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Long acting insulin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907034/budget-impact-of-long-acting-insulin-analogues-the-case-in-brazil
#1
Fernanda O Laranjeira, Everton Nunes da Silva, Maurício G Pereira
BACKGROUND: Long-acting insulin analogues for type 1 diabetes (T1D) treatment have been available on the Brazilian market since 2002. However, the population cannot access the analogues through the public health system. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incremental budget impact of long-acting insulin analogues coverage for T1D patients in the Brazilian public health system compared to NPH insulin. METHODS: We performed a budget impact analysis of a five-year period...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906690/the-long-road-to-leptin
#2
Jeffrey Friedman
Leptin is an adipose tissue hormone that functions as an afferent signal in a negative feedback loop that maintains homeostatic control of adipose tissue mass. This endocrine system thus serves a critical evolutionary function by protecting individuals from the risks associated with being too thin (starvation) or too obese (predation and temperature dysregulation). Mutations in leptin or its receptor cause massive obesity in mice and humans, and leptin can effectively treat obesity in leptin-deficient patients...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878211/liraglutide-enhances-the-efficacy-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-preserving-islet-%C3%AE-cell-function-in-severe-non-obese-diabetic-mice
#3
Li-Rong Li, Xiao-Lei Jia, Hui Hui, Jie Zhang, Ying Liu, Wei-Juan Cui, Qian-Yue Xu, Da-Long Zhu
Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) can promote islet β-cell replication and function, and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can inhibit T cell autoimmunity. This study aimed at testing the dynamic distribution of infused human MSCs and therapeutic effect of combined MSCs and Liraglutide, a long-acting GLP-1 analogue, on preserving β-cell function in severe non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. We found that infused MSCs accumulated in the pancreas at 4 weeks post infusion, which was not affected by Liraglutide treatment...
November 17, 2016: Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873088/anti-inflammatory-and-insulin-sensitizing-effects-of-free-fatty-acid-receptors
#4
Junki Miyamoto, Mayu Kasubuchi, Akira Nakajima, Ikuo Kimura
Chronic low-grade inflammation in macrophages and adipose tissues can promote the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Free fatty acids (FFAs) have important roles in various tissues, acting as both essential energy sources and signaling molecules. FFA receptors (FFARs) can modulate inflammation in various types of cells and tissues; however the underlying mechanisms mediating these effects are unclear. FFARs are activated by specific FFAs; for example, GPR40 and GPR120 are activated by medium and long chain FFAs, GPR41 and GPR43 are activated by short chain FFAs, and GPR84 is activated by medium-chain FFAs...
November 22, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846338/an-evolutionary-perspective-on-basal-insulin-in-diabetes-treatment-innovations-in-insulin-insulin-degludec-u-100-and-u-200
#5
Athena Philis-Tsimikas
Insulin degludec (IDeg) is a long-acting basal human insulin analog produced using recombinant DNA technology. The insulin structure is modified at the B30 position to allow a di-hexamer conformation in the presence of phenol and zinc.
October 2016: Journal of Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823935/glucose-enhances-rat-islet-function-via-stimulating-cart-expression
#6
Wan Xu, Yuqing Zhang, Mengyao Bai, Feiye Zhou, Ruyuan Deng, Xueying Ji, Juan Zhang, Yun Liu, Libin Zhou, Xiao Wang
Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is an anorexigenic peptide widely expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, as well as in endocrine cells. CART is markedly upregulated in the β-cells of several rodent models of type-2 diabetes. The stimulatory effect of exogenous CART peptide on insulin secretion is cAMP dependent. Glucose is the most important regulator of islet function. However, the role of CART in glucose-potentiated insulin secretion remains unclear. Here, our results showed that glucose time- and dose-dependently elicited CART mRNA expression in rat islets...
December 2, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821581/association-between-the-use-of-long-acting-insulin-and-hypoglycemia-in-nondiabetic-patients-in-the-surgical-intensive-care-unit
#7
Jordan Masse, Christopher Alan Giuliano, Sara Brown, Renee Alexander Paxton
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between long-acting insulin and hypoglycemia in nondiabetic surgical intensive care patients. METHODS: This single-center, retrospective cohort study evaluated glycemic control in nondiabetic critically ill surgical patients receiving long-acting insulin plus sliding scale versus those receiving sliding scale alone. Patients were matched based on sliding scale order and type of surgery. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients who experienced hypoglycemia (glucose values <70 mg/dL)...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819164/current-trends-in-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-in-the-united-states
#8
Brianne E Bimson, Barak M Rosenn, Sara A Morris, Elizabeth B Sasso, Rachelle A Schwartz, Lois E Brustman
OBJECTIVE: To assess current practice patterns among members of the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine (SMFM) with respect to the diagnosis and management of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). METHODS: A 38 question survey on GDM diagnosis and management was distributed to SMFM members. RESULTS: 2330 SMFM members were surveyed with a 40% response rate. Overall, 90.6% of respondents recommend a 2-step (versus a 1-step) diagnostic test. Cutoff values for the 1-h-50 g glucose challenge test vary from 130-140 mg/dL, but the majority (83%) adopts Carpenter Coustan criteria for the 3-h-100 g oral glucose tolerance test...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807910/glargine-co-administration-with-intravenous-insulin-in-pediatric-diabetic-ketoacidosis-is-safe-and-facilitates-transition-to-a-subcutaneous-regimen
#9
V Sanoe Harrison, Stacy Rustico, Andrew A Palladino, Christine Ferrara, Colin Patrick Hawkes
BACKGROUND: Diabetes ketoacidosis (DKA) is a common presentation and complication of type 1 diabetes (T1D). While intravenous insulin is typically used to treat acute metabolic abnormalities, the transition from intravenous to subcutaneous treatment can present a challenge. We hypothesize that co-administration of glargine, a subcutaneous long-acting insulin analog, during insulin infusion may facilitate a flexible and safe transition from intravenous to subcutaneous therapy. OBJECTIVE: To determine if the practice of administering subcutaneous glargine during intravenous insulin is associated with an increased risk of hypoglycemia, hypokalemia, or other complications in children with DKA...
November 3, 2016: Pediatric Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799746/insulin-glargine-300-u-ml-in-the-management-of-diabetes-clinical-utility-and-patient-perspectives
#10
REVIEW
Bastiaan E de Galan
There is ongoing interest in optimizing basal insulin treatment by developing insulins with a flat pharmacological profile, a long duration of action (typically beyond 24 hours) and minimum day-to-day variation. Glargine-300 is a modified form of the long-acting insulin analog glargine in that it has been concentrated at 300 units/mL rather than the conventional 100 units/mL. Glargine-300 has a longer duration of action and a flatter pharmacological profile than original glargine-100. This property allows for more flexibility around the timing of administration, when injected once per day...
2016: Patient Preference and Adherence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793455/effects-of-long-acting-gnrh-antagonist-degarelix-acetate-on-plasma-insulin-like-peptide-3-testosterone-and-luteinizing-hormone-concentrations-and-scrotal-circumference-in-male-goats
#11
M A Hannan, N Kawate, Y Fukami, W W P N Weerakoon, E E Büllesbach, T Inaba, H Tamada
We recently reported that plasma insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3) concentrations increased soon after endogenous and exogenous stimulations of LH in male goats and bulls. However, the effects of LH suppression on INSL3 secretion are unknown in domestic animals. Here, we examined the effects of a long-acting GnRH antagonist (degarelix acetate; 4 mg/kg) on the secretions of plasma INSL3 and testosterone in two phases, an immediate and a long-term phase in male goats (n = 6; aged, 13-16 months). During the immediate phase, blood was taken at 15-minute intervals for 8 hours on Days -5, 0, and 3...
January 15, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791278/conditioned-media-from-adipose-tissue-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-reverse-insulin-resistance-in-cellular-models
#12
Nitya Shree, Ramesh R Bhonde
The link between insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes has been recognized for a long time. Type 2 diabetes is often associated with basal hyperinsulinemia, reduced sensitivity to insulin, and disturbances in insulin release. There are evidences showing the reversal of IR by mesenchymal stem cells. However, the effect of conditioned media from adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs-CM) in reversal of IR has not been established. We established an insulin resistant model of 3T3L1 and C2C12 cells and treated with ADSCs-CM...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790090/the-drosophila-transcription-factor-dimmed-affects-neuronal-growth-and-differentiation-in-multiple-ways-depending-on-neuron-type-and-developmental-stage
#13
Yiting Liu, Jiangnan Luo, Dick R Nässel
Growth of postmitotic neurons occurs during different stages of development, including metamorphosis, and may also be part of neuronal plasticity and regeneration. Recently we showed that growth of post-mitotic neuroendocrine cells expressing the basic helix loop helix (bHLH) transcription factor Dimmed (Dimm) in Drosophila could be regulated by insulin/IGF signaling and the insulin receptor (dInR). Dimm is also known to confer a secretory phenotype to neuroendocrine cells and can be part of a combinatorial code specifying terminal differentiation in peptidergic neurons...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766795/reduction-of-sulfonylurea-with-the-initiation-of-basal-insulin-in-patients-with-inadequately-controlled-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-undergoing-long-term-sulfonylurea-based-treatment
#14
Yeoree Yang, Jeong Ah Shin, Hae Kyung Yang, Seung Hwan Lee, Seung Hyun Ko, Yu Bae Ahn, Kun Ho Yoon, Jae Hyoung Cho
BACKGROUND: There were a limited number of studies about β-cell function after insulin initiation in patients exposed to long durations of sulfonylurea treatment. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the recovery of β-cell function and the efficacy of concurrent sulfonylurea use after the start of long-acting insulin. METHODS: In this randomized controlled study, patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), receiving sulfonylurea for at least 2 years with glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) >7%, were randomly assigned to two groups: sulfonylurea maintenance (SM) and sulfonylurea reduction (SR)...
October 11, 2016: Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766241/gemigliptin-an-update-of-its-clinical-use-in-the-management-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#15
Sung-Ho Kim, Jung-Hwa Yoo, Woo Je Lee, Cheol-Young Park
Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are a new class of oral antidiabetic agent for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. They increase endogenous levels of incretin hormones, which stimulate glucose-dependent insulin secretion, decrease glucagon secretion, and contribute to reducing postprandial hyperglycemia. Although DPP-4 inhibitors have similar benefits, they can be differentiated in terms of their chemical structure, pharmacology, efficacy and safety profiles, and clinical considerations. Gemigliptin (brand name: Zemiglo), developed by LG Life Sciences, is a potent, selective, competitive, and long acting DPP-4 inhibitor...
October 2016: Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764979/budget-impact-of-treating-commercially-insured-type-1-and-type-2-diabetes-patients-in-the-united-states-with-insulin-degludec-compared-to-insulin-glargine
#16
James Weatherall, Lisa Bloudek, Sarah Buchs
OBJECTIVE: To quantify the annual budget impact if all United States (US) commercially insured type 1 diabetes mellitus patients on basal-bolus therapy (T1DMBBT), type 2 diabetes mellitus patients on basal-oral therapy (T2DMBOT), and type 2 diabetes mellitus patients on basal-bolus therapy (T2DMBBT) switched from insulin glargine (IGlar) to insulin degludec (IDeg). METHODS: A short-term (1-year) budget impact model was developed to evaluate the costs of IDeg vs...
October 21, 2016: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762096/beneficial-effect-of-lixisenatide-after-76-weeks-of-treatment-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-meta-analysis-from-the-getgoal-program
#17
Fabio Broglio, Edoardo Mannucci, Raffaele Napoli, Antonio Nicolucci, Francesco Purrello, Elena Nikonova, William Stager, Roberto Trevisan
AIMS: To evaluate long term efficacy and safety of lixisenatide, a short-acting, prandial GLP-1 RA (Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists) as add-on therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: A meta-analysis of 76-week results of five placebo-controlled clinical trials from the GetGoal program was performed including 3,000 inadequately controlled adult diabetic patients where lixisenatide 20 µg once-daily was administered in combination with metformin (GetGoal-M and GetGoal-F1), sulphonylurea ± metformin (GetGoal-S), basal insulin ± metformin (GetGoal-L) or pioglitazone ± metformin (GetGoal-P)...
October 20, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752998/systematic-review-of-the-cost-effectiveness-of-insulin-analogues-in-type-1-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#18
Asrul Akmal Shafie, Chin Hui Ng, Yui Ping Tan, Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk
BACKGROUND: Insulin analogues have a pharmacokinetic advantage over human insulin and are increasingly used to treat diabetes mellitus. A summary of their cost effectiveness versus other available treatments was required. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to systematically review the published cost-effectiveness studies of insulin analogues for the treatment of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: We searched major databases and health technology assessment agency reports for economic evaluation studies published up until 30 September 2015...
October 17, 2016: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749534/effects-of-cabergoline-on-blood-glucose-levels-in-type-2-diabetic-patients-a-double-blind-controlled-clinical-trial
#19
Adele Bahar, Zahra Kashi, Ezzatossadat Daneshpour, Ozra Akha, Shahram Ala
BACKGROUND: Cabergoline is a long-acting agonist of dopamine, which has a high affinity to dopamine receptors (type 2). Treatment using a dopaminergic agonist reduces hypothalamic stimulation that increases during liver gluconeogenesis, lipids synthesis, and insulin resistance. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of cabergoline on blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). METHODS: This study was a double-blind, controlled clinical trial in patients with type 2 DM...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740719/sitagliptin-added-to-stable-insulin-therapy-with-or-without-metformin-in-chinese-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#20
R Ravi Shankar, Yuqian Bao, Ping Han, Ji Hu, Jianhua Ma, Yongde Peng, Fan Wu, Lei Xu, Samuel S Engel, Weiping Jia
INTRODUCTION: We evaluated the tolerability and efficacy of the addition of sitagliptin in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on stable insulin therapy alone or in combination with metformin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four hundred sixty-seven patients with inadequate glycemic control on insulin (HbA1c ≥7.5% and ≤11%) were randomized 1:1 to receive sitagliptin 100 mg once-daily or matching placebo for 24 weeks. Randomization was stratified based on metformin use (on or not on metformin) and type of insulin (pre-mixed versus intermediate-/long-acting) at screening...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
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