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Long acting insulin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432748/future-challenges-and-therapeutic-opportunities-in-type-2-diabetes-changing-the-paradigm-of-current-therapy
#1
REVIEW
D R Owens, L Monnier, A H Barnett
Most algorithms for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) do not recommend treatment escalation until glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) fails to reach the recommended target of 7% (53 mmol/mol) within approximately 3 months on any treatment regimen ('treat to failure'). Clinical inertia and/or poor adherence to therapy contribute to patients not reaching glycaemic targets when managed according to this paradigm. Clinical inertia exists across the entire spectrum of anti-diabetes therapies, although it is most pronounced when initiating and optimizing insulin therapy...
April 21, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429780/insulin-analogues-in-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-getting-better-all-the-time
#2
REVIEW
Chantal Mathieu, Pieter Gillard, Katrien Benhalima
The treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus consists of external replacement of the functions of β cells in an attempt to achieve blood levels of glucose as close to the normal range as possible. This approach means that glucose sensing needs to be replaced and levels of insulin need to mimic physiological insulin-action profiles, including basal coverage and changes around meals. Training and educating patients are crucial for the achievement of good glycaemic control, but having insulin preparations with action profiles that provide stable basal insulin coverage and appropriate mealtime insulin peaks helps people with type 1 diabetes mellitus to live active lives without sacrificing tight glycaemic control...
April 21, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420087/skeletal-muscle-nucleo-mitochondrial-crosstalk-in-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes
#3
REVIEW
Prasad P Devarshi, Sean M McNabney, Tara M Henagan
Skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction, evidenced by incomplete beta oxidation and accumulation of fatty acid intermediates in the form of long and medium chain acylcarnitines, may contribute to ectopic lipid deposition and insulin resistance during high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. The present review discusses the roles of anterograde and retrograde communication in nucleo-mitochondrial crosstalk that determines skeletal muscle mitochondrial adaptations, specifically alterations in mitochondrial number and function in relation to obesity and insulin resistance...
April 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399519/pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacodynamic-modeling-of-mod-4023-a-long-acting-human-growth-hormone-in-growth-hormone-deficiency-children
#4
Dennis M Fisher, Ron G Rosenfeld, Michal Jaron-Mendelson, Leanne Amitzi, Ronit Koren, Gili Hart
BACKGROUND/AIMS: MOD-4023 is a long-acting human growth hormone (hGH) in clinical trials for the treatment of growth hormone deficiency (GHD). A key goal is maintenance of serum concentrations of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) 1 within normal range throughout GH dosing. The study aimed to develop a pharmacokinetic model for MOD-4023 and a pharmacodynamic model for the effect of MOD-4023 on IGF-1 to allow estimation of peak and mean IGF-1 and to identify the optimal IGF-1 sampling day...
April 11, 2017: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374151/an-update-on-the-potential-role-of-c-peptide-in-diabetes-and-osteoporosis
#5
Arturo Pujia, Carmine Gazzaruso, Tiziana Montalcini
PURPOSE: C-peptide secretion is deficient or absent in type 1 diabetes mellitus. It is well accepted that insulin replacement therapy cannot prevent the development of long-term diabetes-related complications, which can often be disabling or even life-threatening. Several cross-sectional investigations have suggested that residual C-peptide production in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus would help prevent a number of complications. In animal models of diabetes and in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus, C-peptide replacement improves renal function, skin and skeletal muscle blood flow, nerve conduction, glucose utilization, and other diabetes-related complications...
April 3, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372335/effects-of-regular-and-long-acting-insulin-on-cognition-and-alzheimer-s-disease-biomarkers-a-pilot-clinical-trial
#6
Suzanne Craft, Amy Claxton, Laura D Baker, Angela J Hanson, Brenna Cholerton, Emily H Trittschuh, Deborah Dahl, Erin Caulder, Bryan Neth, Thomas J Montine, Youngkyoo Jung, Joseph Maldjian, Christopher Whitlow, Seth Friedman
BACKGROUND: Long acting insulin detemir administered intranasally for three weeks enhanced memory for adults with Alzheimer's disease dementia (AD) or amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The investigation of longer-term administration is necessary to determine whether benefits persist, whether they are similar to benefits provided by regular insulin, and whether either form of insulin therapy affects AD biomarkers. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to determine whether four months of treatment with intranasal insulin detemir or regular insulin improves cognition, daily functioning, and AD biomarkers for adults with MCI or AD...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371461/comparison-of-morning-basal-1-bolus-insulin-therapy-insulin-glulisine-insulin-glargine-300-u-ml-vs-insulin-lispro-insulin-glargine-biosimilar-using-continuous-glucose-monitoring-cgm-a-randomized-crossover-study
#7
Soichi Takeishi, Hiroki Tsuboi, Shodo Takegoshi
AIMS/INTRODUCTION: We compared the effects of morning administration of insulin glulisine + insulin glargine 300 U/ml (G+G300) to that of insulin lispro + insulin glargine biosimilar (L+GB). MATERIALS AND METHODS: 30 patients with type 2 diabetes who wear continuous glucose monitoring device in admission after glucose levels were stabilized by morning long-acting and ultra-rapid-acting insulins were randomly allocated to groups who received G+G300 on days 1 and 2 and the same dose L+GB on days 3 and 4, or vice versa...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368217/long-acting-insulin-allergy-in-a-diabetic-child
#8
Carla Mastrorilli, Laura Rizzuti, Antonina Marta Cangelosi, Brunella Iovane, Giovanni Chiari, Carlo Caffarelli
Insulin allergy has been uncommon since the introduction of human recombinant insulin preparations; the prevalence is 2.4%. Insulin injection could elicit immediate reactions, which are usually induced by an IgE-mediated mechanism, within the first hour after drug administration. In the present study, we describe the case of a child who experienced immediate urticaria after long-acting insulin injection. A 9-year-old girl affected by type I diabetes mellitus referred a history of three episodes of urticaria 30 min after insulin subcutaneous injection...
April 1, 2017: International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357772/switch-to-combined-glp1-receptor-agonist-lixisenatide-with-basal-insulin-glargine-in-poorly-controlled-t2dm-patients-with-premixed-insulin-therapy-a-clinical-observation-and-pilot-study-in-nine-patients
#9
Jürgen Harreiter, Lana Kosi-Trebotic, Albert Lukas, Peter Wolf, Yvonne Winhofer, Anton Luger, Alexandra Kautzky-Willer, Michael R Krebs
INTRODUCTION: To prove the feasibility and safety of a conversion to once-daily injected GLP1 agonist (lixisenatide) and long-acting basal insulin analogue (glargine) in patients with T2DM and poorly controlled glycemia previously treated with multiple injections of premixed insulins (iPremix) in an outpatient setting. METHODS: Nine patients with T2DM currently receiving iPremix formulations and poor glycemic control were switched to once-daily injected lixisenatide (Lixi) and basal insulin analogue glargine (iGlar) for a 12-week period...
March 29, 2017: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347869/retrospective-review-of-postoperative-glycemic-control-in-patients-after-distal-pancreatectomy
#10
Aiqun Liu, Kim A Carmichael, Marilyn E Schallom, W Dean Klinkenberg
BACKGROUND: Distal pancreatectomy (DP) is carried out for resection of lesions in the body and tail of the pancreas. DP may lead to both insulin and glucagon deficiency, which may worsen diabetes mellitus and render patients more vulnerable to severe hypoglycemia. Maintaining glycemic control can be challenging after DP, and no guidelines have been established for clinicians. The objective of this study was to investigate postoperative glycemic control and insulin dose among patients after DP...
March 24, 2017: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334539/-long-acting-insulins-in-the-treatment-of-type-2%C3%A2-diabetes-and-their-position-in-the-current-treatment-algorithm
#11
Martin Haluzík
Insulin therapy has been for many years an inseparable part of the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes, in particular those with longer diabetes duration. Current national and international guidelines list insulin treatment as a possible second choice therapy in patient with unsatisfactory glucose control on monotherapy with metformin. In reality, insulin therapy is often initiated later than it optimally should be. The reasons include among others the fear of patients and sometimes also of physicians from the side effects of insulin...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316158/-cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-octreotide-long-acting-release-and-lanreotide-slow-release-for-the-treatment-of-postoperative-patients-with-active-acromegaly-in-china
#12
J W Xuan, Z Y Zhang, Y F Wang, Z G Mao, Y J Lu, R Z Wang
Objective: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of octreotide long acting release (LAR) vs lanreotide slow release (SR) for the treatment of postoperative acromegalic patients with elevated levels of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in China. Methods: A decision tree model was constructed and the treatment impact was projected for one year in Chinese setting. The clinical efficacy measure used was the percentage of patients achieving normalization (control) of either IGF-1 or GH levels...
March 14, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300430/calculated-daily-insulin-dosages-overestimate-prescribed-insulin-doses-in-type-2-diabetes
#13
Karel Kostev, Wolfgang Rathmann
BACKGROUND: The aim was to compare the prescribed and calculated daily insulin dosages based on prescription data in type 2 diabetes patients in a general practice database. METHODS: A total of 17 782 type 2 diabetes patients (age: 70.0 ± 11.5 years; 52% males; 16% diabetologist care) with ≥2 insulin prescriptions from 834 practices were analyzed (Disease Analyser: 01/2011-12/2015). Prescribed daily dosage (PDD) (physician documentation) and calculated daily dose (CDD) (pack size × strength × volume / days between 2 prescriptions) were calculated for short-acting, long-acting, and premixed insulins...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296883/soluble-insulin-analogs-combining-rapid-and-long-acting-hypoglycemic-properties-from-an-efficient-e-coli-expression-system-to-a-pharmaceutical-formulation
#14
Diana Mikiewicz, Anna Bierczyńska-Krzysik, Agnieszka Sobolewska, Dorota Stadnik, Monika Bogiel, Monika Pawłowska, Anna Wójtowicz-Krawiec, Piotr A Baran, Natalia Łukasiewicz, Agnieszka Romanik-Chruścielewska, Iwona Sokołowska, Jacek Stadnik, Piotr Borowicz, Grażyna Płucienniczak, Andrzej Płucienniczak
The discovery of insulin led to a revolution in diabetes management. Since then, many improvements have been introduced to insulin preparations. The availability of molecular genetic techniques has enabled the creation of insulin analogs by changing the structure of the native protein in order to improve the therapeutic properties. A new expression vector pIBAINS for production of four recombinant human insulin (INS) analogs (GKR, GEKR, AKR, SR) was constructed and overexpressed in the new E. coli 20 strain as a fusion protein with modified human superoxide dismutase (SOD)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295962/improving-glycemic-control-in-type-2-diabetes-stimulate-insulin-secretion-or-provide-beta-cell-rest
#15
REVIEW
Daniël H van Raalte, C Bruce Verchere
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is characterized by a gradual decline of pancreatic beta cell function that determines the progressive course of the disease. While beta-cell failure is an important contributor to hyperglycemia, chronic hyperglycemia itself is also detrimental for beta-cell function, likely by inducing prolonged secretory stress on the beta cell as well as through direct glucotoxic mechanisms that have not been fully defined. For years, research has been carried out in search of therapies targeting hyperglycemia that preserve long-term beta-cell function in T2D, a quest that is still ongoing...
March 14, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277867/the-role-of-the-new-basal-insulin-analogs-in-addressing-unmet-clinical-needs-in-people-with-type-1-and-type-2-diabetes
#16
Rosemarie Lajara, Eda Cengiz, Robert J Tanenberg
BACKGROUND: Despite improvements in anti-hyperglycemic therapies, there are many unmet clinical needs that hinder successful glycemic control in people being treated with current basal insulin analogs. OBJECTIVE: This paper reviews the unmet needs associated with current basal insulin therapy and describes the most recent basal insulins for the treatment of diabetes. METHODS: PubMed was searched for articles on basal insulin analogs published between 2000 and April 2016...
March 24, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271733/evaluating-drug-cost-per-responder-and-number-needed-to-treat-associated-with-lixisenatide-on-top-of-glargine-when-compared-to-rapid-acting-insulin-intensification-regimens-on-top-of-glargine-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-in-uk-italy-and-spain
#17
Marion Afonso, Fay Ryan, Ashley Pitcher, Elisheva Lew
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the cost per responder and number needed to treat (NNT) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients for lixisenatide compared to insulin intensification regimens using composite endpoints in the UK, Italy, and Spain. METHODS: Efficacy and safety outcomes were obtained from GetGoal Duo-2, a 26-week phase 3 trial comparing lixisenatide versus insulin glulisine (IG) once daily (QD) and three times daily (TID). Response at week 26 was extrapolated to 52 weeks assuming a maintained treatment effect, based on long-term evidence in other T2DM populations...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Medical Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270518/myricetin-a-potent-approach-for-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-as-a-natural-class-b-gpcr-agonist
#18
Ying Li, Xuemin Zheng, Xiulin Yi, Changxiao Liu, Dexin Kong, Jianning Zhang, Min Gong
The physiologic properties of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) make it a potent candidate drug target in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). GLP-1 is capable of regulating the blood glucose level by insulin secretion after administration of oral glucose. The advantages of GLP-1 for the avoidance of hypoglycemia and the control of body weight are attractive despite its poor stability. The clinical efficacies of long-acting GLP-1 derivatives strongly support discovery pursuits aimed at identifying and developing orally active, small-molecule GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists...
March 7, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242257/exendin-4-inhibits-structural-remodeling-and-improves-ca-2-homeostasis-in-rats-with-heart-failure-via-the-glp-1-receptor-through-the-enos-cgmp-pkg-pathway
#19
Jingjing Chen, Dandan Wang, Fangai Wang, Shaobo Shi, Yuting Chen, Bo Yang, Yanhong Tang, Congxin Huang
The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist exendin-4 is a long-acting analog of GLP-1, which stimulates insulin secretion and is clinically used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Previous studies have demonstrated that GLP-1 agonists and analogs serve as cardioprotective factors in various conditions. Disturbances in calcium cycling are characteristic of heart failure (HF); therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exendin-4 (a GLP-1 mimetic) on the regulation of calcium handling and to identify the underlying mechanisms in an HF rat model after myocardial infarction (MI)...
April 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241734/tetragonia-tetragonioides-pall-kuntze-protects-estrogen-deficient-rats-against-disturbances-of-energy-and-glucose-metabolism-and-decreases-proinflammatory-cytokines
#20
Jin Ah Ryuk, Byoung-Seob Ko, Hye Won Lee, Da Sol Kim, Suna Kang, Yong Hyen Lee, Sunmin Park
Tetragonia tetragonioides (Pall.) Kuntze (TTK) and JakYakGamCho-Tang (JGT) have been used for improving women's health and treating inflammatory diseases. We determined that the long-term consumption of these herbal extracts alleviates the progression of postmenopausal symptoms in high-fat-diet fed ovariectomized (OVX) rats, and further explored the mechanisms involved. Five groups of OVX rats were fed high fat diets that were supplemented with either 2% dextrin (control), 2% TTK (70% ethanol extract), 2% JGT (water extract), 1% JGT + 1% TTK (JGTT), or 30 µg/kg body weight/day of 17β-estradiol (positive control)...
March 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
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