression analysis...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720583/central-effects-of-insulin-detemir-on-feeding-body-weight-and-metabolism-in-rats
#12
Joseph R Vasselli, F Xavier Pi-Sunyer, Daniel G Wall, Catherine S John, Colin D Chapman, Paul J Currie
Insulin detemir (DET) is a basal insulin analog that, in contrast to other long-acting forms of insulin, has significant weight-gain sparing effects in diabetic patients. We hypothesized that this effect of DET may be due to its enhanced catabolic action in the CNS. We investigated the long-term effects of single third ventricular (3V) microinjections of equimolar doses of DET and regular insulin in normal male rats on feeding, body weight, energy expenditure (EE) and respiratory quotient (RQ). Also in acute testing, we assessed the ability of lower doses of DET to alter feeding, EE and RQ when microinjected directly into the paraventricular nucleus (PVN)...
July 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718225/proteostasis-and-ageing-insights-from-long-lived-mutant-mice
#13
William A Sands, Melissa M Page, Colin Selman
The global increase in life expectancy is creating significant medical, social and economic challenges to current and future generations. Consequently, there is a need to identify the fundamental mechanisms underlying the ageing process. This knowledge should help develop realistic interventions capable of combatting age-related disease, and thus improving late-life health and vitality. While several mechanisms have been proposed as conserved lifespan determinants, the loss of proteostasis- where proteostasis is defined here as the maintenance of the proteome- appears highly relevant to both ageing and disease...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712316/disturbed-bovine-mitochondrial-lipid-metabolism-a-review
#14
J H van der Kolk, J J Gross, V Gerber, R M Bruckmaier
In mammals, excess energy is stored primarily as triglycerides, which are mobilized when energy demands arise and cannot be covered by feed intake. This review mainly focuses on the role of long chain fatty acids in disturbed energy metabolism of the bovine species. Long chain fatty acids regulate energy metabolism as ligands of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. β-Oxidation is the process by which fatty acid molecules are broken down in the mitochondria or peroxisomes to generate acetyl-CoA. Carnitine acts as a carrier of fatty acyl groups as long-chain acyl-CoA derivatives do not penetrate the mitochondrial inner membrane...
July 17, 2017: Veterinary Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709873/deregulation-of-wnt2-fzd3-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway-compromises-the-estrogen-synthesis-in-cumulus-cells-from-patients-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#15
Gu-Yuan Qiao, Bing-Wei Dong, Chao-Juan Zhu, Chang-You Yan, Bi-Liang Chen
Mechanistic insight into estrogen deficiency by polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) remains a longstanding challenge in reproductive medicine. Recent advance suggest that Wingless-type MMTV integration site family members (WNTs), in concert with its Frizzled (FZD) receptors, regulate normal folliculogenesis, luteogenesis and ovarian steroidogenesis. However, no studies have so far investigated any causality between WNT-FZDs interactions and disrupted estrogen synthesis under certain pathological conditions. Here, we show that (i) FZD3 expression was significantly up-regulated in the cumulus cells (CCs) from PCOS patients...
July 11, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702259/clinical-effects-cardiovascular-and-renal-outcomes-associated-with-rapid-acting-insulin-analogs-among-individuals-with-type-2-diabetes-a-nation-wide-observational-cohort-study
#16
Ann-Marie Svensson, Mervete Miftaraj, Stefan Franzén, Björn Eliasson
BACKGROUND: Rapid-acting insulin analogs (RAIs) have not been examined for long-term safety in randomized clinical trials. We performed a nationwide longitudinal cohort study among individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) to address cardiovascular safety and mortality among users of lispro, aspart and glulisine insulins. METHODS: We used four national registers, following patients previously not treated with RAI but with continuous use of RAIs in 2005-2014 up to 6...
2017: Clinical Diabetes and Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667587/insulin-glargine-lixisenatide-a-review-in-type-2-diabetes
#17
Lesley J Scott
Subcutaneous insulin glargine/lixisenatide (Suliqua™) is a titratable, fixed-ratio combination of a long-acting basal insulin analogue and a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist for the treatment of adult patients with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes. Once-daily insulin glargine/lixisenatide, in combination with metformin, provided effective glycaemic control and was generally well tolerated in the 30-week, multinational, phase 3 LixiLan-O and LixiLan-L trials in insulin-naive and -experienced adult patients with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes...
August 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662684/atypical-blood-glucose-response-to-continuous-and-interval-exercise-in-a-person-with-type-1-diabetes-a-case-report
#18
Othmar Moser, Gerhard Tschakert, Alexander Mueller, Werner Groeschl, Thomas R Pieber, Gerd Koehler, Max L Eckstein, Richard M Bracken, Peter Hofmann
BACKGROUND: Therapy must be adapted for people with type 1 diabetes to avoid exercise-induced hypoglycemia caused by increased exercise-related glucose uptake into muscles. Therefore, to avoid hypoglycemia, the preexercise short-acting insulin dose must be reduced for safety reasons. We report a case of a man with long-lasting type 1 diabetes in whom no blood glucose decrease during different types of exercise with varying exercise intensities and modes was found, despite physiological hormone responses...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651211/effect-of-insulin-degludec-versus-insulin-glargine-on-glycemic-control-and-daily-fasting-blood-glucose-variability-in-insulin-na%C3%A3-ve-japanese-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-i-d-got-trial
#19
Yoshimasa Aso, Kunihiro Suzuki, Yasuko Chiba, Minoru Sato, Nobuya Fujita, Yoshihisa Takada, Shunichi Murano, Hisamoto Kuroda
AIMS: Insulin degludec (IDeg) is an ultra-long-acting insulin that has a smooth time/action profile over more than 42h. The present study compared the effects of IDeg and insulin glargine (IGlar) on HbA1c reduction and on within-subject day-to-day variability of fasting blood glucose (FBG) in insulin-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Eligible patients were randomly allocated at a 3:1 ratio to receive once-daily IDeg (n=31) or IGlar (n=12)...
June 15, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649881/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-insulin-degludec-compared-with-insulin-glargine-u100-for-the-management-of-type-1-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-from-the-spanish-national-health-system-perspective
#20
Pedro Mezquita-Raya, Josep Darbà, Meritxell Ascanio, Antonio Ramírez de Arellano
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of insulin degludec versus insulin glargine, from the Spanish NHS in three groups of patients. METHODS: A short-term cost utility model was developed to estimate effectiveness results in terms of the total number of hypoglycaemic events and their disutility impact throughout the year on the initial level of quality of life for patients in each treatment. RESULTS: Degludec was the dominant strategy for T2DM BOT and exhibited an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of 52...
June 26, 2017: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
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