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Long acting insulin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218988/toxicological-effects-during-and-following-persistent-insulin-induced-hypoglycaemia-in-healthy-euglycaemic-rats
#1
Vivi F H Jensen, Anne-Marie Mølck, Line O Berthelsen, Lene Alifrangis, Lene Andersen, Melissa Chapman, Jens Lykkesfeldt, Ingrid B Bøgh
New insulin analogues with a longer duration of action and a "peakless" pharmacokinetic profile have been developed to improve efficacy, safety and convenience for diabetic patients. During non-clinical development, according to regulatory guidelines, these analogues are tested in healthy euglycaemic rats rendering them persistently hypoglycaemic. Little is known about the effect of persistent (24 hr/day) insulin-induced hypoglycaemia (IIH) in rats, complicating interpretation of results in pre-clinical studies with new longer-acting insulin analogues...
February 20, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211611/short-acting-glp-1-receptor-agonists-as-add-on-to-insulin-therapy-in-type-1-diabetes-a-review
#2
REVIEW
Anders Albèr, Andreas Brønden, Filip K Knop
A large proportion of patients with type 1 diabetes do not reach their glycemic target of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) <7.0% (53 mmol/mol) and, furthermore, an increasing number of patients with type 1 diabetes suffer from overweight and obesity. Treatment of type 1 diabetes is based on insulin therapy with well-described and unfortunate adverse effects such as hypoglycemia and increased body weight. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) have received increasing interest as a possible adjunctive treatment to insulin in type 1 diabetes due to their glucagonostatic and extrapancreatic effects...
February 17, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196799/a-phase-2-trial-of-long-acting-transcon-growth-hormone-in-adult-gh-deficiency
#3
Charlotte Höybye, Andreas F H Pfeiffer, Diego Ferone, Jens S Christiansen, David Gilfoyle, Eva Dam Christoffersen, Eva Mortensen, Jonathan A Leff, Michael Beckert
TransCon growth hormone is a sustained release human growth hormone prodrug in development in which unmodified growth hormone is transiently linked to a carrier molecule. It is intended as an alternative to daily growth hormone in the treatment of growth hormone deficiency. This was a multi-center, randomized, open-label, active-controlled trial designed to compare the safety (including tolerability and immunogenicity), pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of three doses of weekly TransCon GH to daily growth hormone (Omnitrope)...
February 14, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187863/a-review-of-the-clinical-efficacy-and-safety-of-insulin-degludec-and-glargine-300-u-ml-in-the-treatment-of-diabetes-mellitus
#4
REVIEW
Vincent C Woo
PURPOSE: The treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using insulin is not ideal at this time. Despite advances made with basal insulin analogues, many individuals achieve less than optimal glycemic control or are at risk for hypoglycemia. Currently available basal insulin analogues do not deliver steady, peakless, continuous insulin for >24 hours and are associated with adverse events, including hypoglycemia. The objective of this paper was to review the clinical efficacy and safety of upcoming long-acting insulin analogues such as insulin degludec and insulin glargine 300 U/mL (Gla-300)...
February 7, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145031/pasireotide-long-acting-release-treatment-for-diabetic-cats-with-underlying-hypersomatotropism
#5
R Gostelow, C Scudder, S Keyte, Y Forcada, R C Fowkes, H A Schmid, D B Church, S J M Niessen
BACKGROUND: Long-term medical management of hypersomatotropism (HS) in cats has proved unrewarding. Pasireotide, a novel somatostatin analogue, decreases serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and improves insulin sensitivity in cats with HS when administered as a short-acting preparation. OBJECTIVES: Assess once-monthly administration of long-acting pasireotide (pasireotide LAR) for treatment of cats with HS. ANIMALS: Fourteen cats with HS, diagnosed based on diabetes mellitus, pituitary enlargement, and serum IGF-1 > 1000 ng/mL...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132802/the-ability-of-hesperidin-compared-to-that-of-insulin-for-preventing-osteoporosis-induced-by-type-i-diabetes-in-young-male-albino-rats-a-histological-and-biochemical-study
#6
Azza Saad Shehata, Mona Gomah Amer, Manal Reda Abd El-Haleem, Rehab Ahmed Karam
BACKGROUND: Patients with type I diabetes are at increased risk of osteoporosis even after insulin therapy in adult stage. This study was conducted to compare the efficacy of hesperidin (hesp) therapy versus that of insulin alone in the alleviation of osteoporosis arising from type I diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in young rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hesperidin was administered orally to STZ-induced diabetes. The animals were evaluated morphologically and biochemically and compared with that received daily SC injections of long-acting insulin...
January 26, 2017: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130352/clinical-features-and-practice-patterns-of-treatment-for-adrenal-crisis-a-nationwide-cross-sectional-study-in-japan
#7
Yosuke Ono, Sachiko Ono, Hideo Yasunaga, Hiroki Matsui, Kiyohide Fushimi, Yuji Tanaka
CONTEXT: Adrenal crisis is an endocrine emergency that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment. However, the clinical features and practice patterns of treatment for adrenal crisis are not completely understood. OBJECTIVE: To investigate patient characteristics, comorbidities and treatments of adrenal crisis. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of patients who received intravenous glucocorticoids for adrenal crisis at admission from 1 July 2007 to 31 March 2014, using a national inpatient database in Japan...
March 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118069/rationale-for-treatment-options-for-mealtime-glucose-control-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#8
Stephen L Aronoff
While glycemic control is routinely assessed using HbA1c and fasting glucose measures, postprandial glucose (PPG) is also an important contributor of overall glycemia. Furthermore, PPG excursions have been linked to complications of diabetes. This review examines the effects of glucose-lowering therapies (including treatments administered at mealtime) on postprandial hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. A PubMed search was conducted to identify clinical studies of treatments for mealtime glucose control in type 2 diabetes...
January 24, 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105735/observational-registry-of-basal-insulin-treatment-orbit-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-uncontrolled-with-oral-antihyperglycaemic-drugs-real-life-use-of-basal-insulin-in-china
#9
Linong Ji, Puhong Zhang, Dongshan Zhu, Xian Li, Jiachao Ji, Juming Lu, Xiaohui Guo, Weiping Jia, Jianping Weng, Yangfeng Wu, Wenying Yang, Dajin Zou, Zhiguang Zhou, Changyu Pan, Yan Gao, Satish K Garg
AIMS: To examine treatment patterns following basal insulin (BI) introduction in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients under real-world conditions across China. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Overall, 18,995 patients inadequately controlled [HbA1c ≥ 53 mmol/mol (7%)] with oral antihyperglycaemic drugs (OADs) and willing to receive BI treatment were registered at 209 hospitals and followed at baseline (visit 1), 3 months (visit 2), and 6 months (visit 3). Type of BI was initiated at physicians' discretion...
January 20, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100630/a-multivariable-prediction-model-for-pegvisomant-dosing-monotherapy-and-in-combination-with-long-acting-somatostatin-analogues
#10
S E Franck, T I M Korevaar, P Petrossians, A F Daly, P Chanson, M L Jaffrain-Réa, T Brue, G K Stalla, D Carvalho, A Colao, V Hána, B Delemer, C Fajardo, A J van der Lely, A Beckers, S J C M M Neggers
BACKGROUND: Effective treatment of acromegaly with pegvisomant (PEGV), a growth hormone receptor antagonist, requires an appropriate dose titration. PEGV doses vary widely among individual patients, and various covariates may affect its dosing and pharmacokinetics. OBJECTIVE: To identify predictors of the PEGV dose required to normalize insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels during PEGV monotherapy and in combination with long-acting somatostatin analogues (LA-SSAs)...
April 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100192/design-and-rationale-of-a-large-international-prospective-cohort-study-to-evaluate-the-occurrence-of-malformations-and-perinatal-neonatal-death-using-insulin-detemir-in-pregnant-women-with-diabetes-in-comparison-with-other-long-acting-insulins
#11
Elisabeth R Mathiesen, Henning Andersen, Sofia I I Kring, Peter Damm
BACKGROUND: There are a lack of data regarding the effect of basal insulin analogues on rates of events like congenital malformation and perinatal mortality in diabetic pregnancy. METHODS: The present study is a prospective, non-interventional, multicentre cohort study conducted in seven countries, designed to assess the safety of insulin detemir during pregnancy, and to monitor the health status of resulting infants (exposed in utero) up to 1 year of age. The study population includes women with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, who are pregnant and being treated with insulin...
January 18, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098139/appetite-responses-to-high-fat-meals-or-diets-of-varying-fatty-acid-composition-a-comprehensive-review
#12
REVIEW
S Kaviani, J A Cooper
Dietary fatty acids (FA) act as signaling molecules with diverse effects on physiologic function. The aim of this article is to review and summarize the clinical human studies in the literature on how dietary FA composition in meals and diets affects hunger and satiety signaling in the body. Studies examining FA saturation (monounsaturated (MUFA), saturated or polyunsaturated (PUFA) FAs) or FA chain length from high-fat meals/diets were included. Measures of appetite included visual analog scale (VAS) questionnaires, appetite hormones (Cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), gastric insulinotropic polypeptide gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), ghrelin, leptin, insulin) and/or energy intake (EI) data...
January 18, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093996/challenges-related-to-glycemic-control-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-patients
#13
Masoumeh Kheirandish, Hamidreza Mahboobi, Maryam Yazdanparast, Mohammad Amjad Kamal
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease with long-term complications. Glycemic control is an important part in management of DM. The first line in treatment of type 2 DM (T2DM) is diet and life style change. Metformin is the first choice of medication in T2DM patients. Sulfonylureas have high risk of hypoglycemia. Glinides are associated with lower risk of hypoglycemia in comparison to sulfonylureas. Also α-glucosidase inhibitors decrease the polysacarides digestion in small intestine and less effective in comparison to metformin and sulfonylureas in lowering hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c)...
January 15, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089828/nitrite-increases-glucose-stimulated-insulin-secretion-and-islet-insulin-content-in-obese-type-2-diabetic-male-rats
#14
Sevda Gheibi, Fatemeh Bakhtiarzadeh, Sajad Jeddi, Khadijeh Farrokhfall, Homeira Zardooz, Asghar Ghasemi
PURPOSE: Reduced bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) is associated with pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Nitrite can act as a substrate for generation of systemic NO. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of nitrite administration on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and islet insulin content in obese type 2 diabetic rats. METHODS: Male rats were divided into 4 groups: Control, control + nitrite, diabetes, and diabetes + nitrite. Sodium nitrite (50 mg/L in drinking water) was administered for 8 weeks...
January 9, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077204/review-of-the-next-generation-of-long-acting-basal-insulins-insulin-degludec-and-insulin-glargine
#15
Matthew Stailey, Susan E Conway
Older adults are at an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Although oral agents (i.e., metformin) are the preferred first-line therapy, older adults often eventually require the addition of insulin to control their blood glucose. Long-acting insulin analogues are the preferred insulin products for older adults with T2DM. Insulin degludec and insulin glargine U-300 are both new generation long-acting insulins. When compared with the standard of care, long-acting insulin product insulin glargine U-100, insulin degludec, and insulin glargine U-300 had similar glucose-lowering effects, longer half-lives and durations of action, and a more even distribution over a 24-hour period...
January 1, 2017: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065677/multistrategic-approach-to-improve-quality-of-care-of-people-with-diabetes-at-the-primary-care-level-study-design-and-baseline-data
#16
Mariana Prestes, María Angelica Gayarre, Jorge Federico Elgart, Lorena Gonzalez, Enzo Rucci, Juan José Gagliardino
AIM: To test the one year-post effect of an integrated diabetes care program that includes system changes, education, registry (clinical, metabolic and therapeutic indicators) and disease management (DIAPREM), implemented at primary care level, on care outcomes and costs. METHODS: We randomly selected 15 physicians and 15 nurses from primary care units of La Matanza County to be trained (Intervention-IG) and another 15 physicians/nurses to use as controls (Control-CG)...
January 5, 2017: Primary Care Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058528/prevalence-predictors-and-outcomes-of-steroid-induced-hyperglycemia-in-hospitalized-patients-with-hematologic-malignancies
#17
Sara J Healy, Haikady N Nagaraja, Dhuha Alwan, Kathleen M Dungan
To determine prevalence, predictors, and outcomes of steroid-induced hyperglycemia in hospitalized patients with hematologic malignancies METHODS: We performed retrospective analysis of patients who were hospitalized on any of the four hematology services or bone marrow transplant service and who received systemic steroids during a 2-month period. Mean glucoses for days 1-4 and maximum glucose were calculated and the total daily steroid dose was converted to equivalent dose of dexamethasone. Hyperglycemia was defined as any glucose >9...
January 6, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053336/leptin-in-the-interplay-of-inflammation-metabolism-and-immune-system-disorders
#18
REVIEW
Vanessa Abella, Morena Scotece, Javier Conde, Jesús Pino, Miguel Angel Gonzalez-Gay, Juan J Gómez-Reino, Antonio Mera, Francisca Lago, Rodolfo Gómez, Oreste Gualillo
Leptin is one of the most relevant factors secreted by adipose tissue and the forerunner of a class of molecules collectively called adipokines. Initially discovered in 1994, its crucial role as a central regulator in energy homeostasis has been largely described during the past 20 years. Once secreted into the circulation, leptin reaches the central and peripheral nervous systems and acts by binding and activating the long form of leptin receptor (LEPR), regulating appetite and food intake, bone mass, basal metabolism, reproductive function and insulin secretion, among other processes...
January 5, 2017: Nature Reviews. Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031777/place-of-technosphere-inhaled-insulin-in-treatment-of-diabetes
#19
REVIEW
Nasser Mikhail
Technosphere insulin (TI), Afrezza, is a powder form of short-acting regular insulin taken by oral inhalation with meals. Action of TI peaks after approximately 40-60 min and lasts for 2-3 h. TI is slightly less effective than subcutaneous insulin aspart, with mean hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) reduction of 0.21% and 0.4%, respectively. When compared with technosphere inhaled placebo, the decrease in HbA1c levels was 0.8% and 0.4% with TI and placebo, respectively. Compared with insulin aspart, TI is associated with lower risk of late post-prandial hypoglycemia and weight gain...
December 15, 2016: World Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024260/structure-and-pharmaceutical-formulation-development-of-a-new-long-acting-recombinant-human-insulin-analog-studied-by-nmr-and-ms
#20
Elżbieta Bednarek, Jerzy Sitkowski, Wojciech Bocian, Piotr Borowicz, Grażyna Płucienniczak, Dorota Stadnik, Weronika Surmacz-Chwedoruk, Beata Jaworska, Lech Kozerski
A monomer structure of a novel human insulin analog A22(S)-B3(K)-B31(R) (SK3R) has been characterized by NMR in water/acetonitrile solution and compared with the structure of human insulin (HIS) established in the same medium. The composition of the oligomer ensemble for neat insulins in water was qualitatively assessed by monitoring, derived from NMR experiment, translational diffusion coefficient Dix10(-10)m(2)s(-1), whose value is a population averaged of individual coefficients for species in oligomeric ensemble...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
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